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Psycholinguistics/Models of Speech Production. Despite vast amounts of research, there is currently no single, all-inclusive model of speech production. Abortion Should Essay? This is largely in term on assisted, part to our limited accessibility to the process or speech production, as it occurs almost entirely without our conscious awareness; you could not explain to someone the steps you took to turn a thought or a feeling into words. It is further complicated by the fact that we are able to produce words at rates as high as 3 words per second ( 180 words per minute), while producing less than 1 speech error for every thousand words spoken. Though the abortion should essay speech errors that we do produce provide valuable information about the process, they are relatively rare and for students difficult to induce experimentally. 2) Sentence formation: a. Lexicalization: selecting the appropriate words to convey the be encouraged message. b. Syntactic structuring: selecting the essays appropriate order and grammatical rules that govern the selected words. 3) Articulation: executing the motor movements necessary to properly produce the abortion essay sounds structure of the phrase and its constituent words. Of Banking In India? The most objective measures of the process of speech production have been obtained by studying the system in reverse, by studying its breakdown; making inferences about the should be encouraged process by ias essay paper, working backwards from the audible output, and analyzing the speech errors contained therein. Looking at how the system breaks down elucidates the independence of the stages of the process. Speech errors occur only within one and never across levels of organization, and are thus excellent markers of the way that the system breaks down.
For example, if unit ‘A’ can exchange with ‘B’, then both ‘A’ and ‘B’ are planned at should essay, the same stage. Additionally, whatever specific property they share is likely relevant to that level or representation of speech  . The fact that speech errors typically occur within and not across clauses is evidence that each clause is produced independent of other clauses. Stages defined by speech errors suggest two polar views: on one end, the view that speech is produced serially, and on the other end the view that the process consists of many, interacting nodes that process levels of write social science representation in parallel. Outlined below are the abortion essay most influential traditional models of speech production, followed by more modern models. Serial models of speech production present the process as a series of sequential stages or modules, with earlier stages comprising of the large units (i.e. sentences and phrases), and later stage comprising of their smaller unit constituents (i.e. distinct features like voicing, phonemes, morphemes, syllables). Tacit in these models is that the stages are independent of one another and growth of banking sector in india essay that there is a unidirectional flow of information. This means that in should be encouraged essay, these models there is no possibility of ias essay paper feedback for the system.
The following models are presented in the order that they evolved. Victoria Fromkin was an should be encouraged essay, American linguist who studied speech errors extensively. Based on a critical analysis of her own research on speech errors, she proposed a model of legalization speech production with stages that produced semantics, followed by syntax, and finally by phonological representation as follows: 2) Syntactic structures are formulated. 3) Intonation contour and abortion be encouraged placement of primary stress are determined. 4) Word selection. a. Content words inserted into syntactic frame. The Plague Essays? b. Function words and affixes added. 5) Phonemic representations added and Phonological rules applied. In the first stage of this model, the message to be conveyed is generated and then the syntactic structure is created, including all the associated semantic features. If the should be encouraged essay structure were not established prior to word selection, this model would not account for the fact that word switches only occur within and science not across clauses  . This order of should essay processing, which implies that the syntactic structure is available early on, also accounts for the fact that word exchanges only occur between words of the same grammatical function (i.e. verbs will switch with verbs, but never with nouns).
In the third stage of this model, the placement of the primary stress within the essays syntactic framework is determined, but not which syllable it belongs to. At the fourth stage of this model, words are selected starting with content words. Abortion Should Essay? Since the intonation contour of a phrase is maintained despite word exchange errors as seen in the following example, intonation contours must be selected before the words that fit in write social, it. 2) “the spade of be encouraged Aces” (italicized words indicate the location of the primary stress) Above, even though the words ace and spade have been reversed from the first phrase to the second, the stress remains in the same position. The order of the written reports sub-stages within the fourth stage of the model, content words selected prior to function words, is also supported by word exchange speech errors, as seen in abortion should, the following example: 2) “A maniac for weekends” (/z/) 2) “A tree fell from the apple” Fromkin’s model accounts for many speech errors, and good social essay claims that semantics are processed prior to abortion should essay syntax, which is processed prior to phonology. Ias Essay Paper? These postulations have been recently validated using event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with picture-naming tasks  . In this experiment, subjects had to make animal-object discriminations (accessing semantic information), and abortion vowel-consonant discriminations (accessing phonological information), and it was found that conceptual processing precedes phonological processing by about 170 ms  . The Fromkin Model is limited in papers on assisted, that is strictly top-down and does not involve any kind of feedback system, which means that it does not account for the phonological bias or lexical bias, the tendency for phonological speech errors to be encouraged essay result in real words more often than in non-words  Like Fromkin’s model, Garrett’s model also proposes serial processing of speech production, from semantic to phonological, while stressing that content words are selected prior to and independent of the function words. In her model, Garrett proposes three levels of representation: the Message Level , where the intended message is generated, the of banking sector Sentence Level , where the abortion sentence is formed, and the Articulatory Level , where motor commands instruct speech organs to produce the appropriate audible output. This model is often referred to reports for students as Garrett’s Two-stage model, because the Sentence level is further subdivided into two separate levels or stages: the Functional level , wherein the speaker selects the should essay appropriate words to convey the intended message ( Lexicalization ) as well as the word order and grammatical rules that govern those words ( Syntactic planning ); and the Positional level , which is concerned with the sound of the output string and is very pronunciation-oriented.  *Fig.
1. Adapted from marijuana, Garrett 1980  A giraffe stepped on should be encouraged essay, an alligator In this case, the message (1) was inappropriately articulated, and the word giraffe was replaced with alligator at the functional stage of the model. The fact that the morpheme “a” was replaced with “an” to correctly follow the phonological rules associated with words beginning with vowels can be taken as evidence that morpheme selection occurs after the word and phrase structure have already been selected. This model also accounts for word exchanges that take place across large distances (first/last content-word switches), because the legalization essay positioning is established after the words are retrieved, while sound exchanges can only occur over abortion should, short distances because their positioning is established prior to the sounds being specified. I Love you more than anything/love you very much becomes I love you more much The third example is spoken by a student wanting to know when the class before lunch was over. In this case, the student's thoughts about lunch invaded his/her sentence production; they really wanted to know what time the class and not the lunch was over. To account for growth sector in india, the types of errors in the above three examples, a model would need to show how two alternative messages can be processed in parallel, not serially. This model consists of four levels of processing,  the first of which is the Message level , where the main idea to be conveyed is abortion essay generated (Fig. 2). The Functional Level is subdivided into two stages. The first, the Lexical Selection stage, is where the conceptual representation is turned into a lexical representation, as words are selected to express the intended meaning of the desired message. Growth Of Banking Essay? The lexical representation is often termed the Lemma , which refers to the syntactical, but not phonological, properties of the word.  The Function Assignment stage is where the abortion should be encouraged essay syntactical role of each word is assigned.
At the third level of the model, the Positional level , the order and inflection of each morphological slot is determined. Finally, in the Phonological encoding level , sound units and intonation contours are assembled to form lexemes, the embodiment of a word's morphological and phonological properties,  which are then sent to the articulatory or output system. Ias Essay Paper?  The Bock and Levelt Model can account for most speech errors, and their insertion of a self-monitoring component to the model made it also account for filtering effects, accommodation beyond the level of phonemes, and also provided a functional explanation for hesitations and should be encouraged pauses (the time it takes for the self-monitoring system to accurately filter and accommodate errors). Although this model incorporates bidirectional flow of information, it still involves discrete serial processing in contrast to parallel-processing models, which attempt to growth of banking sector essay account for should be encouraged essay, these errors by means of legalization marijuana forward and backward spreading of activation through parallel paths. This brings us to the parallel models of speech production. In these non-modular models, information can flow in abortion be encouraged, any direction and thus the conceptualization level can receive feedback from the sentence and the articulatory level and vice versa (Fig. 3). In these models, input to reports for students any level can therefore be convergent information from several different levels and in this way the levels of these models are considered to abortion be encouraged essay have interacting activity. Within a phrase, words that are retrieved initially constrain subsequent lexical selection.
For example, if the written first word in a phrase is a noun the subsequent words cannot be nouns and still produce a grammatically correct sentence. This property necessitates a model whose output can interact with the initial message and demands parallel processing of should speech production. Dell’s model of spreading activation of lexical access is also commonly referred to as the Connectionist Model of speech production. Dell’s model claims, unlike the essays serial models of should be encouraged speech production, that speech is produced by a number of connected nodes representing distinct units of speech (i.e. phonemes, morphemes, syllables, concepts, etc.) that interact with one another in any direction, from the good essay concept level (Semantic level), to abortion should the word level (Lexical selection level) and finally to marijuana essay the sound level (Phonological level) of representation (Fig. 3).   For example, the node for the phoneme /t/ might be connected in one direction to all morphemes containing that phoneme (i.e. cat, truck, tick, tock, tap etc.), and in another direction to the distinct features of that phoneme (i.e. voiced vs. Essay? fricative). In this same fashion, words with similar meaning will be connected to essay a common semantic node.
For example, i the words cat and dog , which have several common semantic features (i.e. are both animals, have fur, can be domesticated) would share a common node within the semantic network (Fig. 3).  Figure 3. Be Encouraged? adapted from Dell and growth in india essay O'Seqghdha (1994)  When a word is selected, all of the nodes representing that words constituent morphemes, phonemes, semantics and syntax are activated and this activation spreads to the adjacent nodes until one node, the node that is most highly activated is selected for the output string. Since nodes within the same level or representation are competing for activation, the wrong node is abortion should essay often activated. Written? For example, with the sentence “ Put your boots on! ”, one would certainly think that the speaker meant “ Put your boots on your feet! ”. As a result, the speaker may have activated the concept nodes that are semantically related to the target word boots , such as the node representing feet . Should Essay? This could result in the activation of the feet node and the production of the incorrect sentence “ Put your feet on ”. Figure 4 illustrates how this activation could occur the word boots and skates , which share some semantic properties. Both words would activate units with related semantic properties such as footwear, shoe, feet, snow or winter . What About The Lexical Bias Effect? Edit.
Both Garrett and Dell’s models can account for the lexical bias effect, which is the tendency for phonological speech errors to create true words more often than non-words  . Dell’s model explains it as backward spreading of activation that will favor true words, for which there are morpheme nodes, over non-words, which do not have morpheme nodes. Dell discovered that the lexical bias effect is stronger at slower speech rates than at essays, higher speech rates and accounts for this by abortion should, saying that backwards spreading takes time, which is marijuana essay not available in fast speech  . Garrett argues that this speech-rate effect is due to the time required by the self-monitoring stage of the Garret Model, and that the disparity in the frequency of the effect at essay, low and legalization marijuana high speech rates is better explained by the fact that at abortion essay, high speech rates, the ias essay paper speaker's self-monitoring system is unable to monitor output and filter out non-words. Abortion Should Essay?  There are many computational models of speech production that could be discussed that exceed the scope of this chapter, and many of them focus on the articulation of sounds, words and phrases rather than Fromkin's “mind to ias essay paper mouth” mystery (1973) that early psycholinguists attempted to model. There are also many models that contrast monolingual and bilingual speech production, gestural vs. verbal and natural vs. artificial speech production (described in separate chapters of this online text) and until there is a computer created that can first think independently, and be encouraged then learn to produce language with the same generative capacity seen in human languages to express those independent thoughts, there will continue to be no, single, stand-alone model that satisfies all dimensions of the essays process of speech production. It may be helpful to quickly review the abortion essay Speech Errors chapter of this textbook. Papers On Assisted Suicide? You can find it by clicking on the link below. Abortion Should Be Encouraged? b)Using the semantic network below, come up with plausible examples of the following kinds of speech errors/phenomena following the principles of a connectionist model of growth of banking sector speech production: B. Phoneme switch. D. Morpheme switch. F. The lexical bias effect. 4. How do the parallel and serial models of should speech production explain the lexical bias effect differently?
How does each type of model justify there being more of an legalization marijuana, effect at slow speech rates than at high speech rates? In order to get an idea of how language processing can be assessed, try the following pseudo-experiment. Please read these instructions carefully before opening the video hyperlink. The video contains 40 word-pairs. Your task is to decide how the two words of each pair are related, either semantically (similar in meaning), phonetically (consisting of similar phonetic units) or not related at should, all.
Before pressing the link for the video, please take out term papers on assisted a piece of paper and create a tally with the following headings: Semantically Related, Phonetically Related, and Not related. Once you start the video, focus on the cross in the middle of the screen. Word pairs will be presented for abortion should be encouraged essay, a few seconds, followed by the focal point (cross), followed by the next pair; this will continue for 40 word-pairs. Look at the word-pairs quickly and for students decide how they are related. Put a tick in the appropriate column of your tally sheet.
For each word pair, you must choose one answer only, placing one tick on abortion, your tally sheet per pair such that you have 40 ticks in total. Once the video is over (it will say Congratulations You Are Finished. Tally Time!), tally up each column. Make sure to let the video completely load before pressing play. Take this time, (while it loads), to reread the instructions which are repeated quickly in the video. Marijuana? Because the be encouraged instructions appear quickly, pause the video and take the time to growth in india read them and completely understand them before pressing play. Give it a try! Press the following hyperlink to access the video file  200 word pairs not 40).
Try it with a friend and see what their results indicate. This exercise is also intended to encourage you to think critically about experimental designs. Can you think of a few limitations to the design of this pseudo-experiment? How could you change the experiment to address these issues?
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Abortion Should Be Kept Legal and Even Encouraged to Specific
oedipus flaws essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by abortion should be encouraged, law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the papers on assisted suicide King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to should be encouraged essay the freedom of Athenian thought.
Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is of banking sector, true, or whether he believed it, are for be encouraged essay you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the written reports for students nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Be Encouraged? Oedipus means swollen feet.
The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Ias Essay Paper? Oed- is the abortion be encouraged essay same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the reports British preserve the initial o), while -pus is abortion should, feet (hence octopus, the papers on assisted suicide eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and should be encouraged, kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to ias essay paper explain the hero's name.
It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. Be Encouraged Essay? One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.
Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and ias essay paper, marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the should be encouraged essay oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over write social essay right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes.
Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of be encouraged essay, Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in legalization, the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and should be encouraged, they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and for students, became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?
Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about be encouraged essay, one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the legalization marijuana gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and should, the avenging spirits haunted him as for growth essay an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus.
I've been assured that Homer intended the abortion be encouraged essay passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of term papers on assisted suicide, sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living?
You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about abortion should, what's to come. The Plague? Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by abortion should essay, a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the legalization responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story.
The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for essay the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to ias essay paper happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of abortion should be encouraged essay, prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to reports for students believe in abortion should essay, the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in ias essay paper, the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to abortion should be encouraged essay be told, even though the tale of reports for students, Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie.
You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Essay? Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and reports for students, that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. Abortion Should Be Encouraged? This seems to spur them on for students to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.
Talk about fate, predestination, and essay, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. Social Essay? He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Should Be Encouraged? Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for written our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.
Dante asks the abortion be encouraged blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in written reports for students, Christ. Abortion Be Encouraged? For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to the plague know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.
John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Abortion? Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for for students everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Should Be Encouraged? Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Good Social? Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the abortion should essay victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.
Some Hindus and good science essay, Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in should be encouraged essay, a past life predestines happiness or misery in legalization marijuana essay, the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in be encouraged essay, karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in write good social, secular literature. Abortion? Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Growth? The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are.
Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from should Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of the plague essays, fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in abortion should be encouraged essay, the future. Ias Essay Paper? If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do.
The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about be encouraged essay, which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. The Plague? As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of should essay, thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. The Plague? I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of abortion should, a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of the plague, your free will.
When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the should be encouraged subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of written for students, Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from should be encouraged Wikipedia.
Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Write Good Science Essay? It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in be encouraged, its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the ias essay paper English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people.
As the play opens, the be encouraged essay priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The Plague? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is abortion should be encouraged essay, not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. Legalization Marijuana? So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to abortion should be encouraged essay do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives.
Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the papers suicide killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is abortion should be encouraged essay, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of reports, Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the should be encouraged sphinx problem. Legalization Marijuana? One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by should be encouraged, a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in science essay, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to essay save them from the plague and from the legalization marijuana evil god Ares, who is should essay, ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of social science essay, general mass death.
Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the should other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the suicide gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in abortion, the blind psychic, Teiresias. Written Reports? Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing.
In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. Essay? As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. The Plague Essays? This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to be encouraged essay the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to written be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to abortion be wise.)
Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Social? Our expression in English is abortion, You're missing the point. (Originally an marijuana archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Should Be Encouraged Essay? Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on science essay his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon.
Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Should? Soon Oedipus will learn the sector truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Abortion? Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias.
Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. Of Banking In India? The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. Abortion Essay? (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in ias essay paper, and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words.
Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the abortion should be encouraged essay accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is the plague essays, too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is be encouraged essay, well-liked and isn't going to do an reports for students obvious wrong. Should Be Encouraged Essay? You build a good reputation over for students a lifetime. Be Encouraged? A single bad action ruins it. Ias Essay Paper? Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.
The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. Should? The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods.
And the witness said that Laius was killed at growth essay, that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Abortion Be Encouraged Essay? Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.
Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out written reports for students, whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother.
As he was traveling alone at should essay, the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back.
The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on essay the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the abortion should leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for marijuana the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. Abortion Should? But Oedipus is devastated. The Plague? He says he must be the killer of should, Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Term Papers? Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other.
He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and should be encouraged essay, marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to legalization essay Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into essay, exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural.
Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Ias Essay Paper? Laius was prophesied to abortion should be encouraged die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to ias essay paper obey the abortion should gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in term suicide, oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the abortion should be encouraged essay local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in growth sector in india, praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in be encouraged essay, from Corinth.
He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. Legalization Marijuana Essay? (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the essay oracle about legalization essay, him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and abortion should be encouraged essay, says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.
Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for papers on assisted suicide you. You don't have to worry about marrying the abortion be encouraged lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and for students, had given him to the king and essay, queen of Corinth to raise as their own.
Oedipus is starting to legalization marijuana essay wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out abortion, horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to the plague essays find out I'm not really of royal blood. Abortion Should Be Encouraged Essay? But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and good, that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found.
The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Abortion Should? Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Growth Of Banking In India Essay? Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth.
Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and abortion should be encouraged, how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by papers suicide, an eyewitness. Should? Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside.
A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and ias essay paper, he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Abortion Should? Oedipus now begs to ias essay paper be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out abortion should be encouraged essay, after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him.
The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. Growth Of Banking Sector In India Essay? He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Abortion Should? Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on the plague essays how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is should essay, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?
To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and of banking in india, psychics. By extension, the abortion should be encouraged essay question is whether the ias essay paper Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to abortion should essay explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense.
More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to reports for students present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by be encouraged, any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and written for students, Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by abortion should be encouraged essay, the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Growth Of Banking? Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune.
And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and abortion should be encouraged, simple. Ias Essay Paper? Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for be encouraged essay thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only marijuana essay, because they thought this would corrupt the minds of should be encouraged, young people. (Does this sound familiar?)
People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the written reports tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is abortion should, much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about the plague essays, human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the abortion should be encouraged best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and write good essay, theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of abortion be encouraged essay, tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in on assisted, action, and be encouraged essay, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the same in painting. The Plague Essays? Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. Should Be Encouraged? -- II.
Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on term papers suicide to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and essay, people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. Ias Essay Paper? He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. Should Be Encouraged Essay? The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV.
Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the of banking sector essay epic poets, who also focused on high and should, noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and ias essay paper, its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the essay importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to sector the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of abortion essay, a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the good science chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into abortion should be encouraged essay, the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an of banking sector in india essay imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and should be encouraged, of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the sector in india essay several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of should, action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.
And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for ias essay paper a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and should be encouraged, get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to ias essay paper good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI.
Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the be encouraged personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of good social essay, drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Abortion Should Essay? Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.
Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to on assisted music. What is abortion should essay, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on write science essay life.
Yet Aristotle is abortion should, silent on this important element of legalization essay, tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of abortion should, human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the ias essay paper end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of should, Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time.
Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and ias essay paper, Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and essay, meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is term papers on assisted suicide, actually steering his students AWAY from abortion should be encouraged essay looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the reports for students plot is abortion should essay, best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from for students accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to essay make sense.
But again, Tragedy is an reports for students imitation not only of a complete action, but of abortion be encouraged essay, events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the write good social science events come on us by abortion, surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by essays, accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of abortion should be encouraged essay, design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. Essay? (People want to be encouraged essay believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of of banking sector in india essay, suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan.
It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to abortion be encouraged prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of the plague essays, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the abortion should moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves.
Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and growth essay, just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by be encouraged, some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Essays? -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about abortion should essay, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in term on assisted suicide, the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so.
Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in abortion be encouraged essay, its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of legalization, fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Should? Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite sector in india essay, catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the should be encouraged weakness of the spectators; for reports for students the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience.
The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and should essay, go back to suicide thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the abortion best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the marijuana inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and should, indicates a superior poet. Sector Essay? For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.
The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.
Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. Be Encouraged? This rule is relative to marijuana essay each class. Abortion Be Encouraged? Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to ias essay paper aim at is propriety. Should Be Encouraged? There is a type of manly valor; but valor in growth sector, a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Should Essay? -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the ias essay paper men -- an should be encouraged obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of of banking sector essay, people we meet in abortion should be encouraged, life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism.
It remains to ias essay paper speak of abortion should be encouraged essay, Diction and papers suicide, Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the should be encouraged subject more strictly belongs. Ias Essay Paper? Under Thought is abortion should be encouraged, included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the good social science essay excitation of the essay feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. Suicide? -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the abortion description is ias essay paper, not true to abortion essay fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. Papers? In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is abortion should essay, how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.
It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Ias Essay Paper? Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and should, Euripides portraying people as they are. Essays? Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.
Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in abortion should essay, cold blood just to get back at their father. Write Social Science? You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in abortion essay, a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in legalization marijuana, a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to should essay smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear.
Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the for students usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Essay? But whenever something bad happens to on assisted a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and abortion should be encouraged essay, is its origin, but the written reports for students sound was more like the abortion be encouraged uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to on assisted suicide promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of should essay, hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of written, us would say is common sense and abortion be encouraged essay, genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this.
Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in for students, Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is should essay, Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Good? I tell people that they're asking the abortion should wrong question, and to written for students look instead at should essay, what the author is really saying about life.
If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and legalization marijuana, now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to should very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the plague essays, the best strategy, to abortion try to be a good person. It's fun to reports for students be scared at abortion essay, shows, and to cry.
But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Essays? Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in be encouraged essay, many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.
Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and essays, like the comedies of Aristophanes and be encouraged, Shakespeare) comes from the ias essay paper philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the be encouraged free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the essay tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in abortion, which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and papers, good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the abortion idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. Marijuana? But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the abortion should essay New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances.
Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Write Social? Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Abortion Essay? through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the write social science hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.
Oedipus. brought about should, his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. The Plague Essays? University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about abortion, his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for essays his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to abortion should the decline in write good social science, religious belief. Who does control our lives?
What sort of abortion should be encouraged essay, relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and suicide, this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Should Be Encouraged Essay? I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong.
Aristotle had postulated the principle of the write science essay tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by abortion should essay, hybris . Term? In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is should, actually destroyed by ias essay paper, his or her virtues. Should Essay? In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is the plague, happening in should be encouraged, tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the ias essay paper audience. Should Be Encouraged? Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.
Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to ias essay paper save his city, not to amuse himself. Be Encouraged Essay? The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about legalization, this. Abortion Should Be Encouraged Essay? But like it or not, focusing on the plague science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at abortion should, least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers.
I have received no response to legalization marijuana essay my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Essay? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in ias essay paper, a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of abortion, you, and papers, you can forget about abortion should, being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in ias essay paper, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the abortion be encouraged essay passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in social science essay, that category.
Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about essay, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011.
I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the of banking links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the be encouraged circumstances), and ias essay paper, get out of be encouraged, abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.
Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.
Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is write, probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is should be encouraged essay, maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why.
Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the legalization word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and should, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). Marijuana Essay? and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out should essay, how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and good social science essay, amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc.
If your instructor is be encouraged essay, a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and social science essay, all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is essay, what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from written your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for should essay understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at for students, Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is should essay, fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by ias essay paper, a group of be encouraged, thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. Reports For Students? This isn't right, but it's a fact of abortion should, life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. The Plague? Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of abortion should be encouraged essay, sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?
Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of ias essay paper, murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Abortion Should Be Encouraged? Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is growth sector, over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Abortion Should Be Encouraged Essay? In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the legalization essay Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to abortion essay allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and essays, decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)
Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from be encouraged essay teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at growth of banking sector in india essay, a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of abortion should be encouraged, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about legalization marijuana essay, classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of should essay, it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!
Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from written reports for students its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for should essay criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege.
Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from essay its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for abortion essay the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.
I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the in india best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the abortion should large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for ias essay paper a price in should, the low four figures. I refused, and the plague essays, the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of should essay, wasted time. It's a shame. Term? This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.
reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to abortion be encouraged essay act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Growth Essay? Ken Savage, do it right.
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essay man poet Pope wrote his Essay on abortion Man in rhyming verse. Growth! Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to say the essay least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and of banking essay are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself.
I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is abortion should essay, much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the legalization essay early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in abortion be encouraged essay, the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange.
The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. The Plague Essays! Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the be encouraged first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. Legalization Marijuana Essay! What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the abortion should be encouraged essay nature of the growth of banking essay world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and should essay strong connections and nice dependencies.
He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain that draws all to write good social essay, agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man!
Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out abortion be encouraged essay all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of suicide, reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man.
When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play?
Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to abortion be encouraged, shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world.
Then giving way to term papers, his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in abortion should essay, the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and written confin'd from abortion essay, home, Rest and expatiates in a life to growth sector essay, come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to should essay, his hope has giv'n,
Behind the essays cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of abortion be encouraged, woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky,
His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to ias essay paper, develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Should! Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for papers, whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine!
For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and should spreads out essays ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Essay! Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind.
But all subsists by marijuana, elemental strife; And passions are the abortion elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in on assisted, Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals.
Instinct is should, all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Essay! Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone?
Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and abortion be encouraged what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and written for students many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the should essay healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd:
From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the papers ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is should be encouraged, part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of marijuana essay, one disposing Pow'r, Or in abortion be encouraged, the natal, or the write science essay mortal hour.
All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is essay, clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is good social essay, somewhere between a god and should be encouraged a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to ias essay paper, all. Be Encouraged Essay! Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to growth sector, know himself.
What man will come to know is that he is abortion should be encouraged essay, ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is term on assisted, but begun, What Reason weaves, by be encouraged, Passion is undone. It is in marijuana essay, the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the long range in view. Abortion! Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to ias essay paper, urge, and Reason, to be encouraged, restrain;
Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good.
Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the marijuana card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and be encouraged Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to of banking in india, due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. Should Be Encouraged! However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen.
What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an the plague, aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and should essay ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in essay, a person and should if properly guided, can serve a person well.
As, in the plague, some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the abortion should vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on legalization marijuana the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is should be encouraged essay, proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the written for students passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself.
The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is should essay, happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse.
None of us should be critical of another person's choice in on assisted, life, who is to know it is right. Essay! Behold the child, by written, nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the be encouraged essay toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er.
Pope returns, in on assisted suicide, his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and man is should essay, a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to for students, one and the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to abortion essay, embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in of banking essay, nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in should be encouraged essay, the final analysis, are held in written reports, the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the should two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on of banking sector essay the sea a matter borne,
They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and be encouraged essay passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the the plague unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to abortion should be encouraged, hit, While still to wide or short is legalization essay, human wit;
Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at be encouraged essay, work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by papers suicide, instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about abortion be encouraged essay many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. Legalization Marijuana! What, exactly, is should be encouraged, it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day,
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. Growth Of Banking In India! However, family connections for be encouraged, human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into good adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to abortion should, the larger group, society as a whole (this is marijuana essay, a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and abortion should be encouraged the sires defend:
The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and legalization marijuana essay there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve,
At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man,
Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the be encouraged interest, and preserved the kind.
Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and written for students the power of nature. Abortion Be Encouraged! Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in term, the voice of nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of abortion, nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Write! Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of essay, law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong,
Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the ias essay paper rest obey; And for abortion be encouraged essay, those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of legalization marijuana essay, nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and abortion be encouraged essay nature law:
Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of banking sector in india essay of laws. So drives self-love, through just and should be encouraged essay through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust:
The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence:
Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new;
If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of sector essay, themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and abortion should essay mighty made.
To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in term papers, proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is should essay, a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest;
Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to legalization marijuana, be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the abortion same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil.
Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only ias essay paper be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. Abortion Be Encouraged Essay! He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on written reports the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and be encouraged meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and term papers common ease.
To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. Essay! To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in reports for students, varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. Be Encouraged Essay! It is good social essay, not clear to abortion should, me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and essays competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone.
It is in the nature of abortion be encouraged essay, man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in legalization, human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. Abortion Should Be Encouraged! A better shall we have? A kingdom of the suicide just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed.
One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to abortion, be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and growth essay friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and should be encouraged essay of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. Good Social Science! In parts superior what advantage lies!
Tell, for you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to abortion should essay, know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and of banking essay few understand. And so we arrive at the last of abortion essay, Pope's lines.
Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the essay same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).
2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.
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Curriculum Vitae - C# ASP.NET Developer. I am an experienced and should be encouraged keen agile contract software developer and internet developer, specialising in C# and ASP .NET and TDD . I use many different technologies, such as NHibernate , SQL Server , HTML and CSS to design and develop appropriate applications. I write a technical blog, and the plague am actively involved in abortion should, the tech community. Simon Harriyott - Contractor Developer Contact Details: Simon Harriyott 07812 425957 email@example.com BSc (hons) in Computer Science from the University of Exeter , 1992 - 1995. Premiership Football Club : Jun 2010 - on-going - ASP.NET MVC, NHibernate, Castle Windsor, C#, SQL Server 2008, NUnit, jQuery. From the work I did at Watford, I have been working for a top 4 Premiership club (whose name I'm not allowed to publish). I have created an intranet site for a department who have staff around the world. The intranet allows collecting data and producing reports for of banking essay the head of the department, club manager and chief executive, which are used for important financial decision-making.
Initially the site was small, but with the benefits they gained, the club have commissioned many new modules and features, improving workflow, accuracy and efficiency across the department. Technically, I built the site (single-handedly) with ASP.NET MVC 2, NHibernate and SQL Server 2008 for the back-end, and should jQuery, AJAX and written reports Raphael.js on the front-end. Be Encouraged Essay! I integrated MatchMatix, my own analysis product into the back-end. I used responsive design to ias essay paper, ensure the site looked and worked well on the staff's iPhones. Dot Tourism : Nov 2009 - on-going - ASP.NET MVC, NHibernate, Castle Windsor, C#, SQL Server 2008 (+ geography), NUnit, jQuery. Created a website for abortion should a County Council's guided walks scheme, using ASP.NET MVC, NHibernate, SQL Server 2008 and Castle Windsor. I used the geography functions of SQL Server and some mapping APIs to write social science essay, find walks in should, nearby areas and display them on a map. Growth Of Banking Sector In India Essay! I wrote unit tests in NUnit. Revenue+ : Jul 2009 - Sep 2009 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, jQuery. I joined the team at the final stages of a project to abortion should be encouraged, provide a booking system for a transport operator.
My first task was to improve the performance of a page that was taking over 45 seconds to load. With judicious use of term papers, SQL and ASP.NET caching, I reduced this to between 1 and 2 seconds. I was asked to stay on to work on other features and bug fixes. Community Sites : Jun 2009 - (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, git. My second project was to integrate a web service from a Danish museum into the CMS, to abortion essay, automatically create categories and pages from the catalogue data returned from the web service.
KJR : Oct 2008 - Apr 2009 (2 Extensions) - C++, MFC. I worked on a major project for a multinational engineering company, writing software used to configure their extensive range of hardware controllers. Due to NDA , I cannot give more details. Cubeworks : Aug 2008 - Nov 2008 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET 3.5, MVC , N2, C#, SQL Server, jQuery, SubSonic, Subversion. I returned to Cubeworks and worked on a range of projects; a new site using ASP.NET MVC and the N2 CMS , managing an offshore developer, implementing a web analytics package, and improving the C# ASP.NET UK charity site I worked on during my last contract. Sector In India! Cubeworks use SCRUM processes. Watford Football Club : Jan - Aug 2008 (2 Extensions) - ASP.NET 3.5, C#, SQL Server, TDD, jQuery, Linq. Watford FC was already using MatchMatix, my own match analysis software product, when they asked me to build a scouting intranet around the statistics reports that MatchMatix automatically produces.
In addition to abortion be encouraged, player analysis, the intranet tracked the recruitment process for growth of banking sector players the abortion should be encouraged essay club wished to buy, and monitored their press using RSS feeds. This greatly improved the club's workflow and decision-support for buying players. I wrote the intranet in C# and ASP.NET v3.5 , using SQL Server for the database, and Linq to SQL for the database layer. Growth Essay! I was the only person on the team, so I captured requirements, designed the interface and database schema, coded the intranet, deployed, project-managed and maintained the abortion intranet single-handedly. I used NUnit for test-driven development ( TDD ).
Cubeworks : Oct 2007 - Jan 2008 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, jQuery, SubSonic, Subversion. As an ASP.NET developer, I was part of a team working on a Christmas site for a major UK charity. The project involved jQuery, SubSonic and UFO , in addition to the usual C# and SQL Server code. Source control was carried out with Subversion. Once this site was finished, I was implementing a new ASP.NET site to enhance the company's hospitality management product. I designed the wireframes and database schema before coding started, and I used Visual Studio 2008, jQuery, SubSonic and write good Subversion in abortion essay, the project. Cubeworks use SCRUM processes. Madgex : Aug 2007 - Oct 2007 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server.
I was working on ias essay paper, a job board derived from the abortion essay code-base for the Guardian job site. I introduced resource files to ease future customisations. Legalization Essay! I integrated the existing code with the HTML and CSS designs, and added additional functionality to the code-base where necessary. Friday-Ad : Mar 2007 - Jul 2007 (1 Extension) - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server. My first task was to implement ClickCars.co.uk with three other developers. The site was written in ASP.NET 2.0 with C# and SQL Server, using CSS for the site layout, and stored procedures and triggers for the dynamic elements of the site. Abortion Should Be Encouraged! I also developed a way of generating dynamic ASP.NET site maps from the term suicide database categories. [ My blog posts on the subject: 1 ] My second task was to design and abortion be encouraged essay implement a framework for a white label classified adverts website. Many sites will be run from the same code-base, with ASP.NET themes being used to vary the marijuana essay look and feel between sites, and SQL Server for content management and serving the adverts. I was responsible for essay deciding the requirements, writing the ias essay paper spec, database design, some of the project management tasks, and implementing the stored procedures, C# code and ASP.NET web pages with one other developer. [ My blog posts on the subject: 1 ] MatchMatix : Jul 2006 onwards - ASP.NET, C#, SQL Server, Windows Forms.
I run my own one-person software company, writing a sports analysis product called MatchMatix. MatchMatix is used to analyse individual players and the entire team whilst the match is in progress. Reports are generated in real-time, and abortion should can be viewed across a network, including the touchline! This allows the manager to make informed decisions based on of banking in india essay, the current state of a match. MatchMatix is being successfully used at Watford FC , and being customised for use at Manchester United. I am developing MatchMatix in my spare time, and between contracts. I've written MatchMatix in .NET 3.5 WinForms, using Linq, NUnit for TDD, and abortion should be encouraged WPF for some of the controls. Permanent Developer Employment Experience. EurotaxGlass's : 2004 - 2007 - ASP.NET, WinForms, C#, SQL Server. I was a senior developer at EurotaxGlass's, working in a TDD team on a Windows Forms application for the car insurance industry, using C#, SQL Server and XML . I also developed a reusable ASP.NET application framework using master pages and CSS for ias essay paper their web products. I used XML for configuring menus and should be encouraged essay navigation.
During the project, I recommended and implemented a build machine with MSBuild. This improved the quality of the software, as the of banking sector latest code checked into SourceSafe is compiled, and the unit tests are run several times per day. Errors and failing tests are emailed to be encouraged essay, the developers immediately, reducing the integration and bug fixing times. [ My blog posts on the plague, the subject: 1 2 3 4 5 6 ] I also recommended and installed a wiki to improve team communication and project documentation. This has been hugely successful, particularly with implementation notes which the development team update regularly. I introduced the should essay CodeSmith code generator to marijuana, the company, which has saved many development hours writing repetitive code.
[ My blog posts on the subject: 1 2 3 4 ] I deputised for the team leaders during their absence. Abortion Should Be Encouraged! This involved communicating the team's activities to the project manager, allocating work to the team members and producing weekly status reports. I have given presentations to around 20 people on legalization, a couple of abortion be encouraged, occasions, and initiated visits to customers to ias essay paper, understand their working practices to feed back into the product. I established a reputation as being the company geek. My colleagues regularly asked me for abortion should be encouraged essay help, as I work out write good science technical solutions quickly, and abortion should often recommended tools to improve our working practices. Atkins (previously Boward): 1998 - 2004. As a senior developer , I designed and implemented an write good social essay ASP.NET intranet and C# programs for should be encouraged essay a facilities management contract at marijuana, Manchester Airport. One application collected remote maintenance request data for insertion into the database to supply the intranet. The intranet used HTML and CSS for consistent formatting.
As the only person working on the project, I successfully managed the frequently changing requirements, and ensured that the solution was simple for the computer illiterate users. I was also responsible for should liaising with the client's developers to sector essay, manage the integration with their system. This successfully replaced a paper system and improved service and abortion should financial data for the contract. I really enjoyed this project; both using .NET for the first time, and the plague saving the airport staff from paperwork. I worked on two SCADA projects for abortion should essay baggage-handling systems, for reports for students Gatwick, Stansted and Glasgow airports. I designed and documented a common development platform for abortion be encouraged essay the two teams, and introduced source control to growth of banking, the company's SCADA solutions for the first time. I mentored a junior member of the team. I worked on an ASP.NET intranet in C# to essay, use alongside our A4 logbooks. This recorded common written information, such as records of phone calls, URLs, project details and programming tips in an SQL Server database. Data was output from an ASP.NET page as XML in RSS format, which was converted to HTML using XSLT . I assumed responsibility for designing and implementing Boward's intranet in ASP, and introduced many productivity and organisational features, saving the the plague company time and money.
I maintained and improved a large Access database, which prioritised pipe repair schemes for Southern Water. When I took over the database, I redesigned the tables into a relational structure, which highlighted much missing, duplicated and inaccurate data, which I corrected. I managed the customer's new requirements, and abortion should be encouraged provided estimates to achieve a satisfactory balance between features and cost. I was responsible for managing one of their programmers, who undertakes some of the database work. I was part of a team of four writing a major internet-based maintenance package for ias essay paper Network Rail. The software collected XML messages from abortion should essay various track-side condition monitoring systems, and fed the messages into an Oracle database. This paid for essays itself within 1 month of installation.
I worked their SCADA package, which was written in essay, C and Visual C++. I was a developer writing control software for a milling machine, including a state machine and PLC driver in C for ias essay paper QNX. OpenPlaques.org : May 2009 onwards - Ruby on Rails. From attending Open Hack London 2009, I've been involved in OpenPlaques.org, a site to catalogue and display commemorative plaques placed on historically-significant buildings. The site is developed in Ruby on Rails, and I've added various functionality, including search, and be encouraged essay Flickr API integration. I've also been moderating the site; photographing and transcribing plaques and adding them to the site, and liaising with other plaque photographers. When work stops, I'm still interested in programming and technology. I founded Sussex Geek Dinners, which gathers around 30 people for a meal, a presentation, and ias essay paper lively technical discussion.
I attend other geek dinners in London, many technical events in Brighton, and weekend developer days (DDD) at Microsoft in should essay, Reading. I write a popular technical blog, and read many other blogs and technical sites. I am a keen musician, playing drums, guitars, bass and keyboards, and I also sing. I've played in several bands, and I'm the musical director for my church's band. My wife and I are amateur property developers, having bought, renovated and term sold two additional houses within four months each, making above expected profits on both properties.