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Defining moments in life essay

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be more critical Hello, my name is Robin Banerjee and defining moments I'm a senior lecturer in prince, the Department of Psychology at the University of Sussex. I teach many first year, second year and defining moments in life essay third year students so if you come into persuasive essay practice, the Psychology department I'm sure I'll see lots of you while you're here. Today I'm going to be talking a little bit about moments guidelines for writing essays. Now I'm sure that when you've got essays to write you'll find lots of non essay scholarships different instructions to follow for defining in life, the different assignments that you've got, and of course you'll have to essay to improve communication pay attention to them. But what I'm going to defining moments in life give you today are some helpful guidelines which I hope will be useful to you as you set about the task of writing an essay. 1. Come up with a clear line of argument. Well, my first guideline for writing an essay is to make sure that you have a clear line of argument. Thesis Of The Prince? If the essay title is in the form of a question -- this might seem obvious -- answer the moments, question.

Although it seems like an thesis of the, obvious point, I've read many essays where student simply don't answer the question. They'll talk about lots of things that relate to the question but they don't actually give you an answer to the question. So if the defining moments in life, title is in the form of a question, make sure you answer the question. Student Workshop? And even if the essay title isn't in moments in life essay, the form of a question, make sure that you have something clear that you want to say. Don't just talk in general terms about the subject area. Make sure you have a clear point that you want to communicate in hspa persuasive essay, your essay. 2. Make it clear where you are going. All right, so my second major guideline for writing an essay is to make it clear where you are going.

The reader needs to know what you're saying and needs to be aware of the path that you are taking in the essay. So don't wait until the very end of the essay to reveal the main point that you're trying to communicate. As I've said before the most important thing in defining essay, an essay is to come up with a clear line of thesis prince argument and it's important to tell the reader about that right at the beginning. So set out your plan for the essay at the outset and then use the rest of the essay to defining in life essay actually build up your argument. On How To Improve? Use examples and evidence to support the points that you're making. Don't run through a whole range of different examples and pieces of defining essay evidence and theories and then at the end say the research cheese production, point that you want to make about it. Make the point first and then use the evidence to support it. Express your key points in complete sentences. My third guideline for writing an essay is to use a plan. Once you've done all your reading, once you've done all your research you need to step back from it and decide what you're going to say.

Come up with your main line of argument, but plan your essay before you launch into the actual writing of the essay. Defining Moments In Life Essay? That means that you need to decide exactly what your key points are. So you need a logical sequence of thesis of the key points that actually build up your argument. It's really important when you've arrived at defining moments essay your key points, it's really important to procedure express them in defining, complete sentences. One of the mistakes that I often see students doing, and one of the things that makes plans a bit problematic for a lot of students, is that when they're coming up with their outline for their essay they just have a list of subject headings: First I'm going to be talking about this, then I'm going to hspa persuasive essay be talking about that, and then last of all I'm going to talk about that. And actually that's not a very good plan, because when you go down to write something you don't know what you're going to say.

You know what you're going to talk about, but you don't know what you're going to say about it. In Life? So the most important thing about the plan is to of the decide what your main points are and to express them in complete sentences -- not just what are you going to talk about but what are you going to say about it? Once you've got that sequence of key points expressed in moments in life, complete sentences you should have a pretty good summary of your essay. And that should be able to stand alone as an answer to your essay question. Procedure? Once you've decided on your sequence of key points, then you can start to flesh out your plan by listing the moments in life essay, evidence that you're going to include for each key point. What examples are you going to draw on? What pieces of non essay evidence or empirical work or theoretical work are you going to use to actually support each of those key points? Once you've actually done that you've got a really good framework for writing your essay: you know what your main argument is, you know what each key point is that you're going to use to support that argument, and in turn you know what key bits of defining essay evidence or examples or theories you're going to use to make each of those key points.

Review your choice of key points and evidence. One final point about the plans. If you look at prince your plan and you find that you've got nine, ten or even more key points then think again about whether they really need to stand separate from each other as different points. In an essay, and even in longer essays like 4,000 word essays, you'll usually only need to have a handful of key points. Remember the main objective is to support the main line of argument that you want to present to moments the reader. That doesn't mean that you have to cover absolutely everything that you've read. It may be the case that there will be material that you've read that really isn't relevant to thesis the point that you want to make in this essay - so decide what the best pieces of evidence are to support the points that you actually want to defining moments in life make in communication, this essay. 4. Ask someone else to read you essay. My next guideline for writing an defining moments, essay is to make sure that you give it to someone else to read. It's really important to student workshop get a second opinion on your essay and sometimes when you've been working on an essay for a long time it can be really hard to defining moments adopt a fresh objective stance and look at your essay.

So find someone, maybe a friend that you can bribe to read your essay, maybe a family member, long suffering flat mates - whoever you can. Get someone else to read the based, essay and to try and moments extract the main points. If you've done your job well -- if you started out with a good plan, with the key points expressed in complete sentences, and student dissertation workshop you based your essay on that plan -- then when you give that essay to someone else to read and defining essay you ask them, ‘Can you pull out the main points from hspa practice this essay?', their extracted main points should look very similar to moments essay the main points that you had in your plan. So that would be a good sign that you've accomplished what you wanted to accomplish in of the prince, the essay. OK, my final guideline for writing an essay concerns originality.

You'll probably see in moments, most of the assessment criteria for essays in different subjects across the university that originality is one of the persuasive, markers of first class essays. Can you show originality and flair in the way that you write your essay? Well, a lot of students often ask, ‘What do I do to show originality in an essay? Do I just say what my opinion is about the subject matter?' Well, partly -- but it's not just a matter of expressing your personal opinion without justification or rationale. Defining Essay? Originality in an academic essay is all about the way that you interrogate the essay to improve communication skills, material in front of you and the way that you put the material together. So, regarding the first of those points, if you are dealing with evidence, examples, theories, other people's writing - question it, adopt a critical standpoint, evaluate it, don't just accept it at face value. Moments In Life Essay? Regarding the on how communication skills, second point -- about how you put ideas together and moments in life essay how you put your points and student evidence together in your essay -- that's a really important opportunity to show your originality. It's not so much about waiting until you get to the end of the essay and then coming up with - ‘well I think . blah blah blah..' But it's about how you put the argument together. Moments Essay? That's where you can really show your originality. Have you taken these theories, these different bits of evidence, the different readings that you've done, have you put them together in an interesting and innovative way to answer the question? That's how a student shows originality in an essay!

The different stages you need to go through to write an excellent critical essay: De-code the essay title Plan your essay Research your subject Structure your esssay Develop your argument and based introduce counter-arguments Use relevant evidence Develop your academic writing style Find out how to present your work. Good critical essay writing is moments essay, shaped by effective planning, always improved by drafting and polished by editing and proofreading . One mistake students often make with an essay is to start writing too soon. There is student dissertation, research and thinking to do first and putting words on the page is only part of the task. Another big mistake is to try and write an essay at the last minute. You will lose marks if it doesn’t flow well, words are spelled wrong or your punctuation is sloppy because you didn’t allow time for editing and proofreading. Your tutor wants an essay that: answers the question shows you have read widely demonstrates you have evaluated the evidence proves you understand the question has a clear argument is well structured and in life organised contains relevant information to support your argument uses consistent and accurate referencing conforms to academic style and is easy to read is professionally presented is grammatically correct has been proofread for mistakes.

The word critical can seem negative it is associated with condemning, disparaging, judging or finding fault. But a critical essay is positive: it evaluates, analyses, interprets and explains.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Most of defining moments essay, us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to is much less certain. According to David Hume, the question of the thesis of the prince, nature of free will is “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an defining in life agent has free will is to hspa practice say that the agent has the capacity to defining essay choose his or her course of action. But animals seem to satisfy this criterion, and we typically think that only persons, and not animals, have free will.

Let us then understand free will as the capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of what it means to have a free will actually requires an agent to have a specific faculty of will, whether the term free will is simply shorthand for of the prince other features of persons, and whether there really is such a thing as free will at all. This article considers why we should care about free will and how freedom of will relates to freedom of action. Defining Moments Essay? It canvasses a number of the dominant accounts of essay on how skills, what the moments in life, will is, and to improve skills then explores the persistent question of the relationship between free will and defining in life causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on research production, the issue. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the moments in life essay, incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and causal determinism. Finally, there is a brief examination of dissertation workshop, how free will relates to defining moments in life theological determinism and logical determinism. 1. Free Will, Free Action and thesis of the prince Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?

Probably the defining in life essay, best reason for caring is of the, that free will is closely related to two other important philosophical issues: freedom of action and moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of defining moments in life essay, exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is thesis prince, contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the exercise. And while I don’t really want to walk him since it is cold outside, I think overall the best decision to make is that I should take him for a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about free will is that it seems necessary for free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of humans, we then see that the possibility of free action depends on the possibility of free will: to say that an agent acted freely is minimally to say that the defining in life, agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to do: “A free agent is essay practice, he that can do as he will , and forbear as he will, and that liberty is the absence of external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to use his term) is simply the “power of acting or of not acting, according to the determination of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to belong to defining moments in life essay everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to select a course of action, and essay an agent is free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from completing that course of action. Thus, Hobbes and Hume would hold that Allison is free to walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from carrying out her decision to walk her dog, and she is defining moments essay, free not to non essay scholarships walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to make an important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of defining moments essay, action.

This distinction is motivated by the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of action. Suppose that before Allison made the choice to walk the dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the area. The wind has drifted the snow up against thesis of the the front of her house so that it is impossible for Allison to get out her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to in life take the dog for a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on one’s view of what free will is. Thesis Procedure? Also, the truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to do what they want to do. An agent could do what she wants to do, even if she is causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of in life, free actions.

If Allison is brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the non essay based, dog for moments in life essay a walk is not a free action. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is because, in paper cheese the case of brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for free action, even if the defining, two are distinct. In what follows, the phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the based, result of the utilization of free will. Use of the phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to defining in life essay care about free will is that it seems to be required for thesis prince moral responsibility. Defining Essay? While there are various accounts of what exactly moral responsibility is, it is widely agreed that moral responsibility is distinct from causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on thesis procedure, a car, breaking its window.

While the branch is causally responsible for the broken window, it is not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Depending on one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of affairs even if one is not causally responsible for that same event or state of affairs. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for an event or state of affairs only if she is the appropriate recipient of moral praise or moral blame for defining moments that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for her actions). According to the dominant view of the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for her actions. For example, if Allison is coerced into of the prince, doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. According to John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. Defining Essay? In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the kind of control needed for scholarships moral responsibility is weaker than the kind of control needed for free will.

Furthermore, he thinks that the truth of causal determinism would preclude the kind of control needed for free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the significance of free will is defining in life essay, not limited to its necessity for free action and of the moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the in life essay, autonomy and dignity of based scholarships, persons, creativity, cooperation, and defining in life essay the value of of the prince, friendship and love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and essay Ekstrom (1999)].

We thus see that free will is central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in the history of hspa persuasive practice, philosophy has had something or other to defining moments in life say about free will. The present section considers three of the most prominent theories of what the will is. The faculties model of the will has its origin in the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and hspa persuasive Aristotle, and it was the dominant view of the will for defining in life essay much of medieval and modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and skills the discussion of Aquinas in Stump (2003)]. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. What is distinct about free agents, according to this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the capacities for growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the capacities for intellection and volition. Another way of saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and will. It is in virtue of having these additional faculties, and the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the rational faculty, is the power of cognition.

As a result of its cognitions, the intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. To return to the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the dog as good for the health of the defining moments in life essay, dog. Thesis Of The Prince? Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the volitional faculty, is an appetite for the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to moments in life essay goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an option that the based scholarships, intellect presents as good in no way. Defining Moments In Life? The will is also able to command the other faculties; the will can command the body to move or the intellect to thesis consider something. Essay? In the case of Allison, the of the prince, will could command the body to pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and essay go outside for a walk. As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the non essay, common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to be good. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and will, an agent has free will to pursue something that it perceives as good.

A widely influential contemporary account of the will is defining moments, Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. This account is also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the will, since a will is non essay scholarships, free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and volitions. According to the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to do a particular action; for example, Allison may desire to go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the kind of person who desires to moments go jogging. In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Call desires of this sort 2nd order desires. If agents also have further desires to have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of desires. Not all of an agent’s desires result in non essay action.

In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is impossible for an agent to satisfy all her desires. Suppose that Allison not only desires to run, but that she also desires to stay curled up in bed, where it is nice and warm. In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on her desire to defining moments in life run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. An effective desire of this sort is called a volition; a volition is thesis procedure, a desire that moves the agent all the way to action.

Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to moments have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to become a volition). According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in thesis of the having 2nd order volitions. In other words, an defining in life essay agent has a free will if she is able to have the sort of will that she wants to have. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the result of a 1st order desire that she wants to become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of free will. According to on how communication skills the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to in life go jogging will move her to persuasive essay go jogging. Nothing in this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.

Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into defining in life, having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the right mesh between her various orders of desires to qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the resources for explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is widely agreed that cases of manipulation and coercion are problematic for solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the claim that agency involves a sensitivity to certain reasons. Hspa Essay Practice? An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to the appropriate rational considerations, and in life essay she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the case of Allison and her decision to walk her dog. A reasons-responsive view of the student, will says that Allison’s volition to walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for not walking her dog, she would not have decided to walk her dog. Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on defining in life essay, the television after waking from her nap and learned of the blizzard before deciding to paper cheese production walk her dog. Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for defining essay deciding not to walk her dog.

Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is responsive to thesis prince reasons. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on this view, in virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. If Allison has been brainwashed to walk the defining moments, dog at a certain time, then even if she were to turn on the news and sees that it is snowing, she would attempt to walk the dog despite having good reasons not to. Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and Ravizza (1998) for non essay one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. Defining Moments In Life Essay? The Thesis of Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on free will focuses on whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is important to keep causal determinism distinct from production, other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).

Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the course of the future is entirely determined by the conjunction of the past and the laws of nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the way that the entire universe was at some point in the past, say 100 million years ago. Defining Moments? Let us call this proposition P. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the thesis, conjunction of all the laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the essay, conjunction of P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is of the, only one possible future, one possible way for things to in life essay end up. Thesis Procedure? To make the defining essay, same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of affairs that obtain at some time in the past, when conjoined with the cheese, laws of nature, entail which possible world is the actual world. In Life? Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the truth of determinism amounts to research cheese the thesis that the past and defining in life the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in the future, and that only those states of paper, affairs entailed by the past and in life the laws will in fact obtain. A system's being determined is different from its being predictable. It is possible for determinism to be true and for no one to hspa essay practice be able to predict the future.

The fact that no human agent knows or is able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by moments the conjunction of the non essay based, past and the laws. However, there is a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and the predictability of the future. Defining In Life Essay? If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to infallibly predict the persuasive essay, way that the future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the relevant knowledge and the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Defining Moments In Life Essay? Determinism, Science and Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is persuasive practice, a contingent matter; that is, determinism is moments in life essay, neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.

If this is so, then whether or not determinism is true becomes an student workshop empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the world is, not through philosophical argumentation. This is not to deny that the truth of defining moments in life essay, determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the truth of thesis, determinism would entail that the laws of nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the conjunction of the past and the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for free will. But the point to note is that if the truth of determinism is a contingent truth about the way the world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into this matter. Moments Essay? Let us say that a possible world is deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the laws of nature in a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by of the prince the laws of nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.

Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the truth of determinism. For example, the standard interpretation of defining moments essay, Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the laws governing nature are indeterministic and probabilistic. According to this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is research production, described properly only by probabilistic equations. Although the equations may predict the likelihood that a quark swerves to defining moments in life essay the left at a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is prince, indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of in life, Quantum Theory, such as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Fortunately, the outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is non essay, most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for defining in life our current purposes. Student Workshop? Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.

It is possible that the only indeterminism is on the scale of micro-particles and that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. If this is the case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the moments, thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the paper cheese production, implications for questions of free will? One way to think about the implications would be by asking the following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is true? c. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is true?) is a helpful way to differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in the affirmative.

They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is moments in life, true (or even if near determinism is true. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). In other words, the existence of free will in a possible world is compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is known as compatibilism, and its proponents are called compatibilists. According to the compatibilist, it is possible for an agent to cheese production be determined in all her choices and actions and still make some of her choices freely.

According to incompatibilists, the in life, existence of free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. If a given possible world is deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for that very reason. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of free will and determinism would entail the incompatibility of moral responsibility and on how communication skills causal determinism. There are at least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is true of the actual world, and thus no agent in the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for in life essay a defense of hard determinism].

Other incompatibilists think that the actual world is not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and non essay scholarships 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is not deterministic, and yet still thinks that agents in the actual world do not have free will. While it is defining moments essay, less clear what to call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of determinism is a necessary condition for prince free will, and since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of defining moments, incompatibilists and compatibilists. It is also important to keep in mind that both compatibilism and incompatibilism are claims about possibility. According to the compatibilist, it is possible that an agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.

But neither position by itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for the moment that incompatibilism is true. If the truth of determinism is a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on whether or not the actual world is deterministic. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the research production, indeterminism present is of the sort required for free will (we will return to a similar point below when considering an objection to incompatibilism). Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and that causal determinism is moments in life, true in procedure the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in defining moments the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and thesis of the prince G. Strawson (1994)]. Pessimists agree with the incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is defining moments essay, true. However, unlike the thesis procedure, incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.

In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Defining Moments In Life? Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. Procedure? According to the pessimist, if Allison is determined, she cannot be free. But if determinism is defining moments in life essay, false, then there will be indeterminacy at based scholarships, some point prior to essay her action. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the research paper cheese production, nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is located in which reasons occur to Allison. It is hard to see, the moments essay, pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is not within Allison’s control. But if Allison decides on thesis, the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is defining, based upon something outside of her control.

It is based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the addition of indeterminism actually makes agents lack the kind of thesis, control needed for free will. While pessimism might seem to in life be the same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is a stronger claim. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Dissertation Workshop? Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. In Life Essay? Not only of the, do agents lack free will, there is no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by defining in life itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.

Nevertheless, it is to thesis procedure this debate that we now turn. 4. Defining Moments Essay? Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is incompatible with the truth of thesis of the, determinism. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on two major varieties. The first variety is built around the idea that having free will is a matter of having a choice about certain of our actions, and that having a choice is a matter of having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. The second variety of moments, arguments is research paper, built around the idea that the truth of determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in defining moments in life the right kind of student dissertation workshop, way. The truth of determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in a significant way and our actions are not ultimately controlled by us. In other words, we lack the defining in life, ability for self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from each set. The most well-known and influential argument for prince incompatibilism from the first set of arguments is called the Consequence Argument, and essay it has been championed by Carl Ginet and Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and van Inwagen (1983)].

The Consequence Argument is based on a fundamental distinction between the research cheese production, past and essay the future. First, consider an informal presentation of thesis procedure, this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the past and defining moments in life the future based on the direction of the flow of time and the normal direction of causation. The future is open in a way that the past is not. It looks as though there is nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by Booth in 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. For if time travel is possible, Allison can influence what the prince, past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 is true.

If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865 (temporarily assumed for reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865, the proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. A proposition cannot both be true and false. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the possibility of time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the past. The past thus appears to defining moments in life be fixed and unalterable. However, it seems that the same is persuasive essay, not true of the future, for Allison can have an moments in life essay influence on research, the future through her volitions and subsequent actions.

For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and defining moments travel to the past and try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. Prince? However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from using her time machine in this way. The asymmetry between past and defining in life essay future is research paper cheese, illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the past in the same way that we deliberate about the essay, future. While Allison might deliberate about whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the future in dissertation a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to her, in a way that the past is not. In Life? In other words, when an thesis procedure agent like Allison is using her free will, what she is doing is selecting from a range of essay, different options for the future, each of which is possible given the past and the laws of nature.

For this reason, this view of thesis, free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon this view of the fixed nature of the past to argue that if determinism is true, the future is defining moments in life essay, not open in the way that the above reflections suggest. For if determinism is true, the essay on how communication, future is as fixed as is the defining in life essay, past. Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the past ( P ) and essay practice the laws of nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Let F refer to any true proposition about the future. The Consequence argument depends on defining in life, two modal operators, and two inference rules. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is logically necessary that. so that, when it operates on non essay scholarships, some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the modal operator N be such that N p stands for defining moments essay p is production, true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true. Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to defining moments in life essay Alpha, if p is a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true.

Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about of the p being true, and no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether q is true. To see the plausibility of Beta, consider the following application. Let p be the proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and defining moments let q be the proposition If the earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Since I have no choice about research production such a meteor hitting in defining moments the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of on how communication, species to go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of species went extinct. Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about anything, including my supposed free actions in the future. The argument begins with the definition of determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in the Consequence Argument is called the in life, fixity of the past. Thesis? No one has, or ever had, a choice about the true description P of the universe at some point in defining in life essay the distant past:

From 3, 4 and Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in the argument is the research cheese, fixity of the in life, laws of nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about what the on how communication skills, laws of nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from in life essay, 5 and prince 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about F : Given that F was any true proposition about the future, the Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Defining Moments? Thus, if determinism is true, we do not have free will. The second general set of arguments for the incompatibility of free will and determinism builds on hspa persuasive, the importance of the source of a volition for free will. Again, it will be helpful to begin with an informal presentation of the argument before considering a formal presentation of it. According to this line of thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the agent herself in a particular sort of in life, way (say, her beliefs and desires). What is important for free will, proponents of this argument claim, is essay practice, not simply that the defining moments in life essay, causal chain for an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the agent. In other words, an agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the ultimate source or first cause of her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility.

What reflection on essay to improve skills, cases of moments essay, coercion and manipulation suggests to us is that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is acting on her beliefs and desires, this isn’t enough for moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and certain forms of manipulation undercut an paper cheese production agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the originator of her coerced action. If Allison is coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and defining moments in life not in on how to improve skills Allison herself. Consider, then, the similarities between cases of moments essay, coercion and thesis manipulation, on the one hand, and the implications of the truth of determinism on the other. If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to walk her dog because of her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and desires would themselves be the in life, inevitable products of causal chains that began millions of years ago. Thesis Procedure? Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of her volitions. According to proponents of this sort of argument for defining moments in life essay incompatibilism, the truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of essay on how communication, way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.

We can represent a formal version of the argument, called the Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by defining in life essay events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an agent does is ultimately caused by hspa persuasive essay practice events and circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Therefore, if determinism is true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.

Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is valid. So, in evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is clearly true, since for in life essay an agent to thesis procedure be an originator just is for that agent not to be ultimately determined by defining in life anything outside of herself. Premise 2 of this argument is true by the definition of thesis, determinism. In Life? To reject the research paper cheese, conclusion of the argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of free will. According to this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the causal chain for that action goes through the agent’s 1st- and 2nd-order desires. One way of emphasizing the need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to embrace agent-causation. If premise 1 is true, then the in life, agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.

What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only thesis procedure, caused indeterministically. It is difficult to see how an agent could be the originator or ultimate source of volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the defining moments in life, free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an agent’s control over non essay scholarships, her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at the causation involved in volitions in a new light. Instead of holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by agents. [For an extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the Arguments.

The above way of delineating the Consequence and defining essay Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the two kinds of arguments are more independent from each other than they really are. A number of essay, incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by defining premise 1 of the Origination Argument if and only if they have a choice about their actions in the way suggested by the Consequence Argument. Research Paper Cheese? In other words, if my future volitions are not the defining, sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. And as the thesis, above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over our actions and volitions, and our ability to originate those same actions and volitions. For if causal determinism is true, then the distant past, when joined with the in life essay, laws of procedure, nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to those volitions would not begin within the agent. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Robert Kane, for instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to this line of argumentation, the power to cause one’s own actions is defining moments, not a distinct power from the power to choose and do otherwise. Thus, the two different kinds of based scholarships, arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and (2005)]. 5. Arguments for Compatibilism (or Arguments against Incompatibilism)

Having laid out representatives of the two most prominent arguments for in life essay incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of arguments, it is pedagogically useful to approach them by using the arguments for incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to the arguments given in the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the Origination Argument for non essay incompatibilism is valid, and moments essay two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the workshop, Origination Argument is to reject its first premise. In other words, given the definition of determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the originator or ultimate source of defining, her actions.

But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the thesis procedure, ultimacy condition of free will by defining essay appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and Fischer and Ravizza, (1998)]. If all that is required for research cheese free will, for example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and defining moments 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an agent be the workshop, originator of those desires. Furthermore, since the defining, truth of determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is dissertation workshop, compatible with the truth of determinism. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is again not required.

Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to them with regard to the Consequence Argument. One way of defining in life essay, understanding the N operator that figures in the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. Student Dissertation? That is, to say that Allison has no choice about a particular action of hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at all). Incompatibilists can easily account for essay this ability to do otherwise.

According to incompatibilists, an agent can be free only if determinism is non essay based scholarships, false. Consider again the case of Allison. If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the conjunction of P and L is not sufficient for her taking her dog for a walk. Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the ability to do otherwise. For them, to defining in life essay say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].

Of course, if determinism is true, then the only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the past or the laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an thesis prince agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to moments essay do otherwise. Essay On How To Improve Communication? Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the defining in life essay, past or the laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. Thesis Of The? If P and moments L entail that the hspa, agent does some action A , then the agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over defining moments in life essay, the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and Fischer (1984)]. Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Furthermore, having such a power is not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to (as in the case of coercion or manipulation) from those actions that an student dissertation agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the defining moments in life, agent’s power to bring about from those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to deny the validity of the inference rule Beta the thesis procedure, argument uses.

While there are several approaches to defining in life essay this, perhaps the most decisive is the following, called the principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. 1 and non essay 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from 1 and defining in life essay 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. If the hspa persuasive essay, coin-toss is truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the moments in life, coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. Paper Cheese Production? For purposes of simplicity, let us stipulate that the coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.

If Beta were valid, then 1 and 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and moments essay the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin landing either heads or tails. But Allison does have a choice about this—after all, she can ensure that the coin lands either heads or tails by simply flipping the coin. So Allison does have a choice about the conjunction of p and q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and N q to workshop N( p and q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Thus, the Consequent Argument for incompatibilism is invalid. Defining Moments Essay? [For an incompatibilist reply to the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on the freedom requirement for moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism, and if free will is required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is itself compatible with the scholarships, truth of determinism. The first of in life essay, these arguments for compatibilism rejects the understanding of student dissertation, having a choice as involving the in life, ability to do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to scholarships accept that an defining agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.

Frankfurt gives an essay on how to improve communication example in which an moments essay agent does an action in circumstances that lead us to believe that the agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for recent discussion, see Widerker and McKenna (2003)]. Yet, unbeknown to the agent, the hspa persuasive essay practice, circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on her own. In Life? As it happens, though, the agent does perform the action freely and the mechanism is not involved in bringing about the action. It thus looks like the agent is morally responsible despite not being able to do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:

Allison is contemplating whether to walk her dog or not. Unbeknown to Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the dog. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the non essay based, dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for a walk. In Life? Given the student, presence of the chip, Allison is unable not to defining in life essay decide to walk her dog, and she lacks the ability to thesis do otherwise. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for her decision since the presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. Moments In Life? Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to ensure that she decide to take her dog for of the prince a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?

Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the moments, truth of thesis of the, determinism is incompatible with a kind of freedom that requires the ability to defining moments in life do otherwise, it is compatible with the kind of freedom required for moral responsibility. In an influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to understand the ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the of the prince, reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on in life essay, their attitudes toward and treatment of student, us. Moments In Life? Strawson says that the thesis procedure, hallmark of reactive attitudes is that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of others toward us, as displayed in their attitudes and actions.” Examples of moments in life essay, reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and that they provide the basis for holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for two claims. The first of these is that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to participation in ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for us to take seriously the thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.

Furthermore, Strawson also argues for a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. He thinks that there are two kinds of procedure, cases where it is appropriate to moments suspend our reactive attitudes. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. Procedure? The second kind of case where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes are those in which while the agent is a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to defining her agency in the correct way. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into thesis procedure, me and defining moments makes me spill my drink, if I were to find out that the person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in resenting that individual. The truth of determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to thesis of the prince her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Since moral responsibility is based on moments in life essay, the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism. And if free will is a requirement for moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.

The above discussion should help explain the perennial attraction philosophers have to the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to a number of other recurrent issues in the history of philosophy. Thesis? In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and show how they are connected to free will. The debate about defining moments free will and causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about free will, this one stemming from what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Some religious traditions hold that God is ultimately responsible for everything that happens. Of The? According to these traditions, God’s willing x is necessary and sufficient for x . But if He is ultimately responsible for everything in virtue of what He wills, then He is ultimately responsible for defining essay all the actions and volitions performed by thesis procedure agents. God’s willing that Allison take the dog for a walk is thus necessary and sufficient for Allison taking the dog for a walk.

But if this is true, it is hard to see how Allison could have free will. Essay? The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is that Hell is a place of eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to the agents themselves. This worry over free will thus gives rise to a particular version of the problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of these, and of the related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.

Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about what agents will do in the future already have a truth value. For instance, the moments in life, proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is already true or false. Assume that it is true. Since token propositions cannot change in research paper truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. But the truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the dog for a walk (after all, if it is in life, true that she will walk the dog, then she will walk the dog). But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in research cheese fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and that this has always been the case.

However, it is defining in life, hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the relevant token proposition is research production, true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. In response to this problem, some philosophers have attempted to show that free will is compatible with the existence of true propositions about defining moments what we will do in the future, and others have denied that propositions about thesis procedure future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and Kane, (2002).] If God is a being who knows the truth value of every proposition, this debate also connects with the debate over the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on central issues in metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and the philosophy of religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Perhaps this partially explains the perennial philosophical interest in the topic.

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A Great Defining Moment Essay Examples | Kibin

analytical essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Defining Essay? Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is procedure, true about defining moments, a piece of literature. Research Production? This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the in life essay literature in question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. On How To Improve? Thesis statement: At least once during the defining moments course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable?

If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. On How To Improve Skills? A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of defining moments in life, comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on.

One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about thesis, this piece of defining, literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Research Cheese Production? Your job in essay the paper is to dissertation convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the defining in life essay form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. Research Paper Production? better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the defining in life essay consequences of accepting the author's argument?

Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to hspa essay practice escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in in life a story.

How do they help the practice main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the moments in life essay logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on prince, a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in moments which the work was written? Does the thesis of the piece move from the defining moments in life essay general to the specific or vice versa?

If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to persuasive each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to defining moments in life refer to on how communication skills the text (the specific words on the page of the defining in life essay book) in essay on how order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to defining moments in life essay make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said.

Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and student make the title apt and defining moments essay enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is prince, a book comprised of chapters. Defining Moments In Life Essay? Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Thesis Prince? Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write).

If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. Defining Essay? (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to prince state the true argument of moments essay, your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Procedure? Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to moments in life essay follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is thesis of the, being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it).

Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of in life essay, any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to prince say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of defining moments in life, all Another thing. Paper Cheese? to connect your paragraphs. In Life Essay? This is the research paper production list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. Defining Moments Essay? A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. Prince? This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument.

On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and moments in life essay placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in research every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in moments in life revising your papers after the non essay based scholarships first draft (which is defining moments, always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in thesis prince the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to defining moments essay utilise the thesis of the prince right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an defining moments essay, argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to research cheese write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the moments in life words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and thesis procedure there will often be other ways of defining moments in life essay, using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into research paper writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at defining moments in life essay, language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for thesis, the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to defining understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in thesis a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on defining moments a point.

Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in practice the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and essay can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an student dissertation, alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the defining moments in life essay sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to non essay scholarships add further detail to your explanation, or to moments in life essay be more precise.

Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to research say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at defining in life, elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to non essay scholarships support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to essay add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument.

Here are some cleverer ways of thesis, doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to moments in life add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to thesis add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is defining evidence to dissertation suggest that…”

Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and moments in life “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the dissertation workshop only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about moments in life, something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Prince. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of in life, view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at procedure, the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Moments In Life Essay. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to communication the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the moments phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to on how to improve communication skills remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to defining moments essay remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an thesis procedure, extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the moments essay first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of thesis procedure, being the defining moments in life essay first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an thesis, argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of.

Usage : “Not to defining moments in life mention” and to improve “to say nothing of” can be used to essay add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to of the mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and defining moments in life phrases for essay to improve communication skills, demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the moments in life essay “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and research cheese interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this.

However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of moments in life essay, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of thesis procedure, evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in essay a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”.

Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an student workshop, agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. In Life. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on hspa insufficient evidence. Defining. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the communication skills reason for moments in life essay, what happened. Research Paper Cheese. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is defining unreliable at best.”

Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in of the prince a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of moments, doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of research cheese, a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else.

Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in defining in life essay the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the essay on how skills results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the essay same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the essay practice limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on moments something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for essay on how to improve skills, its day.”

Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the in life methodology used, it was an important study in student the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates.

Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in defining moments in life early winter and production fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at moments in life essay, the case of…” When you want to non essay based scholarships demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of in life essay, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is essay to improve communication skills loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to defining tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from based, Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to moments in life essay the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet.

You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and dissertation workshop reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to defining in life essay help you. Usage : Typically used to essay communication skills introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in defining moments essay a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the workshop evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and moments the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to procedure remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing.

Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to defining essay be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of essay on how skills, these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and defining moments in life Phrases for Top-Notch Essays”

January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is non essay very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv!

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Thank you for student workshop, your help. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for your excellent choice of words oxford is in life very hard on essay skills you as it is moments essay one of the top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at student workshop, 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to me because when I was writing an essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful. Thank you for providing such words.

May 19, 2015 at 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to be a thing in the english language. May 25, 2015 at defining, 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for thesis procedure, these meaningful words. Moments Essay. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about hspa practice, black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and moments the ideas you express are poorly connected. Research Production. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. Moments In Life Essay. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the research paper cheese importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in moments in life essay academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said:

You are correct. Thesis. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. Moments Essay. For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512;

June 07, 2015 at scholarships, 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. July 02, 2015 at defining in life, 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. On How Communication Skills. Keep it up.

Tim – Saudi Arabia. July 03, 2015 at in life essay, 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and it really helps me with it, thanks a lot. August 30, 2015 at thesis, 4:26 pm, aron said: April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at moments, 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper.

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It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. Non Essay Based Scholarships. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of essay, words to procedure help express the defining moments thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, “Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the to improve communication writing skills of ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…”

October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful. Moments In Life Essay. Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. Dissertation. All things considered, this was an moments in life, amazing article and thesis of the I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist.

October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and defining moments a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in non essay based moderation.

If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the defining moments in life use of dissertation workshop, language in defining in life essay literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and on how to improve communication monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and in life essay even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. Student Dissertation. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and moments in life returned to the student with an dissertation workshop, admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said:

October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is defining in life so great… thanks for non essay scholarships, the A grade.

November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at moments in life essay, 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at procedure, 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts.

November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Defining Moments. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and dissertation “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of “In conclusion” to defining in life introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be.

useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an research cheese, essay is about to end. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out moments, that from thesis, reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to in life it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. Based. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in defining moments in life many if not most cases it should be avoided.

December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the dissertation workshop record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of my site in order to defining moments in life essay get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is easily the go-to site when I write essays. Thank you! August 05, 2017 at essay on how communication, 10:48 pm, abdo raheem said:

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A Defining Moment Essay - 755 Words | Bartleby

How to Choose an eBay Business Model. Thinking about starting your own eBay business? You’ve probably seen sales pitches for eBay selling kits that promise an easy route to quick riches using a secret Proven Method[TM] or Winning eBay Business Model[TM]. Often, you'll be wooed with claims that this is the one business model that only the fabulously wealthy eBay insiders know about. Don’t let yourself be fooled. If a $34.95 book, CD, video, or kit were the essay path to thesis procedure millions on eBay, everyone in the world would have already done it. More to the point, not everyone in defining moments in life, the world can be a successful eBay seller. For eBay sellers to make money, after all, they have to thesis be heavily outnumbered by eBay buyers, and they have to defining moments in life compete with one another to make sales to research production these buyers. This is the real world, and selling anything is moments, a cutthroat business. Selling online, where every buyer can literally choose from a world of sellers, is even more cutthroat than that.

At the same time, it's also true that there are incredibly successful eBay sellers out research paper production there, and defining essay that many of these sellers have arrived at eBay success using different business models. While this does mean that there's no One True Model[TM] that, once discovered, will lead you to eBay riches, it also means that as a prospective eBay seller you have flexibility about your business. What you really need is unbiased information. Selecting the Business Model that Works for You. On the next two pages are six common eBay business models, summarized and student then broken down into details that you should be aware of, each detail with a rating from low to high: Startup feasibility: The degree to which almost anyone can start this kind of essay business without having special knowledge, special contacts, lots of money, or other things that might be difficult to come by. Read on to see the business models and their ratings, keeping in mind that for every rule in the world there are exceptions—so use this discussion as guidance, not gospel. In the end, your success as an eBay seller is all about you, your ingenuity, and your ability to satisfy your customers—eBay shoppers—on an ongoing basis. Sourcing difficulty: Low.

Competitive advantage: Low. How it works: The most heavily advertised eBay business model, drop shipping is the idea behind those ads you’ll hear on research paper the radio promising that you can get rich on eBay selling stuff “you never even have to buy.” The idea is simple. You’re the eBay-based salesperson for another company, who actually fulfills the orders. You post item listings, collect money, and handle customer service, but don’t keep any stock or inventory or worry about packaging and shipping. When a buyer wins your listing and pays you, you immediately place an defining moments essay, order to your supplier at a slightly lower cost, who delivers the item directly to hspa practice your buyer. You pocket the difference. Problems: The problems and difficulties with the model are too numerous to mention but the biggest is that most sellers simply can’t make a pure drop shipping business work.

You’re purchasing in the same quantity (one at a time) as your buyers, so you get little if any discount for your markup. At the defining moments in life essay same time, you pay all of the eBay fees, as well as the shipping costs, meaning that margins are razor-thin. Worse, buyers can often turn around next time and buy directly from the thesis company filling orders for you, bypassing your listings entirely. Meanwhile, it’s your feedback on eBay that's at stake and you’re the one legally responsible for the transaction, even though you have little control over how your fulfillment partner handles it. Finally, because it’s so easy to start this kind of business, millions have. Any kind of item that does happen to sell with a reasonable margin is instantly seized upon (within hours, not weeks or months) by dozens and dozens of other drop shipping sellers, too, creating a supply problem in which you have have heavy price competition with already razor thin profit margins while listings for the item(s) multiply out of control, seriously threatening scarcity and demand. Potential for success: Low. Defining Moments In Life. Most who start this kind of business don’t continue because the essay to improve communication skills sales aren't good enough (if you want to make any money) or the money isn't good enough (if you want to make any sales).

Furthermore, the hassles are high and the competition is intense. Defining In Life Essay. On the upside, there’s very little up-front risk involved in drop-shipping when compared to other selling models; your business is closed without liabilities the moment you stop posting new listings. Sourcing difficulty: Medium. Competitive advantage: Low. How it works: This is the classic retail business model, only procedure taken online with eBay. You decide what sorts of defining moments essay goods you want to sell. Then, you form relationship(s) with supplier(s), stock your inventory with goods purchased in wholesale quantities (with corresponding wholesale discounts) and sell them on eBay. Problems: There are two basic problems here. The first is thesis prince, that this isn’t a “start the business in your bedroom, tonight!” sort of operation. After you find space for your inventory and defining essay get zoning permission to essay operate a business in that location, you’ll find yourself searching for defining moments in life, and having to build relationships with suppliers and student needing a measurable amount of up-front capital to moments invest in your inventory and manage your operations costs, which include all of the usual small business tasks, right down to thesis of the prince bookkeeping, licensing, and defining moments in life essay labor (whether yours or someone else’s via payroll). All of your investment is at risk—if your inventory doesn’t sell (or if it is eaten by mice or swept away in based, a flood without insurance), the loss is yours.

Potential for success: Medium. If retail is in your blood, eBay can be a great place to enter the world of online business. It’s better than opening your own website because eBay comes with a massive built-in audience. On the other hand, the defining moments essay competition is student, stiffer that you’re used to as well. This option is best for moments in life, those who already have experience in retail, or who seriously want to get it, not for those who are looking for research production, an “easy” online business. Business Model: Liquidation/Surplus/Thrift Lots. Sourcing difficulty: Low. Competitive advantage: Medium.

How it works: As with the traditional wholesale-retail model, you stock your inventory with goods bought at wholesale quantities and prices, then try to sell them to individual eBay shoppers at higher prices, pocketing the difference. The twist in this model is that you’re buying goods that are rare in some way—inventories of discontinued items that nobody else will have, large grab-bag lots of surplus goods or equipment that can be had AS-IS, WHERE-IS for very little if any money, and so on, meaning that either your competitive advantage or your sourcing costs improve. Problems: With this model you’ll have all of the difficulties involved in the traditional wholesale-retail business model plus the problem of sourcing. Defining. You’ll have significantly more legwork here. Either you’re identifying sourcing opportunities and building relationships with other companies as their liquidator or you’re combing through piles and piles of goods you’ve acquired at very low cost to separate the “sellable” from the “unsellable” and to identify, photograph, and production describe the defining essay many (often unidentifiable to based you) things that now form your inventory. More to the point, sourcing of this kind can be notoriously unstable and difficult to maintain, though some people seem to have a natural instinct for defining in life, it. Potential for success: High.

This is really one of the business models that made eBay what it is hspa persuasive essay, today. The trick is to mix your own business skills and body of knowledge with unique source access that you have to find or create—access to discontinued, liquidation, or lot-packaged goods or to defining moments things like large government surplus auctions. You’ll have to get your hands dirtier than with the non essay based previous two models, but because your goods are far likelier to be unique and defining moments in life your sourcing costs much lower, you’ll have a better chance of making an ongoing profit—if you can maintain your sourcing pipeline. Business Model: Local Goods, Crafts. Sourcing difficulty: Low. Competitive advantage: High. How it works: The idea behind this model to identify in your local region or your personal network of contacts a set of unique goods, crafts, products, or services that nobody else on eBay offers, but for which demand exists. Thesis. Though sales volume is lower with this kind of defining moments essay business, margins are often much higher once you’ve identified such product(s) and of the prince developed a stable supply chain for them. Problems: It’s entirely possible to run a business like this with zero inventory and very little overhead. Instead, your problems are likely to essay be the in hspa persuasive essay practice, the opposite direction—finding product(s) to sell in the first place and then, and in life perhaps much more critically, finding a way to ensure that the supply of such products is stable, exclusive, and able to grow with your needs as your business grows. Potential for success: High.

If you’ve chosen well and a market exists on eBay for the goods in non essay, question, your business will be poised for steady, stable growth and will be relatively well-protected against other sellers, who won’t be able to quickly duplicate your supply chain in response to your success. Business Model: Hobby and Specialty. Competitive advantage: High. How it works: Using your hobby or area of defining moments special expertise, you slowly build up an inventory of unique or expertly collected/assembled goods and a body of thesis procedure very loyal customers who are fellow enthusiasts. Sourcing often isn’t a matter of wholesale and large quantities, but instead of tracking down hard to find items, tools, or components, often reconditioning, refurbishing, or assembling them, and then selling them as top-grade or entirely unique items to specialty buyers on eBay. The real products that you’re selling are your expertise and moments in life ability, which allow you to offer enthusiast goods that are rare, unavailable elsewhere, or unsupported elsewhere. Problems: The most basic problem with this kind of thesis procedure eBay business is that either you can do it or you can’t . Whether the business is comic books, baseball cards, antique cameras, vintage Italian car parts, or Star Trek paraphernalia, the knowledge required to be successful at this kind of business must be built over a lifetime. Beyond this, there is once again the moments essay issue of sourcing. For many serious collectors or hobbyists who routinely pound the pavement visiting estate sales, old warehouses, thrift stores, antique stores, auctions, and workshop specialty manufacturers and dealers, this is already a part of life.

For others, however, the work involved is defining moments, a very new wrinkle on their hobby—and one that may not be entirely welcome or feasible. Potential for success: High. Thesis Procedure. If you have the needed knowledge and dedication and can earn the respect of the defining moments enthusiast community you’re targeting, this is essay on how to improve, one of the most stable eBay businesses going. It's also one that can be taken with you if you ever decide to leave eBay, thanks to the often fierce loyalty of the kinds of customers involved. If you don’t already have a hobby, however, this business probably isn’t for you. Business Model: Brick-and-Mortar eBay. Competitive advantage: Varies.

How it works: If you already have a “real” (otherwise known as “brick-and-mortar”) store, shop, or business in the offline world, simply add eBay selling to moments essay it in some way. For consignment and buy-sell-trade stores, this often takes the form of listing the best of your in-house goods on based scholarships eBay as well. If they sell in moments in life essay, store, you cancel the eBay auction. If they sell online, you pack them up and ship them out. For others, eBay becomes a convenient place to research cheese production liquidate overstock and unsold seasonal goods. Defining Moments Essay. For still others, the model is the based scholarships inverse of defining in life all the others here: eBay becomes a sourcing avenue for goods to student dissertation workshop be sold locally to buyers that don’t shop online. Problems: The biggest problems here are logistical ones—the trouble involved in adjusting your bookkeeping, inventory management, labor, and other business areas to moments include eBay as a new facet of your business.

You’ll also have to pick up the speed with eBay; the online world moves much more quickly than the scholarships offline world, and some traditional sellers have trouble adjusting to the customer service and essay expedited processing expectations of eBay shoppers. There’s also the essay to improve skills biggest problem of all: if you don’t already have a brick-and-mortar store, there’s no way to moments in life add eBay transactions to your brick-and-mortar business model. Potential for success: Medium. At the based end of the day, the in life chances for success here depend on two things, only one of them fully under your control. Of The Prince. The first is your ability to adapt as an existing business. The second, just as critical, is the degree to moments essay which the kinds of of the prince products you already handle can either be bought or sold to your advantage on eBay. In Life Essay. If you’re a consignment shop, a bookstore, or a furniture retailer, the possibilities are huge.

If you’re a corner grocery or a lube-and-oil shop, however, you’ll have much more trouble making it happen. At the end of the day, success as a seller on eBay is like success in hspa practice, any kind of business. It requires nothing less than good ideas, a well-suited temperament and set of skills, a lot of hard work, and moments no small amount of luck. The most important thing to keep in thesis prince, mind as you review a basic list of business models like this one is that one or two of defining essay these probably match your circumstances better than the non essay scholarships others. Perhaps you have access to investment capital and business expertise. On the other hand, perhaps you're an expert fly fisher or cyclist. Maybe you live twenty minutes away from a local arts and defining essay crafts market in the deep Southwest.

If you're thinking about giving eBay a whirl, follow your nose and model your business on your strengths and unique advantages if you want the thesis procedure best chance at success—don't jump straight into business models that may have worked for others if your own circumstances aren't similar to theirs. As for those offering to defining sell you make millions quickly using eBay kits, one thing can be said: someone is making millions quickly using eBay, but in essay communication, most cases it's not who the publishers of such kits would like the defining moments in life world to believe it is.