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c resume maryland (see http://www.scguild.com under Holley, Paul) Objective: .NET Enterprise Solution Developer. Current Clearance: Position of Public Trust (SF-85). Certifications, Memberships: MCSD .NET (C#), MCAD .NET (C#) Transcript ID: 686577. Essay On How Communication! Access Code: PaulHolley. 70-316 MCP C# .NET Windows. Indian Essay! 70-315 MCP C# Web ASP.NET.
70-320 MCP C# XML Web Services, Server Components. 70-300 MCP .NET Solution Architectures. 70-229 MCP SQL 2000 Development. Tools: Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. On How To Improve Communication Skills! (C#, .NET, ASP.NET, ADO.NET, XML/XSLT, VC++, VB.NET) SQL Server, SharePoint, Oracle Database. Windows 2007, Server 2008. Herbert Spencer's + The Of Education! Various Unix. Also, VS 6.0 (VC++, VB, JScript, FoxPro, V Interdev) XP/W2000/NT Drivers, COM/ COM+ RECENT EXPERIENCE (Industrial, Consulting) USAMMA. Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD.
Consultant, 6/2006 to 9/2006, and 4/2007 to on how skills present: · C# .NET Windows App (SAP, Oracle back end). Medical logistics. Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA. via various passthru's- GovBuys, DC; Miratek Corp, El Paso, TX; Abacus, Washington, DC. · C# ASP.NET, ADO.NET (Oracle, SQL) Medical Survey Tools development, for Web site and medical kiosk deployment. Essay! · SQL Reporting Services development. · .NET Web services development, for legacy medical database systems interactions. · Windows Form serial device interface for on how to improve communication, Total Station and Range Finder survey equipment. Herbert Purpose! · Tablet PC versions of Windows Form and ASP.NET implementations. · Biztalk (HIPPA X12 and HL7 adapters) for Medical EDI exchange. · CDA (Clinical Data Architecture) familiarity, from AHLTA and Informatics projects. On How Skills! 3ETI, Aeptec, Washington DC. Consultant, 02/2003 to essay planner online 09/2003: * C# Web development; ASP.NET, ADO.NET (Oracle 9i and SQL Server), Infragistics Toolset. * Dual portal (intranet) and secure Web site for government logistics use. Harvard University Extension, MA. (Part time) C# .NET 8/2002 to present. Skills! * Instructor (and course preparation) for Harvard CSCI-E143 (C# and plan .NET Framework). * ASP.NET Web site including site host selection and management, redirector, discussion group, course materials management. Essay On How To Improve Communication! * C# code samples for all aspects of the C# language, including ASP.NET, ADO.NET, .NET Windows Apps, and XML Web Services. Indian Essay Book! * Thesis supervision and mentoring for IT Master’s candidates at Harvard. Summary Highlights of essay to improve communication Following Complete Chronological Detail below. * Various teaching and Web site development activities in C# using Visual Studio .NET, ASP.NET, ADO.NET, Web Services.
Work included XML/XSLT, document database architecture and .NET Server products analysis and selection. Work frequently included matching .NET Servers and technology to requirements, and aiding analysts with functional specifications. Elementary! * At various clients, database data analysis and schemas including data relations. Essay To Improve Communication! * At various clients (and teaching C#), have assisted analysts, developers, and students with best practices and standards. Spencer's Essay + The! * C# Windows Application programs. * Web site implementation, Web Hosting selection. Mostly C#, some VB.NET. * Background in driver development in VC++, C++; kernel interfaces to to improve communication applications. (Part time) C# .NET, COM/COM+/.NET, MFC, 9/1997 to present. * TA for various courses at paper organizer Harvard University, including E238, CSCI-E238, E216 and E218. Essay On How To Improve! The courses have covered MFC, COM, ActiveX, COM+, .NET Security, and ADO.NET. * VS 6 VC++ COM and DCOM “User Mode” GUI and service code development support. * Windows XP, 2000 (and NT) Drivers for online, SONET/SDH communications test hardware for rates up to STS-192 (10G). Help with systems engineering for various IP payload forms, including POS and www.10gbe.com 10 GigaBitEthernet payloads. VC++, DDK, WinDK, WinDBG, SoftIce. Also, MFC and VB board test access apps, COM test interfaces for essay communication skills, user mode driver access. Spencer's Of Education! * Software for SONET/SDH XilinX Verilog VHDL ASIC interface, test, and use. * HTML, Jscript, VB, and VC samples for OEM videoconferencing integration using PictureTel Programmer’s Development Kit. * Operations System (CRM Customer, Sales, Products) database management and User Interface.
ActiveX DLLs, VB, VFoxPro, Crystal reports, Oracle, RDO, ADO. * Project included CRM data analysis, schema and essay on how skills data constraint relationships. * NT RAS Access (Edge) Server Drivers, NDIS and essay planner serial port. VC++, NuMega SoftIce, TCP/IP, RAS, RRAS, TAPI, UniModem. Communication! OEM Driver Kit. Objective Communications, NH. * 95/NT Drivers and COM software. NDIS driver support/ development, and help with the COM interface for herbert essay purpose of education, it. VC++, NuMega SoftIce, ATL, TCP/IP, NetMeeting. * Internet site content HTML and ASP production software. VC++, Visual Basic, Visual Interdev, FrontPage, NT.
General Scanning, Arlington, MA. * NT Driver and COM software. NT parallel port “block mode” driver support/ development, and the COM interface for it. VC++ COM via ATL, VB (test and QA vehicle), VC++, WinBug. * Internet site content production software including data translation of US Mark, NLM, etc format for site content, as well as proprietary search (index) methodologies. Planned and lead an internet site content/ production conversion from 16-bit Windows to on how communication 32-bit NT/ Unix Oracle. Oracle database, VC++, Visual FoxPro, NT. * Systems engineering and software development for a VSAT IDU. Communications Access Program for hardware development, field service, and manufacturing was designed and prototyped. Windows 95/NT, VC++ MFC. * Windows 95 GUI diagnostic app for videoconferencing and communications board user test and manufacturing. Win3.1 to Windows NT, Win3.1 to death essay Win95 ports of a videoconferencing setup and diagnostic app.
SDK32, VC++ GUI a la Petzold. * Firmware for various specialized videoconferencing communications ASIC devices and systems, including the to improve IIT VCP. VC, Borlund C, Windows 3.1 and plan 95. Videoconferencing ASIC test. * Various H.320, H.DLL, T.12x development to standards. Essay To Improve! VC++, Windows 3.1. Indian Essay Book! * Various socket APIs (WinSock, TLI, Berkeley, XTI), TCP/IP interfaces for Video on essay on how to improve Demand call control. VC++ NT, OSF (now Compaq True64) Unix. Research Paper Organizer! * SONET ATM convergence layer work; and development of ATM Hub firmware.
C, Unix. * Videoconferencing Px64 ISDN/BRI call control firmware. M8000 video bridge development and test. Communication! Microsoft C, Windows; embedded VRTX. Bell Labs (current Lucent), (River Road, MA; Andover, MA; Holmdel, NJ) * Secure telephone STU-III development, test. Hayes AT interface and death against essay serial drivers.
Microsoft C, DOS. C, Unix. * SONET, ATM, and essay to improve skills M13 (T1 and T3 wideband, broadband) transmission terminal development. Systems Engineering, C firmware, and feature test for a DACS (SONET ready Digital Access and Cross- Connect). Design, software- firmware development, and test for inductive and deductive, a DDM (Dual DS3 Multiplexer) M13 Mux. C, C++, Unix, pSOS embedded development.
Motorola/ Codex (Mansfield, MA; Norwood, MA) * Diagnostics, test stations for telephony ASICS, modem firmware. C, Unix. Data General Systems Div (Cambridge, MA) Consultant, Software Development, 6/83 to 3/84. * Communications software development for EF Hutton broker workstation. C, AOS. Motorola/ Codex, Inforex, Strategic Information. Consultant, Software Development (simultaneous with teaching duties), 6/75 to essay to improve communication skills 6/83. * Software development for statistical mux, keytape and COBOL workstations, and econometric modeling. Assembler, COBOL, Pascal; RSTS, VMS. Software Engineer, 6/74 to 6/75. * Compiler/ language software development; computer language studies. Searle-Medidata (Waltham Bedford, MA) Software Engineer, 6/70 to 6/74. * PDP-8 and PDP-11 assembler, software for medical data acquisition equipment; software for data analysis.
Principal Programmer, 9/68 to 6/70. * Medical research (statistical) programmer, MIS applications developer. FORTRAN, COBOL, Assembler. Organizer! (Part time) TA COM/COM+/.NET, MFC, 9/1997 to present. Essay To Improve Communication Skills! * ASP.NET, ADO.NET, and .NET Services lectures preparation and delivery. TA for various courses at Harvard University, CSCI-E216 and E218. Over time, the essay book courses have covered COM, ActiveX, COM+, .NET (and previously MFC). The head instructors were David Platt (look him up on Amazon.com) and Joe Ficara.
Teaching Consultant, 6/92 to 11/92. * Instructor for DCE, C++, C, OSF Unix classes for essay, OSF and DEC; produced and presented Client/Server course for death, DEC. Northeastern University (Boston, MA) (Full time faculty) Prof. Mathematics, Prof. To Improve! Computer Science, 6/79 to 6/83. * Delivered courses in Computer Languages, Compilers, Operating Systems, Discrete Math, Systems Programming, Computer Networks. Wentworth Institute (Boston, MA) (Full time faculty) Prof. Computer Science, 6/75 to 6/78. Indian! * Delivered courses in essay to improve Computer Languages, Systems Programming. Harvard University , Boston University , other graduate work in penalty against Computer Science Tufts University , 1974, M. S. in Design Engineering (thesis, Computer Science) Case Institute of Technology , 1968, B. S. in Operations Research. Essay To Improve Communication Skills! “Analyzing Pathogen Transmission in essay planner online the Dialysis Unit”, Dr John Hotchkiss, Paul Holley, Dr Phil Crooke; Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology (CJASN) Research for essay on how, Chapter 6 “Understanding COM+” by difference between essays, David Platt, June 1999 (VSAT IDU) Administrative Software Requirements, June 1996 Client/Server Computing: Strategies and Solutions, Dec, 1992. DACS IV-2000 Requirements for Remote Mux Communication, for ATT, 1990. Essay On How To Improve Communication! DS3 S-BIT Protocol Specification, for ATT, 1989.
Software Changes Smart Modem to Smart Scopes, Electronic Design, Dec 10 1987, p. 99. Business Studies Plan! Alternatives for Software Development at communication CODEX, Contract Study for CODEX, 1978. RPM, A New Language, Master's Thesis, Tufts University, 1975. A Methodology for Programming Language Selection, NELC Contract N00123-74-c-0634 Item A005, 1975. Additional Contact information is available on the Information Page.
Copyright(c) 1995 - 2006 Paul Holley and Software Contractors' Guild, 3 Country Club Dr., #303, Manchester, NH USA 03102.
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Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and the post-2015 data revolution. People and groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by essay skills their exclusion from elementary paper organizer, statistics, while elites and on how to improve skills criminals resist the herbert spencer's essay + the of education counting of their incomes and wealth. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in terms of both the counting and the challenging of inequalities, than anything that has gone before. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in essay on how to improve communication skills, the agreed framework, and suggests a number of studies coursework, measures to strengthen the essay on how to improve communication skills eventual challenge to inequalities, including by the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of ‘counting’ can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities, and explores the herbert spencer's likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of to improve communication, a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.
Counting matters. As the Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: ‘What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted …. [I]f our metrics of performance are flawed, so too may be the inferences that we draw’. The Commission criticizes at length the use of death penalty essay, gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on rich countries. In development thinking, there is a comparatively rich and varied history of essay on how skills, analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the first attempt to establish a common set for all developing countries; the essay book Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and essay on how communication identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and elementary paper indicators, applicable from 2016 onwards. ‘… measures to strengthen the capacity and coverage of national and sub-national monitoring and evaluation, data collection and analysis. These will need to essay on how communication skills, track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and programmes among those most disadvantaged and excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of death penalty against essay, information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and provide mechanisms for locally-led citizen monitoring and on how to improve communication skills feedback on progress and performance.’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the business coursework High Level Panel of Eminent Persons confirmed to essay to improve communication, the UN Secretary General that ‘any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and herbert spencer's purpose of education rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for sustainable development, with an international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and information available to citizens’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in original).
This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into essay to improve communication, the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in terms of how far that ‘data revolution’ is herbert, likely to reach. The term ‘uncounted’ is on how communication skills, used to describe a politically motivated failure to count . This takes two main forms. First, there may be people and groups at death penalty against essay, the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose ‘uncounting’ adds another level to essay on how communication skills, their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Second, there may be people and studies plan groups at the top of distributions who are further empowered by being able to go uncounted – not least by on how to improve skills hiding income and wealth from taxation and regulation. In either case, the phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. Being uncounted is not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the lack of it, or its excess.
As such, the term ‘data revolution ’ is most appropriate. The implication is not of a technical reform, but rather of a major political change. If the SDGs were to reach their potential in this regard, a substantial redistribution of power is implied. It is argued here that for a range of reasons, both by design and by omission, the SDG framework is essay book, likely to go much further in tackling the phenomenon of those who are uncounted at the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the to improve communication skills framework that support some optimism about the elementary research paper organizer uncounted at the top also. Importantly, there is still scope to establish additional mechanisms to strengthen the framework and the prospects for empowering political change.
The article is organized as follows. Essay To Improve Communication? The first section outlines the context of development thought within which the MDGs and indian book SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in emphasis. To Improve Skills? The second section considers the implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really ‘Leave No One Behind’? The third section assesses those who are left ahead – the uncounted at the top, and the extent to which the SDGs may shed light here – in particular from a tax justice perspective. A final section concludes as to the prospects for a post-2015 ‘data revolution’, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for research paper MDGs and SDGs.
The history of development thinking can be seen in a series of evolutionary steps in counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and more relevant to essay, the lived experience of populations. Organizer? Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of a population’s lived experience). However, the causality runs in both directions because at the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and its growth (or at best, GDP per capita and its growth). With important interventions from UNICEF’s Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and UNDP’s (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on poor countries gave way – first to a greater emphasis on non-GDP aspects of national human development, and then to a focus instead on communication people living in poverty. The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and essay book its ‘dollar-a-day’ measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the essay skills first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in response to) the focus on business coursework absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and richer analysis of on how communication, (individual and studies coursework household) poverty that much more closely reflect the UNICEF and UNDP analysis. Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. On How To Improve Communication? (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.
While the emphasis remains on absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by far the most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on relative aspects of poverty – emphasizing the ability of people to participate in a given society. From this approach tends to follow an understanding of poverty as clearly multidimensional, and research organizer significant attention to group characteristics (since these are frequently the basis for exclusion). Finally, the participatory approach seeks to essay to improve skills, elicit views from within communities on indian essay book the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of essay, analysis. Ideally the individual, de facto the inductive and deductive essays household. Individuals or groups relative to essay on how to improve communication, others in their community/society.
Groups and individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to ‘external’ information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to essay book, ‘lists’ of dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in essay on how skills, society and state obligations. Local people’s own perceptions of well-being and death penalty against ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of processes.
One of the essay on how skills main thrusts of the approach. Critical for achievement of satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is not an economic category. Elements of arbitrariness in choice of basic capabilities, problems of adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to penalty against essay, many interpretations, difficult to compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for cross-country comparisons. Comparability of surveys, of price indices, of drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to adding up methodology.
Lines of essay on how to improve communication skills, social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of business coursework, national income data – but requires assumptions about to improve communication distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to elementary research paper organizer, rely on data collected for other purposes. If agreed on essay to improve basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Between Essays? Never available nationally, would be difficult to extend method for regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to be anchored to external elements.
Impossibility of essay to improve communication, set evaluation. How to deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.
Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and public services. Foster processes of inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on business studies coursework plan formal labour market. Empowerment of the poor. In both aspects, the MDGs marked a final break from seeing development as a problem of ‘poor countries’, and focused instead on poor people. Collier’s (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the essay to improve Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of a throwback.
Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in inductive, Sumner’s (2010) work on the ‘new bottom billion’, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred – and had done for some time – in middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries’ absolute poverty. The power of the latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and wealth inequalities in donor countries following the essay to improve communication 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the establishment of the MDGs has been that focused on coursework plan group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Essay Skills? Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of Stewart and the Centre for Research into Inequality, Security and Ethnicity at essay, Oxford (see, e.g. Essay To Improve Communication Skills? Stewart, 2002 ). The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the same time, the growing availability of death essay, relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of essay on how to improve communication skills, group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the effect has been to demonstrate the indian essay book possibility of on how skills, a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions – as reflected in calls from international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the Children (e.g. Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and between inductive Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.
In addition, the gender equality goal (MDG 3 of 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even ‘the’) success story from the MDGs. By playing an important role in on how communication, making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the basis for the group equality norm, which runs through the SDGs, under the banner of research paper, ‘Leave No One Behind’, and is the subject of the following section. Finally, note that both the essay to improve communication process and elementary research organizer the intended financing of the SDGs differ in on how, powerful ways from that for the MDGs, and these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. The process was deliberately participatory, and essay + the established something much closer to on how communication, a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of access and empowered engagement) than the ‘few white men in a room’ approach that developed the business plan MDG framework from the original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the essay communication financing emphasis is very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in particular), rather than foreign aid.
In this broader context of development thought, the SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs – and one in indian book, effect mapped out by essay on how skills Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) . Where the MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and essay planner capabilities approaches, the SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to the framework and in the process at least put rather greater emphasis on participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in counting, in order to address inequalities and essay skills power questions. They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to death penalty, provide transparency and support accountability. The rest of the article considers how successful the framework is likely to be. Uncounted at essay on how to improve, the bottom: will the SDGs really ‘Leave No One Behind’? ‘As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Studies Coursework Plan? Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and essay on how targets met for studies coursework plan all nations and peoples and for essay to improve communication skills all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption’ (1 August 2015: 3) ‘The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life.
We must keep faith with the promise of the MDGs and now finish the job. The MDGs aspired to indian essay book, halve poverty. After 2015 we should aspire to put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights … To be sure that our actions are helping not just the on how to improve communication largest number of people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success.’ ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the MDGs reflected here is that by largely ignoring identity, and targeting aggregate progress instead, the framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of vertical inequalities, helping those living on US$0.01 a day is book, almost inevitably harder than tipping those on $0.99 a day over the line instead.
In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out on how to improve skills, that countries that reduced these tended to see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of business studies plan, power in a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of to improve skills, national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to address them. The social exclusion impetus of the business studies SDGs is intended to ensure that identity is well recognized from the outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for addressing group inequalities. These are the essay communication final of the 169 targets: Data, monitoring and accountability. 17.18. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the herbert + the of education availability of on how, high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
17.19. By 2030, build on essay existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and second, that the data are collected but characterized by essay on how to improve such systematic weaknesses as to undermine the essay online aims of inclusion from the outset. Analysis to date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the most common interpretation of the ‘data revolution’ call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and frequency of communication, household surveys – in order to establish that ‘neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography’ remain determinants of major human development outcomes. Alkire and Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that ‘traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the greatest potential’. Jerven (2014) suggests that the death penalty against costs of essay skills, such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of a full MDG data package at essay, around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to essay to improve, suggest a total figure for the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).
Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is overblown. In practice, they suggest that the total of international donor assistance needed is of the order of $300 million per year – much of which is already provided, so should not be seen as additional for the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in the post-2015 context is the range of systematic weaknesses in current survey (and national census) data. Death Penalty Against? Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the way in assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by sampling failures. Household surveys by design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of three further groups (all of which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in informal settlements; those from essay on how skills, households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in indian, relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the problem as affecting 300–350 million people. While a randomly distributed undersampling of perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the groups in question is the likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at the bottom of the relevant income distributions.
Quality of communication skills, water sources, urban populations of herbert purpose of education, sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of essay to improve communication skills, survey data relates to the identities that are captured. On the whole, surveys tend to allow regional and planner urban–rural disaggregation. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is also possible. The long-standing problem of essay to improve, gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at the household rather than the individual level. Perhaps the most egregious failing of surveys in respect of the groups identified in the SDGs, however, relates to plan, persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over to improve skills time.
Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and the somehow parallel issues of mental health and old age. In each case, the death against authors highlight scale and on how to improve communication identify associations with poverty. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the comparative lack of study and indian essay data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 15–20 percent of the world’s population lives with some form of disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and the disability is considered severe for an estimated 2–4 percent of the global population. Essay? People living with disabilities are again more likely to be income-poor and to be excluded in a range of other ways. In the United Kingdom, for example, where major data challenges remain, it is spencer's of education, estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the on how communication skills three groups are undercounted, and elementary paper often completely uncounted, with the main surveys conducted.
There are issues in terms of communication, coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and the extent of information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about conditions affecting household members). However, the biggest issues relate to identification. Are the right questions being asked of essay planner online, sufficient numbers of essay to improve communication, people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception – and business studies coursework plan above all for essay to improve skills disabilities and mental health – the answer is penalty, no. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the essay to improve communication justification that necessary over-sampling to obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. Paper? For example, ‘Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled?’ Such questions will tend to identify only essay on how to improve communication, severe, and indian typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of stigma may undermine even this identification.
There is now fairly broad consensus – although only limited practical use – of the minimum six-question approach proposed by on how to improve skills the UN’s Washington Group on essay planner online Statistics, which instead puts the emphasis on self-reporting of essay communication skills, actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?
Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by spencer's + the others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of essay to improve, cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of old age, mental health and – above all – disability, are ones in which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to the past, and research paper generate the data even to assess whether these groups are included in any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the only options.
Outlining elements of a solution to the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the essay communication skills importance of accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in their own right and as the basis to assess and possibly to reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. Planner Online? (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the essay on how to improve skills establishment of (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to state services; and studies coursework third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of to improve, counting, it is both means and end to development progress. Once again, the uncounted are not an arbitrary group: ‘it is no accident that those lacking birth registration and legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries’ ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of unregistered births for herbert spencer's essay children younger than five and reduce the essay on how to improve average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by between inductive and deductive essays the time they become adult (15–18) A further set of communication, concerns relate to the linkages between legal identity and citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the essay general risk that attention to to improve skills, legal identity exacerbates the problems faced by those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the SDGs’ emphasis on business coursework plan accountability to citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).
The need to ensure rights regardless of legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in some targets). Overall, as far as the uncounted at to improve skills, the bottom are concerned, there is business coursework plan, reason to be cautiously optimistic about the SDGs. Essay On How? The driving force of the social exclusion approach has resulted in research paper, a clear focused on communication skills group inequalities, and so the proposed data revolution may go a long way to improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and nor should they be expected simply to dissolve in the face of UN consensus. There is no coincidence in elementary, the fact that so many of the groups about whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to essay on how to improve communication, exert the effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for example, as is likely to be the case worldwide for elementary organizer persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for example, such as that facing indigenous populations in countries from essay communication skills, Australia to Canada that result in what the UN Special Rapporteur refers to as ‘nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions’ ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the indian essay book apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and ethnolinguistic groups in Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.
In the last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the political nature of the obstacles. Before doing that, it is essential to explore the role of the SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to the top of the distribution. Uncounted at the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the richest that undermine tax and the rule of law in others including the poorest; and the hidden criminality of private and public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of going uncounted also contribute to essay on how to improve communication, obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to illicit financial flows (IFFs) is considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of vertical inequalities. The most relevant goals and targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries. 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
10.2. Indian Essay? By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and essay on how communication skills political inclusion of all, irrespective of elementary organizer, age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the distribution at the top is communication, necessary to elementary, assess the extent to which growth is inclusive, and to ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. (2015a) lay out three main ways in which income inequality in particular is hidden. First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to participate). Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data – as now brought together for a growing number of countries in the World Top Incomes Database by essay to improve communication Alvaredo et al. (2015) . Using such tax data appears to add in the order of 3–6 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for national (e.g., for the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Segal, 2014 ).
Second, tax data is itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to as much as 10 percent of global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for planner undeclared incomes may be of the same order as that found by allowing for skills declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in which the true extent of income inequality can be hidden relates to the choice of measure. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to the tails of the distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is also relatively insensitive at higher levels of inequality.
In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the relative stability (across countries and over time) of the income share of deciles 5–9 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the Gini on the bottom 40 percent and top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. Essay Book? That same stability supports Palma’s (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and the proposal of Cobham and essay on how communication Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the ratio of national income shares of the top 10 percent to the bottom 40 percent, since this is planner, where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of inequality is without subjective implications; the best we can do is to be aware of that which we use. Although the same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in practice also, it occurs in a somewhat obscure and opaque way. On How? In the penalty Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and transparent. The subtitle of Palma’s (2011) paper is ‘The share of the rich is communication, what it’s all about’. What is disappointing about the essay of education income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the share of the rich almost completely.
As discussed above, the centrality of social exclusion as the on how to improve skills development approach behind the SDG framework results in great emphasis on group inequalities, and in plan, particular on marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into such stark contrast, in particular if the progress of essay on how, marginalized groups is compared with national averages rather than that of the herbert spencer's + the of education most advantaged groups. This logic reaches a nadir in essay communication, the ‘income inequality’ target. The relationship between the bottom 40 percent, deciles 5–9 and business studies the top 10 percent shares of national income is such that, in general, the target of higher income growth for essay to improve communication skills the bottom 40 percent than for the mean is likely to be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini – but it is essay planner, unclear why such a circular and complex route is preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in each country, by 2030. The uncounted nature of some part of top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only that it is somewhat hidden. ‘There has been some criticism that the on how communication skills focus on the growth rate of the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Research? Since each nation already tracks the growth rate of the per capita income of its entire population and these data are widely available, as soon as we see the growth rate of the bottom 40 percent next to this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to whether the poorest 40 percent is falling off from the on how to improve skills rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is some literature showing that what the poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to online, the top 10 percent of the on how to improve communication population.’ ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the World Bank’s measure would not be taken directly into the SDGs, when its defenders begin by recognizing that only as a ratio can it speak to inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to set a target that would loosely equate to essay, a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to the starting point.
Given the universal nature of the to improve communication skills SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the compromise between ‘shared prosperity’ and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. Spencer's Of Education? The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the MDGs, of course, but there is a sense of having ducked an important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in particular, may be relevant: ‘Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system’. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the criteria at essay on how communication skills, all: certainly it is neither specific nor measurable); there is also no single indicator in the framework that relates. Overall, the MDGs focused strongly on aid and had no space for domestic taxation; and included no references beyond the vague wording of 8A to the transparent or fair operation of international finance and trade. 17.1.
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection. Note the herbert essay + the of education somewhat ambiguous recognition of the international nature of the problem. Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for clarity over international responsibility, for example, in skills, respect of full inclusion of of education, developing countries in the exchange of tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the essay to improve language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from both UNCTAD (2015 , for difference inductive the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in a loss for developing countries of around $100 billion annually. The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and corporate tax rates) are currently the best guide for policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on the economic activities and tax paid by multinational groups; and without this, neither the multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for essay their approaches. The first analysis and advocacy priority of the then nascent Tax Justice Network in 2003 was for public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Indian Essay Book? Ten years later, with increasing pressure from essay to improve, media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as ‘LuxLeaks’, the G8 and G20 groups of countries called for between inductive essays the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the information generated (potentially by every multinational group) will only be supplied to individual tax authorities – so while some abuses may become visible and be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.
This was the second of the Tax Justice Network’s original priorities, and again was adopted by the G8 and G20 some ten years later, and to improve the OECD mandated to deliver. The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the hiding of taxable wealth and incomes in other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, it seems likely that the main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. In addition, there are currently no plans in place to herbert essay purpose of education, ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on the scale of on how, bilateral holdings – so once again, the scope for accountability of business studies, tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in the SDGs, or indeed in the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to support domestic tax capacity – this time by improving the counting of essay on how to improve skills, elites’ offshore incomes. Essay? As noted, the underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to have significant implications for essay to improve communication skills recorded inequality. 16.4. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime. ‘We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by 2030, with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by essay online combating tax evasion and corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international cooperation.’ ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of illicit is ‘forbidden by law, rules or custom’; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. The consistent feature of IFFs – those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and essay on how to improve skills tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of some multinational companies – is the use of elementary research, financial secrecy to essay communication, prevent public visibility.
A typology of IFFs and immediate impacts. Impact on essay planner state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on essay to improve communication skills profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.
Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.
Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.
(If no expectation of repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of indian essay, state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.
Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : ‘IFF type’ defined as: 1 – market/regulatory abuse, 2 – tax abuse, 3 – abuse of essay on how to improve communication skills, power, including theft of state funds, 4 – proceeds of crime. As the table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of trade to the use of anonymous shell companies); and each channel can be used for studies plan more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and Spanjers, 2014 ), and to improve skills combine a ‘hot money’ component reflecting capital account anomalies with a ‘misinvoicing’ component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of each, and alternatives in specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and indian essay Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the to improve communication challenge to international institutions to do better. As yet, none have attempted it. One major benefit of the SDG target then – vague and currently unmeasured as it is – is that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.
Ideally, such an approach would come closer to the breadth of IFF in Table 3 , and the work cited by UNCTAD and against essay IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for progress, a necessary first step is to count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and policy recommendations. This article has considered the on how communication new SDGs framework in the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The greater emphasis on difference inductive social exclusion and participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the framework’s attention to power and to inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the MDGs. If this shift is to essay to improve communication, gain traction in policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of political power as is herbert spencer's + the purpose, implied, then the much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. While there are many technical and financial challenges to achieve this, such a revolution is essay on how, fundamentally political – and so too are the obstacles. The thesis of ‘uncounted’ put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by indian book their absence from statistics used for policy or in on how, public debate, while elites may be further empowered by their lack of visibility. In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for the inequalities – but genuine progress on counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the wider inequalities.
Two proposals are put forward, with the common aim of strengthening the paper organizer political accountability of the counting that the framework requires. The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the on how communication counting of those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the failures globally in relation to difference inductive and deductive essays, persons with learning disabilities, and essay on how skills indigenous populations; or the essay planner effective absence of elites from essay on how, much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of reporting, in relation to each inequality type relevant to each target, is itself reported . This would facilitate the comparison and ranking of the extent of uncounted phenomena, by issue; by elementary paper inequality type and/or group; and by country and region. Is health better counted than income poverty?
Is counting with respect to disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and essay which trailing, and essay why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and a more participatory approach to future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the on how to improve skills extent to which they deliver their share of the studies coursework plan necessary data.
Here the essay importance is herbert spencer's of education, as much to support the independence of NSOs from essay skills, domestic political pressure, as to hold them accountable themselves. To this end, the elementary paper global framework might usefully be augmented by the addition of annual indicators for each country of the de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for central bank independence, for example. Even with the convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the on how to improve communication skills case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. Difference Between Inductive And Deductive Essays? While there may be more political discomfort to a focus on top incomes, or other development outcomes – and perhaps exactly because of that discomfort – it is essay on how to improve skills, important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at the top relates to the inclusion or otherwise of data on offshore assets and incomes to lower-income countries, and the publication or otherwise of partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and essay tax authorities, along with the to improve country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the same reasons. Much like the non-aid commitments of research organizer, donor countries in MDG 8, the G8 has yet to deliver on its promises of 2013 to ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.
The SDGs and Financing for to improve communication Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of paper, a shift in power than might have been hoped. Neither, for example, has required the publication of country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and jurisdiction, on what proportion of foreign-owned assets and to the states of what proportion of the world’s population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and jurisdiction, from on how, which countries and jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and spencer's purpose of education jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and essay to improve skills volume of revealed assets were already declared by the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in respect of the remainder? For each country and against jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the declared multinational tax base is country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of on how skills, course a range of business studies plan, other areas in which SDG-related efforts to essay to improve communication skills, tackle the problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the penalty against essay outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the promise of the greatest, global challenge to systematic power inequalities.
A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the uncounted. The paper shows the skills pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on herbert essay health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by the IMF in the early 2000s. When the on how to improve communication skills IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly – apparently because the Sudanese government was doing the organizer same in response to the IMF’s request for communication skills permission. Ultimately, the data was not made available to me – or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an paper organizer interesting in exploring these questions. The author is grateful for comments from participants and discussants at seminars and conferences at Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.
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How to Improve Your Communication Skills? (Latest Guide 2018)
Do Students Really Need Practice Homework? (Da Capo Press, 2006) Closely related to the [mostly false] notion that more time yields more learning is the belief, widely held by both parents and teachers, that homework is useful because it affords an opportunity for on how to improve communication skills students to practice the skills they’ve been taught. Herbert Essay + The Purpose Of Education. This, of course, is communication skills a defense of indian book a certain kind of assignment – namely, the kind that involves practice. But because such a large proportion of homework is practice-oriented, we should evaluate this claim carefully. There’s obviously some truth to the idea that practice is connected to skills, proficiency. People who do something a lot often get better at doing it. But once again we find ourselves with a proposition that turns out to be true in a far more limited sense, with more qualifications and against, caveats attached, than may have seemed to be the case.
Giving students homework that involves drill and essay skills, practice is often said to studies plan, “reinforce” the skills they’ve been taught in class. This verb is tossed around casually, as if it were sufficient to clinch the case. But what exactly is meant here? Unless it’s assumed that practice is reinforcing by definition, one would have to demonstrate that good results are indeed likely to follow from mere repetition. And it’s not at to improve skills all clear that this is true, except under very limited circumstances. Essay Planner. For example, it wouldn’t make sense to say “Keep practicing until you understand” because practicing doesn’t create understanding – just as giving kids a deadline doesn’t teach time-management skills. What might make sense, at least under certain conditions, is to say “Keep practicing until what you’re doing becomes automatic.” But what kinds of essay communication proficiencies lend themselves to this sort of improvement? The answer is behavioral responses. Expertise in tennis requires lots of practice; it’s hard to essay planner online, improve your swing without spending a lot of essay on how communication time on elementary paper organizer, the court. You learn to to improve communication skills, pull back and follow through with just the right movement so the ball lands where you want, and eventually you can do this without even thinking about it. But to cite an example like that to justify homework is an spencer's essay + the, example of what philosophers call begging the question.
It assumes precisely what has to be proved, which is that intellectual pursuits are essentially like tennis. The assumption that the two activities are analogous is an outgrowth of a doctrine known as behaviorism, widely associated with John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and their followers. On this view, all that matters are behaviors that can be seen and on how to improve communication, measured, and “man is an animal different from other animals only in the types of behavior he displays,” as Watson announced on the first page of herbert + the purpose his best-known book. Thus, it makes perfect sense that most of the principles of learning that emerge from the essay to improve skills work of behaviorists were developed on lab animals. Among those principles: Everything that we do, everything that we are, is purely a function of the reinforcers (what the rest of us usually refer to as “rewards”) that have followed what we’ve done in the past. When teachers and parents talk about using homework to indian, “reinforce” the on how to improve communication skills material students have learned – or, more accurately, the studies coursework plan material they were taught, which they may or may not have learned – the term isn’t being used in this technical sense. But that doesn’t matter. Whether they realize it or not, they’re buying in to the same attenuated view of learning that emphasizes drill and practice because their focus is on producing a behavior. The behavior might consist of a rodent finding its way through a maze or a child borrowing from the tens’ place. For a behaviorist, these actions are different only in degree, and the same theory applies equally well to both.
Thus, to justify sending students home with a worksheet full of practice problems on the grounds that it reinforces skills is to say that what matters is not understanding but behavior. In the on how skills 1920s and ‘30s, when Watson was formulating his theory that would come to dominate the way we teach students (not to essay online, mention the to improve skills way we raise children and manage employees), a much less famous researcher named William Brownell was challenging the drill-and-practice approach to mathematics that had already taken root. “If one is to essay, be successful in quantitative thinking, one needs a fund of meanings, not a myriad of communication ‘automatic responses,’” he wrote. Between. “Drill does not develop meanings. On How Communication Skills. Repetition does not lead to death penalty, understandings.” In fact, if “arithmetic becomes meaningful, it becomes so in spite of drill.” An emphasis on making meaning is directly opposed to the view that learning consists of the acquisition of a collection of behaviors. To Improve. Brownell’s insights about math instruction have been expanded and enriched by a long line of experts who have come to and deductive, realize that the behaviorist model is, if you’ll excuse the expression, deeply superficial. Learning isn’t just a matter of absorbing new information or acquiring automatic responses to to improve communication skills, stimuli. Rather, we human beings spend our entire lives constructing theories about how the essay world works, and then reconstructing them in light of new evidence. Not only educational theorists but “virtually all” cognitive researchers today “[sub]scribe to this constructive view of learning and knowledge.” The kind of essay to improve communication teaching most consistent with it treats students as meaning makers and offers carefully calibrated challenges that help them to develop increasingly sophisticated theories. The point is for them to + the of education, understand ideas from the inside out. This basic distinction between behavior and understanding – with its implications regarding practice homework – applies to just about every academic subject.
Its relevance to math, however, is particularly intriguing – and somewhat unsettling in light of the fact that most of us still think in behaviorist terms. Mathematics is the subject in which practice homework seems to be most commonly prescribed, so this is as good a place as any to understand the essay on how to improve communication skills limits of the whole idea. An emphasis on practice to reinforce skills proceeds naturally from the assumption that kids primarily need to learn “math facts”: the ability to say “42” as soon as they hear the stimulus “6 x 7,” and elementary research paper, a familiarity with step-by-step procedures (sometimes called algorithms) for all kinds of problems #8212; carrying numbers while subtracting, subtracting while dividing, reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator, and so forth. You do one problem after another until you’ve got it down cold. And, as Brownell pointed out, if you have trouble producing the right answer, that’s “taken as evidence only essay to improve communication skills, of the need of penalty further drill.” In reality, it’s the children who don’t understand the underlying concepts who most need an on how to improve communication, approach to teaching that’s geared to deep understanding. The more they’re given algorithms and told exactly what to do, the farther behind they fall in terms of grasping these concepts. “Mindless mimicry mathematics,” as the National Research Council calls it, is the norm in our schools, from online, single-digit addition in essay on how communication first grade to inductive essays, trigonometry in high school. Students may memorize the communication skills fact that 0.4 = 4/10, or successfully follow a recipe to solve for x, but the traditional approach leaves them clueless about the significance of what they’re doing. Without any feel for the bigger picture, they tend to plug in research paper organizer numbers mechanically while applying the technique they’ve been taught. As a result, they often can’t take these methods and transfer them to problems even slightly different from those they’re used to.
Or perhaps I should say this is what we can’t do, in light of how many of us adults cheerfully describe ourselves as hating math or lacking any aptitude for it. On How To Improve Communication. (Rather curiously, some of us then become agitated if our children aren’t taught the subject with the same traditional methods that failed us!) All of this has been noticed by people who make their living thinking about math education. Several documents for between and deductive reforming the on how to improve field, including, most notably, the standards disseminated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, have recommended that math classes revolve around making meaning rather than memorizing rules. Students should be encouraged to write and planner, talk about their ideas, to essay on how to improve communication, understand the underlying concepts and be able to put them into words. There#8217;s a sharp contrast between math defined principally in penalty terms of skills and math defined principally in terms of understanding. (The latter doesn’t exclude skills, of course; it just insists that skills should be offered in a context and for a purpose.) But even a classroom centered on on how to improve skills, understanding may not be enough. Some traditionalists will agree that thinking should be “couched in terms of comprehending, integrating, and applying knowledge.” But in their classrooms, the student’s job is “comprehending how the teacher has integrated or applied the ideas . . . and to essay, reconstruct the teacher’s thinking on the next test.” This returns us to the fundamental question of whether understanding is passively absorbed or actively constructed. Essay. The best classrooms not only essay planner, are characterized by more thinking than remembering; they also have students doing much of the thinking. Thus, children, with the teacher’s support, may reinvent the idea of ratios for on how to improve communication skills themselves, or recreate the marvelously consistent relation among the three sides of a right triangle (and discover its relevance to research, real-world design issues).
By weighing the possibilities, they come up with their own ways of finding solutions. What that means in practice is as straightforward as it is counterintuitive: Terrific teachers generally refrain from showing their classes how to solve problems. Rather than demonstrating the “correct” procedure for subtracting 37 from 82, for on how communication example, second-grade teachers might let the students (individually or in pairs) find ways to solve it, encouraging them to try various techniques, giving them ample time before calling them back together for inductive a discussion so they can explain what they did, challenge each other’s answers (in a friendly, supportive way), ask questions, reconsider their own approaches, and essay on how, figure out what works #8212; and why it works. Notice how different this process is from merely transmitting information to them in a way that would then be “reinforced” with drill and coursework, practice. Notice also that the learning depends to on how to improve, a large degree on the interaction among children; it doesn’t lend itself to against essay, solitary efforts at the kitchen table. Until you’ve watched this kind of teaching, the idea of trusting children to essay communication, solve unfamiliar problems, or the idea that math is elementary research a creative enterprise involving invention, can be very hard to accept. It’s sometimes assumed that if an adult doesn’t immediately step in to say “That’s right” or “No, not quite,” children are being given the message that all answers are equally acceptable. Essay On How To Improve Communication. In fact, exactly the opposite is true. It’s the fact that “82 minus 37” has only one right answer that makes this approach work. “Children will eventually get to the truth if they think and debate long enough because, in spencer's + the [math], absolutely nothing is arbitrary,” says Constance Kamii, who has devoted her career to explaining – and proving #8212; the essay communication skills value of this sort of math education. By contrast, when students are simply told the most efficient way of getting the and deductive essays answer, they get in the habit of looking to the adult, or the book, instead of thinking things through.
They become less autonomous, more dependent. Stuck in the middle of a problem, they’re less likely to try to figure out what makes sense to do next and more likely to try to remember what they’re supposed to essay, do next – that is, what behavioral response they’ve been taught to produce. Lots of practice can help some students get better at remembering the correct response, but not to get better at – or even accustomed to essay, #8212; thinking. On How Communication Skills. “In traditional math, says Kamii, “kids are given rules that don’t make sense to them, and repetition seems to be necessary to memorize rules kids don’t understand.” She generally recommends steering clear of homework, “partly because what kids do at school is enough, and repetition is neither necessary nor desirable,” and partly because when parents try to business, help their children with math assignments they tend to teach them what they’ve been told are the “correct” ways to solve problems. Again, this shuts down children’s thinking. Even when students do acquire an academic skill through practice (in any subject), the way they acquire it should give us pause in essay skills terms of death penalty essay how they’ll approach that topic in on how skills the future. As the psychologist Ellen Langer has shown, “When we drill ourselves in a certain skill so that it becomes second nature,” we may come to perform that skill “mindlessly.” Practicing some things until you can practically do them in your sleep often interferes with flexibility and innovation. What can be done without thinking usually is essay book done without thinking, and that may lock people into patterns and procedures that are less than ideal. On How To Improve Communication. Practice often leads to habit – which is, by essay + the purpose of education, definition, a mindless repetition of behavior #8212; but not to understanding. And when understanding is absent, the ability to use and apply the skill is very limited indeed.
Even under those circumstances and for essay to improve communication those topics where a reasonable case can be made that practicing does make sense, we’re not entitled to conclude that homework of this type is appropriate for most students in any given classroom. For starters, such assignments aren’t of any use for research paper organizer those who don’t understand what they’re doing. “Perhaps the worst thing we can do is make [these children] do more of essay communication skills what [they] cannot do,” as child development experts Rheta DeVries and Lawrence Kohlberg once wrote. Giving practice problems to students who lack understanding can have any of several effects: * It may make them feel stupid. (Over and over again, they’re reminded of what they can’t do.) * It may get them accustomed to doing things the wrong way, because what’s really “reinforced” are mistaken assumptions. * It may teach them to fake it, perhaps by asking someone else for business coursework the correct answers, to essay to improve communication, conceal what they don’t know. * Finally, the studies whole exercise subtly teaches that math – or whatever subject they’re doing #8212; is something people aren’t expected to understand. At the same time, other students in the same class already have the on how communication skills skill down cold, so further practice for them is a waste of time. You’ve got some kids, then, who don’t need the practice and other kids who can’t use it. Even if we were willing to put aside more basic concerns about this kind of indian essay assignment, it’s entirely possible that only a handful of students in any classroom at any given time would be likely to benefit from it. Thus, the nearly universal tendency to skills, give the same assignment to everyone in the class, while understandable in light of time constraints, is awfully hard to defend pedagogically. This is exactly why a New York math teacher, who has at various times taught students from second to eighth grade, told me that she has #8220;never found homework helpful. Business. Those students who already knew how to do the stuff were bored with more of essay to improve it at home. Those students who didn’t understand it made up their own ways to do things which were often wrong and repeated the practice, making it that much harder to get them to death penalty, see it another way in class.#8221; An eighth-grade English teacher in southern California arrived at the same conclusion: I very rarely give my students any kind of homework.
I do not believe in homework, especially in essay on how communication skills a Language Arts class. Many teachers say that they give the students homework for practice, which is a wonderful concept. However, does every student in the class need the exact same amount of practice? What about the student who has the concept down perfectly after the first item? Why does she have to do the other thirty-nine items? How about the student who practices all forty problems wrong? What good did the homework assignment do her?
I want my students to do their learning in difference inductive my presence, so I can immediately correct them, or take them in a different direction, or push them further, or learn from them. Let’s assume for the moment that none of this was true – and that practice really could help most kids. To Improve Communication Skills. Even so, it still hasn’t been shown that they need to difference inductive essays, do it at essay to improve home. Proponents of homework simply assume that if practice is business studies coursework plan worthwhile, it must take place after school is over – in part because there’s not enough time for students to write or solve problems during the day. But this raises the question of what students should be doing. Often it’s assumed that the best use of class time is for students to listen to the teacher. Here we find another example of how questionable assumptions about essay communication, education underlie a belief in the necessity of homework. There is good reason to move beyond the “transmission” model of learning – sometimes known as “sit ‘n git.” (The writer George Leonard once defined lecturing as the “best way to get information from teacher’s notebook to indian essay book, student’s notebook without touching the student’s mind.”) There’s a good case to be made that if class time is limited, most of those hours are better spent having students read and write, discuss and reflect. To Improve. Indeed, many assignments are most valuable when they’re completed in class, where immediate feedback is available. Listen to the testimony of three teachers who address reading, writing, and math, respectively: In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to against essay, be done at home.
Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Essay To Improve Communication. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in spencer's purpose of education the course of the year. Essay To Improve Communication. Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and immediately. Essay Book. I have to give students time to write in class. Essay To Improve. I’ve never walked into an art class where students aren’t actually engaged in making art; imagine how silly art classes would become if the teacher expected students to work on all of their projects at home alone, leaving class time for lectures or slides.
Of course we should expect students to studies plan, write at home regularly. But assessment depends on observation, and if we do not allow students to write during class, we cannot observe their process or find the time to to improve communication, give them the responses and ask the questions that matter. I like to see students thinking through math. I need to see what they are understanding and where they are confused so that I can guide them appropriately. This, I find, only works in class. The Learner’s Point of death against View. Even if practice homework really did help some students to acquire a skill, any such benefit would have to be balanced against the effect it has on their interest in learning. If slogging through worksheets dampens their desire to read or think, surely that wouldn’t be worth an incremental improvement in skills.
But let’s take this a step further. Even if our only to improve communication skills, concern was with bottom-line academic achievement, it would be counterproductive to ignore how students felt about the process. Some adults seem to be convinced that kids ought to spend time doing what we regard as worthwhile regardless of whether they find it unpleasant, but there’s actually little reason to believe that it’s productive to make them do so. This is because excellence tends to follow interest. As I mentioned earlier, advocates of homework are fond of pointing out that you don’t get to be proficient at elementary research organizer activities like tennis or basketball without spending an awful lot of time practicing. But even here, what matters most is the essay skills fact that the would-be athlete wants to be out on the court. Practice is essay book most likely to skills, be useful for someone who has chosen to do it, and business coursework, excitement about an activity is the best predictor of competence.
That’s why one of the main challenges for a teacher is to help spark and sustain children’s intrinsic motivation to essay skills, play with words and numbers and ideas. Herbert Spencer's Essay + The. Conversely, when an on how skills, activity feels like drudgery, the quality of learning tends to penalty essay, suffer. The fact that so many children regard homework as something to finish as quickly as possible – or even as a significant source of stress – helps to essay on how communication skills, explain why there’s so little evidence that it offers any academic advantage even for those who obediently sit down and complete the tasks they’ve been assigned. That fact makes perfect sense in light of a fundamental insight that has emerged from the elementary work of psychological theorists and researchers who have transcended behaviorism: What matters most is not a child’s action; it’s what underlies the action #8212; her needs, goals, and attitudes. It’s not what she does that’s going to prove beneficial (or not) in the long run; it’s why she does it, what she was hoping to get out of it, whether it makes sense to her (and, if so, for essay communication skills what reason). Of course, it’s much harder to measure these things than a variable like #8220;time on task.#8221; By the essay same token, it’s easier to make students spend hours practicing a skill than it is to on how to improve, change their view of what they’re learning, how they see themselves in relation to that task, how competent they think they are, and studies, so on. But that doesn’t alter the fact that the skills best predictor of results is how things appear from the indian essay student’s point of view. On How To Improve Communication. The failure to grasp the significance of these complex, subjective issues comprises the most serious misunderstanding of all where learning is concerned.
Essays in favor of difference inductive homework generally reflect a tendency to regard children as inert objects to be acted on: Make them practice and they’ll get better. My argument isn’t just that this viewpoint is disrespectful, or that it’s a residue of an outdated stimulus-response psychology. I’m also suggesting it just doesn’t work. Essay On How Communication. Children cannot be made to acquire skills. They aren’t vending machines such that we put in more homework and get out more learning. Death Against Essay. Even parents who object to homework on the basis of the unpleasant interactions that take place may fail to appreciate how their children experience the homework itself – and how that reduces the chance that it will have the on how skills desired effect. Similarly, even researchers who consider students’ perspectives tend to do so in the context of reporting that homework elicits considerable resistance, but only because those darn kids don’t understand that homework is difference between good for them.
Our job, we’re led to understand, is to change how students look at things – or at least to convince them to do what they’re told. But what if our goal was to understand rather than to convince? What if we made a serious effort to imagine – from the child’s point of view #8212; what homework feels like and what it actually teaches? Do all those assignments really impress upon kids the importance of responsibility, achievement, and hard work? Or are their real messages that learning has to be unpleasant, that my parents and to improve skills, teachers have formed an alliance against me, that I’m not trusted to decide what to do with my spare time? Perhaps we so rarely try to experience homework from the vantage point of those who have to indian book, do it because this exercise would end up revealing its futility.
I argued in chapter 2 that a careful review of the data really doesn’t provide much support for the idea that homework is necessary to help students learn better. If this seemed perplexing, it may be because we’ve just accepted claims about the to improve skills value of spending more time on a task or the benefits of practicing a skill, or because we haven’t considered the elementary paper organizer tradition in educational psychology that demonstrates the significance of the skills student’s experience of what he’s doing. Misconceptions about learning are pervasive in all sorts of neighborhoods, and they’re held by parents and teachers alike. Purpose Of Education. It’s these beliefs – even more than a lack of awareness of what studies have found – that make it so hard even to question the practice of assigning regular homework. You can lead people to the research results, show them that there are no data at all to support the value of giving homework to students in elementary school, and it won’t have any impact if they’re convinced that practice makes perfect and more time naturally produces more learning. On How Communication. If, in other words, we assume homework is a necessary part of education, that may be because of how little we know about how children actually become educated. To learn more about learning is to spencer's + the of education, look at the assignments kids are required to do in a very different light. [Full citations appear in essay on how to improve skills the book’s bibliography. Some endnotes in the book have been omitted here.] 1. Essay Book. Brownell 1935, pp. 10, 12. Emphasis added.
Elsewhere, he wrote as follows: “The child who can promptly give the answer 12 to on how skills, 7 + 5 has by no means demonstrated that he knows the combination. He does not ‘know’ the essay purpose combination until he understands something of the reason why 7 and 5 is essay on how to improve communication 12, until he can demonstrate to himself and to others that 7 and 5 is 12 … and until he can use the herbert + the purpose of education combination in an intelligent manner – in a word, until the combination possesses meaning for him” (Brownell 1928, p. On How To Improve. 198). 2. Putnam et al., p. 89. Lauren Resnick and other experts have made the same point. Spencer's Purpose. 3. In so doing, it also invites them to think critically about those ideas.
By contrast, as the Brazilian educator Paolo Freire pointed out, “the more students work at storing the essay on how to improve deposits entrusted to them” — a pretty good summary of most homework — “the less they develop [a] critical consciousness” (p. 54). This raises the interesting possibility that while a reluctance to essay + the of education, ask provocative questions may help to perpetuate the institution of homework, the essay to improve institution of homework may also discourage students from business plan, asking provocative questions. 4. In what follows, I draw from The Schools Our Children Deserve (Kohn 1999b), which, in essay to improve skills turn, contains references to the work of many other thinkers. 5. Windschitl, p. 352. 6. Kamii, 1994, p. 67.
8. DeVries and Kohlberg, p. 374. Penalty Against Essay. 9. This is exactly what the eminent educator John Goodlad discovered in his “Study of Schooling” across the U.S.: “A very large percentage of children [in elementary schools] reported to us that they frequently did not understand the directions for the work they were to do. The consequence of on how communication skills this is that they did not get much done at penalty essay school and so had a good deal to essay, do at plan home—but did not understand the work in the first place. Essay. In other words, if there was any reinforcement in the behavioristic sense, homework probably provided reinforcement of the wrong way of figuring out a mathematics problem” (personal communication, November 2005). 10. Elementary Paper Organizer. All of skills this also applies to online, more sophisticated homework, by the way. Even if the rationale is to promote “integration of skills” – a current buzzphrase #8212; rather than the mere rehearsal of those skills, the reality is often that “the only skills being integrated are those of procrastination and panic” (Waldman).
11. For more on to improve communication skills, this, including some supporting research, see Kohn, The Schools Our Children Deserve , especially chapter 2.
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau is often considered the father of Romanticism. Difference Between Inductive Essays. His writings paved the way for Romantic thought with a high regard for on how to improve nature and a . style which captivated readers and sparked a high emotional interest. New Heloise may be a perfect example of Romantic characteristics in his writing. One of the prevalent themes in herbert spencer's + the purpose this work was beauty in essay on how communication nature and a simple life away from against essay, corruption. New Heloise emphasized the need to essay on how to improve, change laws, and government to get back to the natural goodness of.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 935 Words | 3 Pages. At your level what is difference between inductive and deductive your contribution to make student globally competitive? By sharing not only my knowledge but also all the skills that I possess. 6. . Do you believe you should built rapport with students? If yes how?
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At a party, your friends offer you a cigarette. You accept although you haven’t smoked before. Do you then: ____ Feel . silly because you don’t know how to essay to improve communication, smoke? ____ Watch your friends and follow their example ? ____ Think they’re looking at you and therefore try to do the against essay, drawback?Sur. 2006 singles , Stevie Wonder 1176 Words | 5 Pages. capitalism. Essay To Improve. An oligopoly is a small group of businesses, two or more, that control the book, market for essay to improve a certain product or service. This gives these businesses . huge influence over price and business studies other aspects of the market. Since it is the middle ground, oligopoly examples are abundant in our economic system today. Monopoly A monopoly is exclusive control of the market by one business because there is no other group selling the product or offering the service.
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chain in single project management. IDENTIFYING THE PROJECT ACTIVITIES In this exercise, I ask the essay planner, students to assume that they are interested in . “knocking over” a jewelry store. (Some instructors may balk at the idea of using a robbery as an example . The concepts can be taught using a different story line for the project network—one possible project would be writing a group paper for class.) The students are divided into groups of three—representing the three would-be felons. They are told that. Alarms , Critical Chain Project Management , Critical path method 1951 Words | 7 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in essay to improve communication professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the herbert spencer's essay + the of education, most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the on how to improve communication, improvement of memory capacity and ability.
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B. Objectives and. Cartoon , Comic strip , Standard 1009 Words | 5 Pages. ?IRAC Example 2: Hilift Pty Ltd (Hilift) owns an industrial crane. Hilift employs two crane operators, Elwyn and Osman, who each work 4 . hour shifts. In May 2008 the on how to improve communication skills, owner/builder of a new apartment block hires Hilift’s crane and operators for two weeks to death against essay, lift building materials to on how to improve skills, the upper floors of their building. At the end of the first shift on the 10 May, Elwyn notifies the manager of Hilift that the crane is not performing properly and that it needs looking at.
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be well written, and should include clear explanations, examples , and support from the textbook where relevant. Application: Use chapters . Essay On How Skills. 11-15 from essay book, your textbook, identify, define, and on how to improve communication provide an example from the scenario of the communication concepts in planner online action for this situation. Concept 1: Identify the general goal Definition: The general goal of to improve communication skills, a speech is the overall intent of a speech. (Source: COMM 2 pg. 149) Example : When Gloria says, “It makes the point I want to make—if. Concept , Credibility , Critical thinking 784 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment Item 2: Statement of difference between, essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . Essay On How To Improve Skills. essays?
There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays. Firstly, the higher quality example essays, such as the Distinction and difference and deductive High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in essay to improve communication skills the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature.