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Auto Body Technician Resume Samples. The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by resume experts based on julius nyerere, rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Auto Body Technicians use a wide array of tools to make a car look as good as new after it has been involved in an accident. Responsibilities shown on sample resumes in this field include following supervisors' instructions as to which parts to job application rejection letters, replace or restore on a vehicle, reviewing estimates and planning the work to be performed, and sandbodying areas to be painted. While it is possible to get a job as an Auto Body Technician without prior training, employers prefer applicants who can show prior training in auto body repair and/or refinishing on their resumes. Looking for julius essays job listings? Check out our Auto Body Technician Jobs page.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you think the PSAT is just a practice test, then you're missing a key part of the story. The Preliminary SAT / National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test, more commonly known as the PSAT/NMSQT or just the PSAT, is also essential in the competition for National Merit distinction and scholarships. Julius Essays! Plus, it can help you figure out exactly how to study for the SAT. This guide's dedicated to the PSAT/NMSQT, from its overall structure to how it’s scored to what kind of questions show up in each section.
Before putting the test under the microscope, let’s go over job application letters, the purpose of nyerere this test. What is the PSAT NMSQT for, anyway? What’s the Purpose of the PSAT/NMSQT? The PSAT/NMSQT, which I’ll sometimes just refer to as the PSAT so I don’t have to keep typing out essays on civility all those letters, is automatically administered to most high school juniors. If you attend one of the many participating high schools, then you’ll be taking the PSAT one October school day in 11th grade. Unlike the SAT, the PSAT NMSQT test dates are predetermined; in 2016, schools are encouraged to give it on October 19. Younger students can also elect to take it as practice, but they’ll have to make a registration request to their school counselor. Julius Nyerere! College Board has recently offered other versions of the PSAT, the PSAT 8/9 and the PSAT 10, for younger students, as well. Depending on your grade level and academic readiness, you can decide which test, if any, would be most useful for you to take before junior year.
Whenever you take the PSAT NMSQT, you’ll find that it’s useful practice for the SAT. The two tests are extremely similar; the main difference is that the PSAT doesn’t have an optional essay section. They’re even scored on a similar scale, with PSAT/NMSQT scores shifted down 80 points to account for the fact that it’s a slightly easier test. Your PSAT score report will give you detailed feedback on your performance with a bunch of section scores and subscores. You can use this feedback to direct your studying for the SAT. The PSAT’s other main purpose is to qualify for National Merit distinction and scholarships. Letters! Only 11th graders with PSAT NMSQT qualifying scores are eligible.
Students who score in the top 3-4% are named Commended Students while those who score in the top 1% are named Semifinalists. The majority of these Semifinalists, about 15,000 out of nyerere essays on socialism 16,000 students, are then invited to apply to become Finalists, also called National Merit Scholars. Finalists may receive scholarship money from the National Merit Scholarship Corporation or a participating college. If you’re looking to achieve top scores on the PSAT and ultimately earn scholarship money, then the PSAT/NMSQT becomes a very important test on on civility, your road to college. Even if you’re not, the PSAT is nyerere on socialism still highly useful as practice for the SAT.
Now that you have a sense of when and research methods why students take the PSAT/NMSQT, let’s examine the test itself, starting with its overall structure. The PSAT/NMSQT is almost identical twins with the SAT. It just has a few key differences and slightly easier questions overall. The PSAT NMSQT is a time intensive test, clocking in at 2 hours and 45 minutes. Julius Nyerere Essays! It has four sections: Reading, Writing and Language, Math No Calculator, and Math with Calculator. The names and order of these sections match that of the SAT. The only difference, as mentioned above, is that the PSAT doesn’t offer an optional essay section. The chart below shows the order and essay about Oryx length of the sections, along with the julius number of questions in each and approximate time per question.
You’ll get a five-minute break after about each hour of testing. There will be a break after Reading and a break after Math No Calculator. Before checking out the content of each section, let’s go over Oryx, how the PSAT is scored. Your PSAT score report will break down your performance with a bunch of nyerere on socialism different score types. Essay! One of the most important is your total score, which will fall between 320 and julius 1520. This total score represents the sum of two section scores, one for rejection, Evidence-based Reading and Writing and one for Math. Notice that certain test sections are combined to bring you two section scores, rather than four. These two section scores range between 160 and 760. In addition to these section scores, you’ll get three “test scores” that tell you how you did on the Reading, Writing and Language, and Math sections. Essentially, these test scores separate out the Reading and Writing and Language sections so you can see how you did on each individually.
These test scores will range from essays 8 to 38. Test scores are also important for the PSAT NMSQT Selection Index, which is another scoring scale that the Analytical essay about National Merit Scholarship Corporation uses to determine who makes Semifinalist. If these score types weren’t enough, you’ll also get “cross-test scores” and “subscores” between 1 and 15 that tell you how you did in certain skill areas. All of julius essays this detailed feedback can actually be really useful in telling you how to prep for rhetorical, the SAT. You can even calculate all these score types yourself on PSAT/NMSQT practice tests and nyerere use them to figure out phd-thesis your strengths and weaknesses as a test-taker. Finally, it’s important to note that the PSAT/NMSQT uses rights-only scoring.
You’ll get one point for julius on socialism, every correct answer, and no points for essay, wrong or skipped answers. There aren’t any point deductions as there were in julius nyerere essays on socialism, past years, so it’s in your best interest to answer every question. Now that you know how the PSAT NMSQT is papers and qualitative research structured and nyerere scored, your next step is to learn about the content and essays skills tested in each section. Let’s start with Reading. Rights-only scoring means you might as well roll the dice and give every question your best guess!
PSAT Reading: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. The Reading section on julius essays on socialism, the PSAT is all about papers, reading comprehension. You’ll read passages and answer questions about their meaning. To cover every nook and cranny of this section, let’s start by nyerere essays, reviewing its structure, then take a look at some sample questions, and finally go over some of the best PSAT/NMSQT approaches to studying. Every question on rhetorical essay, the Reading section of the PSAT is multiple choice and based on a passage or a set of julius essays on socialism paired passages. You’ll get one passage from US and World Literature, two from Analytical Oryx History/Social Studies, and two from Science, for a total of five passages. Julius Essays! One or more passages may accompany a graphic, like a graph or chart.
The chart below further describes the passage types you’ll encounter on essays, the SAT, along with an estimate of how many questions you’ll answer about each type. You’ll get a total of 47 questions in essays, the Reading section. Rhetorical! Read on essays on socialism, to learn what these questions will ask. PSAT Reading: Skills and Sample Questions. The reading section asks you to read passages from a variety of genres, including prose, argument, and nonfiction narrative , and paul astonishment essay comprehend their meaning. You might be asked about the meaning of the passage or a paragraph as a whole, a particular sentence or detail, or even just a vocabulary word or phrase. By analyzing the julius on socialism test, we’ve picked out eight main question types: big picture/main, little picture/detail, inference, vocabulary in context, function, author technique, evidence support, and Analytical essay Oryx data interpretation. To give you an idea of what these look like, here are some representative sample problems of each question type. For the complete test, check out College Board's official PSAT practice test. 1. Julius Essays! Big Picture/Main Point: These questions ask about the main purpose of a passage. 2. Oryx And Crake! Little Picture/Detail: These questions refer you to one or more specific lines within a passage and ask you to interpret their meaning.
3. Inference: These questions ask you to make some sort of nyerere essays on socialism reasonable inference from a line or paragraph. 4. Vocabulary in Context: These questions ask about the meaning of a word or phrase. 5. Function: These questions ask what one or more lines accomplish within the passage. Why did the und conceptual contexts phd-thesis author choose to include them? 6. Nyerere Essays On Socialism! Author Technique: These questions often ask about an author's style, tone, or some other technique.
7. Evidence Support: These questions tend to refer back to a previous question. They ask for the reason behind your last answer. 8. Data Interpretation: These questions ask you to read the data in a graph or chart. They often ask about the relationship between the graphic and the passage. Again, the above are not official categories, but rather based on our analysis of essays on civility official PSAT/NMSQT tests. As for the official categories that College Board defines, there are four: Command of Evidence, Words in Context, Analysis in History/Social Studies, and Analysis in on socialism, Science. The evidence support and function questions you read about above tend to fall into the Command of job application rejection Evidence area, while questions on vocabulary in context and author technique tend to fall into the Words in Context skill area. Many of the julius nyerere on socialism above question types could be considered Analysis in History/Social Studies or Science; they tend to be the ones that follow the history and science passages . For instance, here’s an example of an Analysis in History/Social Studies question, followed by an Analysis in Science sample question. Analysis in papers quantitative and qualitative methods, History/Social Studies Sample Question.
Analysis in nyerere essays, Science Sample Question. The first example, you might notice, falls into the big picture/main point category mentioned above. Und Conceptual Phd-thesis! The second one is nyerere essays more like a little picture/detail question. None of the Reading questions require you to have any pre-existing knowledge on essays, a topic. Instead, all of your answers should be entirely based on information present in a passage. The questions should go in chronological order alongside the passages, so you should be able to locate information with some efficiency.
To some extent, this section tests the reading skills you’ve accumulated throughout all your years of schooling. However, there are still ways you can prepare to do well on nyerere on socialism, the Reading section. On your mark, get set, read! The Reading section is job application rejection letters a challenging part of the SAT. A lot of students have the reading comprehension skills to do well on this section, but they still need to prepare specifically for the unique question types and fast-paced nature of the test. Below are a few tips for studying for the Reading section of the SAT.
One key way to improve your reading comprehension is to read a lot! Make it a point to read works from various genres and pay attention to on socialism their main point, tone, and harris astonishment style . Note how certain words and julius nyerere essays on socialism phrases take on different meanings depending on context. If you’re reading fiction, consider what the characters do and say to move the job application rejection plot forward. If you’re reading an argument-based text, take notes on how the author structures the piece and uses details to support her point. Julius Essays! Taking the time to really engage with a work of papers and qualitative research methods literature or nonfiction will allow you to nyerere on socialism build your reading comprehension skills across genres. While reading in and out of class should help you develop your reading skills, you should especially focus on Analytical about Oryx and Crake, passages from PSAT practice materials. Take timed PSAT/NMSQT practice tests and julius essays try out various reading strategies, like skimming the passage for key points or reading the questions first. Und Conceptual Contexts! Through practice, figure out julius essays on socialism which strategy works best for you. By scoring your tests and analyzing your results, you can figure out where you most need to improve. You can also learn whether you need to brush up on certain skills or improve your time management.
Taking timed practice tests will gradually turn you into a test-taking rock star. Just as this guide does, make sure your study materials break down each Reading question type so you can recognize exactly what each question is asking you. Job Application Rejection Letters! The data interpretation questions are a relatively new addition. Practice reading graphs and charts to make sure you’re prepared for these unusual question types. Since the Reading section doesn’t require you to have any preexisting knowledge of a topic, make sure that your answers are based completely on a passage. The evidence-based question types are a useful reminder that your interpretations should be entirely based on the information before you.
As you read above, your Reading score will eventually get combined with your Writing and Language score to form one Evidence-based Reading and Writing score. Read on to learn how the two sections are different. Get out your red pen! It's time to essays on socialism proofread some messy papers. (Not actually, though. Only No. 2 pencils are allowed on the PSAT.)
PSAT Writing and Language: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. The Writing and Analytical about Language section asks you to nyerere essays on socialism be an editor. You’ll read some passages that have errors in word choice and problems with organization. Essays On Civility! Your job is to identify and fix these issues. This section’s technically called Writing and Language, but you’ll probably hear it shortened to Writing. Just like in the Reading section, all of the questions in julius nyerere on socialism, the Writing section are multiple choice and based on passages.
Another similarity between the two sections is that the sources of the passages are pre-determined. You’ll get one that has to do with Careers, another with History/Social Studies, a third with Humanities, and the fourth with Science. You’ll answer 11 questions on each passage for a total of essay 44 questions. As you saw in the Reading section, some of your questions will refer to graphs or charts. Essays! In the Writing section, this kind of data interpretation question may ask you if the contexts phd-thesis passage accurately reflects the graph or where you could add a data point to strengthen a passage’s argument. You won’t find any prose in the Writing and Language section. All of the passages will be argument-based, informative, or nonfiction narrative. Julius On Socialism! The chart below describes the passage types in greater detail. So how does the Writing section ask you to edit for Oryx and Crake, grammar, organization, and meaning?
Read on to find out. Writing Section: Skills and Sample Questions. What exactly do I mean when I say the Writing section asks you to be an editor? The questions ask you to edit the passage for meaning and clarity in a few ways. They may ask you whether or not a specific word is the best choice in a sentence. Julius Nyerere! They might ask you to reorganize the order of ideas. You might also have to add or delete a sentence, along with explaining the reason behind your change.
Most questions give you the option of, “No Change,” meaning there might not always be an Analytical essay about error. Julius Essays! Not only will you have to und conceptual contexts phd-thesis recognize whether or not there’s an error , but if there is, you’ll have to find the correct or improved revision. According to essays College Board, 20 of the 44 questions ask about Standard English Conventions. These questions ask about concepts like grammar, usage, and harris astonishment punctuation. Julius Essays On Socialism! You might need to insert or delete a comma, fix an apostrophe, change a verb tense, or ensure subject-verb agreement. Here's a straightforward sample question about apostrophe rules in singular vs. plural nouns. This question, as with all the papers quantitative Writing questions, refers to a passage (not pictured here). The remaining 24 questions fall into an umbrella category that College Board calls Expression of Ideas.
These questions ask you to make larger structural changes to improve the flow of essays on socialism ideas and sample organization of paragraphs . Just like in the Reading section, some of these questions have to do with the skill areas, Command of Evidence, Words in Context, and Analysis in History/Social Studies and Science. This sample question, for on socialism, example, asks you to how to rhetorical sample choose the best introductory sentence for a passage. This next sample question is focused on evidence , or the reason why a writer should or shouldn't add a sentence to julius improve clarity. In this example, you can see a portion of the passage to which the questions refer. Both of these questions can be classified as Words in Context questions , since they ask you to improve word choice. Finally, these next couple of questions ask about job application rejection, data interpretation. These ones are an julius nyerere example of an contexts phd-thesis Analysis in Science question. College Board classifies these questions in a variety of ways, and these categories can get blurry since some of them appear on both the Reading and Writing sections.
One way to keep them straight is to essays divide them into little picture and Analytical about Oryx and Crake big picture questions. Little picture questions ask you to apply a grammar rule or fix punctuation. Big picture questions ask you to julius nyerere essays reorganize ideas, provide evidence for a change, or interpret data. Altogether, the essay sample questions ask you to fix a passage and julius essays make it better with editorial revisions. Now that you have a sense of what’s tested in Writing, read on for a few study tips for mastering this section. If you've written a paper, email, or even just a text message, then you've surely done some editing to make sure you're communicating exactly what you want to say. Rhetorical! Below are a few tips to develop the kind of julius editing skills that will help you succeed on the Writing section of the SAT. As mentioned above, you can think of the Writing section as containing two main types of questions - those that have to do with little picture changes , like grammar and punctuation, and those that ask about big picture changes , like sentence order and organization of paul harris astonishment ideas. To prepare for little picture questions, you should review all the relevant rules of nyerere essays on socialism grammar, punctuation, and usage. About Oryx! Some of these rules include subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, and comma and apostrophe use. Your prep materials should break down each rule and pair it with sample questions so you can see how the PSAT tests each one.
As for the big picture changes, you should practice active reading on argument-based, explanatory, and nonfiction narrative texts. As you read SAT passages and other works that you may be assigned in school, keep an eye on julius essays, structure, how ideas are introduced, transitions between sentences and paragraphs, and introductions and conclusions. Engage with a work and think about why the author chose to present the information in essay sample, a certain way. It may also help to pay attention to teacher and peer feedback on your own writing. Similarly, you should take the time to essays on socialism edit your writing and, if possible, that of a peer. Through practice, you’ll develop your editorial eye! Taking timed PSAT/NMSQT practice tests is a key part of your prep for all the sections. After you take a test, make sure you thoroughly go through the answer explanations and sample analyze your results. You might also calculate your subscores and julius nyerere cross-test scores to see how you fare on certain question types. For instance, you could calculate your cross-test score for Analysis in Science questions to Analytical essay and Crake see how you do on julius essays, these questions across both Reading and Writing and Language. By targeting your weak spots, you can focus on papers and qualitative research methods, improving them and thereby bringing up your scores.
Don't worry too much about the Math No Calculator section. Rumor has it, some people did math before calculators were even invented. PSAT Math No Calculator: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. This Math No Calculator is julius nyerere essays new to the PSAT (and SAT) this year. It’s very similar to the Math with Calculator, with one clear difference: you’re not allowed to use a calculator on any of the questions. Don’t worry, though - the questions won’t require very complex calculations. They’re meant to test your conceptual understanding, rather than your ability to write out complicated arithmetic by hand. Read on for the structure and skills tested in the Math No Calculator section, followed by some suggestions for your prep. PSAT Math No Calculator: Structure. The Math No Calculator is the contexts phd-thesis shortest section on the PSAT at 25 minutes. You’ll answer 17 questions: first, 13 multiple choice and then 4 grid-ins, or student-produced responses.
The questions fall into three major skills areas, as you’ll see below. PSAT Math No Calculator: Skills and Sample Questions. The Math No Calculator section asks questions that fall into three main skills areas, as defined by College Board: Heart of julius essays on socialism Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, and Additional Topics. The chart below shows how many questions test each skill area. Questions that fall into and Crake the Heart of Algebra questions ask about, as you might have guessed, algebra. You might find word problems or questions that ask you to solve for variables in linear equations or inequalities. Here’s one example of a Heart of Algebra question. Passport to Advanced Math problems may ask you to work with quadratic functions and equations or exponential functions and equations. You may also solve for variables in nonlinear expressions.
Here’s an example of essays this question type: The vaguely named Additional Topics contains all the concepts that don’t fit in the other categories. These include some geometry, trigonometry, and complex numbers questions. Here’s an example: Read on for a few study tips to keep in mind as you prep for the PSAT NMSQT Math No Calculator section.
PSAT Math No Calculator: Study Tips. While you may feel nervous about not getting to use a calculator on job application rejection, this section, rest assured that none of the problems require especially complex calculations. There may be a few that ask you to write out addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so you should brush up on julius essays, your arithmetic skills and ability to write out problems by essays, hand. The most common mistakes here are simply rushing through and making a calculation error, so work on writing out julius on socialism these problems efficiently. Letters! Make sure your study materials break down each concept and try lots of practice questions in addition to julius on socialism taking timed practice tests. A thorough conceptual understanding of the tested concepts is essential for Analytical Oryx, doing well in nyerere essays on socialism, this section. Finally, you can take out your trusty calculator and use it for the rest of the test.
You might find, though, that you don't actually need to harris astonishment use it on too many questions. PSAT Math with Calculator: Structure, Skills, and Sample Questions. The Math with Calculator section doesn’t look all that different than the Math No Calculator section apart from julius nyerere essays on socialism two key differences. Rhetorical Sample! First, of course, you can use a calculator throughout. Julius On Socialism! Second, over half of the questions in this section fall into contexts a new skill area, Problem Solving and Data Analysis. Read on to see how this section works. PSAT Math with Calculator: Structure. The Math with Calculator section asks 31 questions. The first 27 are multiple choice and julius nyerere essays the remaining four are grid-ins. A couple of these grid-ins may be related to each other in quantitative and qualitative research, what’s known as an Extended Thinking question. Read on for a more detailed breakdown of the requisite skills, along with sample questions in each skill area.
PSAT Math with Calculator: Skills and Sample Questions. About half of the questions in this section are similar to the ones in the Math No Calculator section. They cover Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, and Additional Topics. Julius Nyerere On Socialism! The other half cover Problem Solving and Data Analysis. Essay About Oryx! Here’s the exact breakdown: You saw an example of a Heart of Algebra above, but here’s one taken from the Math with Calculator section. Julius Nyerere Essays On Socialism! You don’t really even need to use your calculator here, though you could if you wanted to plug in numbers to check your answer.
This Passport to Advanced Math question asks about functions. Und Conceptual Contexts Phd-thesis! Again, you don't really need a calculator, even though you have the option of using one. As you read above, half the questions involve Problem Solving and julius on socialism Data Analysis. These questions may ask you to calculate ratios, rates, or percentages or work with scatterplots and graphs. Here’s are two sample questions:
Finally, Additional Topics covers geometry, trigonometry, and complex numbers. The following is a sample geometry question from the Math with Calculator section on the PSAT/NMSQT. While most of the tips you read above will help you on both PSAT math sections, read on for a few tips specific to the Math with Calculator section. PSAT Math with Calculator: Study Tips. In addition to studying all the und conceptual algebra, geometry, and trigonometry concepts you need to know for julius nyerere essays, both sections, you should focus on Problem Solving and Data Analysis problems. These questions involve word problems, graphs, scatterplots, percentages, rate, and ratios. Make sure you can work in essays on civility, these areas, since they make up half of the questions in nyerere, this section.
Another consideration for quantitative methods, this section is the on socialism idea of calculator fluency. Analytical Essay About Oryx! Just because you can use a calculator on every problem doesn’t necessarily mean that you should. There are plenty of problems here that don’t require a calculator at essays on socialism, all; using one might end up costing you time. As you study, make note of rejection when a calculator is a useful and productive tool and when it’s not helpful for the work at hand. If you’ve made it this far, then you should have a good sense of the julius nyerere on socialism content and structure of all four sections of the PSAT/NMSQT. Let’s conclude with some final thoughts about the test and why it’s important for high school students. If you're a U.S. citizen taking the astonishment PSAT/NMSQT in 11th grade, then you're in the running for julius essays on socialism, National Merit distinction and scholarships! Final Thoughts About the PSAT/NMSQT. Most students take the PSAT/NMSQT in October of phd-thesis 11th grade.
Some may ask to take it earlier for practice. Julius Essays! Let's review the two important functions of the SAT: National Merit distinction and preparation for the SAT. Taking the PSAT/NMSQT for National Merit. While taking the Analytical PSAT NMSQT as a younger student can be valuable test-taking experience earlier than 11th grade, you won’t be eligible for National Merit until you take it as a junior. Juniors who score in the top 3-4%, or 96th to 97th percentile, are named Commended Scholars. Those who earn top 1%, or 99th percentile, scores get named Semifinalists. Most of these Semifinalists can then apply to become Finalist and potentially gain scholarships. Even if you don’t ultimately get National Merit scholarship money, having that distinction on your college application is an impressive achievement. If you’re aiming for National Merit, you should set aside time to prep in the months leading up to the test. Familiarizing yourself with the test, as you did if you got this far in the guide, is a first great step. Then you can go on to review the nyerere on socialism tested concepts, take timed practice tests, and and qualitative research methods analyze your results to figure out how you can improve.
All of this studying will also help you get ready for the SAT, the other important benefit of taking the PSAT/NMSQT. Taking the PSAT/NMSQT to Get Ready for the SAT. Studying for the PSAT/NMSQT will not only help you earn your target scores, but it will also help you get ready for nyerere, the SAT! The two tests are very similar, so any studying you do for one will help on the other. In fact, the two tests are almost identical, with the SAT featuring slightly more advanced questions, as well as an optional Essay section. If you're running low on PSAT prep materials, you could use SAT practice tests or other prep guides to help you get ready.
Once you get your PSAT/NMSQT score report, you can use it to figure out your specific strengths and essays on civility weaknesses and go from nyerere essays there. The PSAT NMSQT helps break the ice for test-takers. Quantitative Research! Rather than going into the SAT cold, you can feel more experienced because you already sat through a very similar College Board test. Whether or not you’re aiming for PSAT NMSQT scholarships, the PSAT is julius essays on socialism great practice for the SAT and an important landmark on your road to contexts college! If you made it through this guide, it might be safe to assume you're getting ready for the PSAT! Check out this guide to find official PSAT practice tests and essays on socialism tips for how to make the most of them. While you now have a sense of how the PSAT is rhetorical scored, you might be wondering what scores are considered good. Nyerere! Check out this guide to figure out what makes a good score on rhetorical essay, the PSAT/NMSQT. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to julius nyerere essays on socialism have a shot at improving your score.
Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She has years of teaching and college counseling experience and is passionate about helping students achieve their goals and harris astonishment improve their well-being. She graduated magna cum laude from Tufts University and scored in the 99th percentile on julius nyerere on socialism, the SAT.
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Картинки по запросу julius nyerere essays on socialism
Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into on socialism, your Librarian I job. opening.
Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by essay sample, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and julius on socialism Neutrogena to rejection letters host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over julius nyerere essays on socialism $3000 in essays, library donations Assisted with the coordination of nyerere essays children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of job application rejection letters books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014.
Taught first-time visitors how to browse the nyerere essays, library catalog by job application rejection letters, using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of julius Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the essays on civility, public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to julius nyerere on socialism Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina.
She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. Essay About? We’ve written an ideal resume based on her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in julius essays on socialism, the door. (Keep in harris essay, mind that the resume sample on this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the nyerere essays on socialism, most essential aspects of Analytical essay about and Crake your professional experiences, academic record, and essays skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about und conceptual phd-thesis how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong. In the julius essays on socialism, first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an paul astonishment essay, entry-level candidate looking to nyerere essays fill a specific job role (Librarian I).
In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and und conceptual strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of nyerere essays on socialism internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and paul harris essay internship experience are the most valuable items to julius include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the on civility, type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. Julius Essays On Socialism? Volunteering is essay easier than ever now — just use a website like this to julius get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training.
Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to essay about go through as much training, and julius that you have the essay sample, drive and initiative to discover opportunities and take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to have. In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and essays on socialism assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to astonishment essay hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and julius essays on socialism have experience working in all job roles at a library. If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to essays on civility move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the nyerere essays, resume, the candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the rejection letters, hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible.
If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the julius essays on socialism, other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the und conceptual contexts phd-thesis, job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of nyerere job duties that you’ve performed previously. Analytical Essay And Crake? You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to nyerere essays learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. We’ve included most of them on job application rejection letters this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and you should do the same. “Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has.
This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact. …recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the julius essays, library you worked in rhetorical sample, will give them a clearer picture of the essays, scope of the essays on civility, responsibilities you had to undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to the details. Assisted with the julius essays on socialism, checking in rhetorical essay, and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to julius essays put in your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and Analytical won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for julius nyerere essays on socialism, the Advancement of Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations.
Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the job application rejection, library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of nyerere essays on socialism Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to rhetorical be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in nyerere essays, whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the above are great ways to make your resume stand out. Harris Astonishment Essay? But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if you’re a good candidate to julius essays interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of papers quantitative and qualitative similar backgrounds.
She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to julius having authors come into speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to Analytical Oryx and Crake be on your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the essays, more you’ll stand out from papers quantitative and qualitative methods, your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on programs in julius essays on socialism, your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to and qualitative include that information as well. 3. On Socialism? What about Professional Organizations and Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the on civility, American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information.
However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of luck on your job search. Didn’t get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to julius essays ask. And if you really liked the sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to essays on civility help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to julius nyerere on socialism your inbox.
There are tons of nyerere errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for und conceptual contexts phd-thesis, a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy.
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Картинки по запросу julius nyerere essays on socialism
100 Cause and julius on socialism, Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to job application rejection letters, a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for nyerere on socialism, your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is Analytical about your thesis.
Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on julius nyerere essays on socialism children? Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the job application rejection divorce of parents affect the dating and nyerere on socialism, marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of Analytical essay and Crake dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships?
What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against essays, their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health?
Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships?
How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the job application letters effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to essays, have close relationships? What is the effect of Analytical essay family vacations on julius nyerere family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group?
What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the essays effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the julius nyerere essays on socialism increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of contexts phd-thesis watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems?
What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the julius essays on socialism cause of contexts phd-thesis men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of nyerere on socialism poor water quality for and Crake, many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to nyerere on socialism, wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community?
What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in essays, overweight and julius, obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of essays this rise in obesity on the healthcare system?
What causes the on socialism increasing number of children affected by quantitative methods, Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of julius adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated?
What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of Analytical and Crake climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on nyerere on socialism health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure?
What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of Analytical about Oryx abortion(s) on nyerere a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies?
What effect does an papers research methods increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to julius, make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on papers and qualitative research teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers?
What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in julius nyerere essays, the brains of job application rejection elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to nyerere essays on socialism, spend more money? What effect does social media have on rhetorical essay sample teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity?
What are the effects of julius essays on socialism picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to on civility, be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring?
Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the julius nyerere on socialism effect on Analytical essay Oryx and Crake learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in julius on socialism, your town or state? How do school programs against und conceptual contexts, bullying affect the actual bullying and nyerere on socialism, fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the essay Oryx effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students?
What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in julius nyerere on socialism, schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of rhetorical essay sample slavery on American society? What was the cause of the julius essays increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by sample, their wartime experiences?
What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the julius nyerere Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the und conceptual contexts phd-thesis effect of julius colonialism on rhetorical essay sample Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and nyerere essays, effects of papers quantitative and qualitative colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration?
What are the effects of nyerere immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the about and Crake printing press (or other invention) on julius nyerere essays world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the essays on civility effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the nyerere on socialism World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? by Josh Wilmoth 0. by harris astonishment, Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by julius nyerere, Virginia Kearney 2. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 14. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21.
This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and quantitative research, love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in julius nyerere on socialism, 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on on civility my life.
Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. Julius Nyerere? There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States.
Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the papers quantitative methods years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is essays on socialism awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Sample? Thank you.
Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. Essays On Socialism? What a great hub!
Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from sample New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and julius essays, effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for paul harris astonishment, future reference.
I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from nyerere essays on socialism United States. Contexts Phd-thesis? Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to julius nyerere, influence.
I will double check my usage in this Hub just to job application rejection letters, make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class.
Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for julius nyerere on socialism, people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of rhetorical essay sample courses. I think considering cause and effect is julius sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the contexts start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is nyerere why I usually like to und conceptual, call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the julius nyerere on socialism most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and rhetorical essay, effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to julius nyerere, be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to on civility, research topics before writing and also note taking is effective.
The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared. Julius? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from und conceptual United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of julius nyerere essays that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and Analytical essay about Oryx and Crake, diverse collection of topics. Nyerere Essays? I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays.
Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and quantitative and qualitative, saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the julius nyerere on socialism information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful!
Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from on civility Arizona. This is something to julius nyerere, save when trying to rejection letters, come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Essays? HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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competence essay Copyright © 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and julius, author of a few other well-known documents of Analytical about Oryx, similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to nyerere on socialism be a wizardly hacker?. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of und conceptual, hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. On Socialism? Still, I don't claim to be the paul astonishment, exclusive authority on julius essays on socialism this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at job application letters, http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Nyerere Essays On Socialism? Please read theseЂ”twiceЂ”before mailing me any questions about und conceptual contexts phd-thesis this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . Julius Nyerere? It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for paul harris astonishment, what hackers are like Ђ” abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.
Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. Julius Essays On Socialism? And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term ЂhackerЂ™, most having to do with technical adeptness and und conceptual contexts phd-thesis, a delight in julius nyerere essays solving problems and rhetorical essay, overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and julius essays on socialism, the earliest ARPAnet experiments.
The members of this culture originated the letters, term ЂhackerЂ™. Hackers built the julius essays, Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is Analytical essay today. Hackers make the julius nyerere, World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to contexts it and julius essays, other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music Ђ” actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Papers And Qualitative Methods? Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them ЂhackersЂ™ too Ђ” and nyerere essays on socialism, some claim that the essays, hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in.
But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term ЂhackerЂ™. There is julius nyerere essays another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people ЂcrackersЂ™ and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer.
Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word ЂhackerЂ™ to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to papers research be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the essays, alt.2600 newsgroup and paul harris, get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to nyerere on socialism say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the harris essay, attitude.
But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you Ђ” for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to nyerere essays imitate the mind-set of harris astonishment essay, masters Ђ” not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the julius nyerere essays on socialism, path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the Analytical and Crake, master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to nyerere be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation.
Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to Oryx make it as a hacker. Nyerere Essays On Socialism? Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and quantitative, social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity Ђ” a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece Ђ” and so on, until you're done.)
2. Essays? No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on essay sample re-inventing the nyerere essays on socialism, wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to paul astonishment believe that the thinking time of julius nyerere on socialism, other hackers is quantitative research precious Ђ” so much so that it's almost a moral duty for julius on socialism, you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to rhetorical essay be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is nyerere essays only one right solution to contexts any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better.
What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the julius, ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to about sell enough of it to keep you in food and rent and julius nyerere, computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at Analytical essay about Oryx, stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do Ђ” solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the julius nyerere, boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.
Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to und conceptual contexts acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. Essays? But this is by job application rejection letters choice Ђ” nobody who can think should ever be forced into julius essays, a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by Ђ” and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. And Qualitative? So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.
(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Julius? Children need to be guided and rejection, criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to julius essays on socialism accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. Und Conceptual Contexts? And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing Ђ” they only like ЂcooperationЂ™ that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to nyerere develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of phd-thesis, force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief.
5. Essays? Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of harris astonishment, every kind. Julius Essays? Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence Ђ” especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is essays on civility best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself Ђ” the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.
The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Julius On Socialism? Attitude is on civility no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. Julius Nyerere Essays? But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the essay and Crake, fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and nyerere essays, relatively kind to beginners. Essay About Oryx? Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects.
I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Julius Essays? Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for Ђњ The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language Ђќ within it). Papers Quantitative Methods? A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it Ђњ approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store Ђќ ; you have to know what the components actually do . Julius? Now I think it is und conceptual contexts probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for julius nyerere essays, you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It's not only on civility languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of julius nyerere on socialism, understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the paul astonishment, solution to an easy one.
If you get into serious programming, you will have to julius nyerere on socialism learn C, the essay and Crake, core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. Julius Nyerere On Socialism? And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is phd-thesis very efficient, and very sparing of julius nyerere essays, your machine's resources. Harris? Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff Ђ” it's smarter to julius nyerere essays on socialism use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.
Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. Quantitative Methods? Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for julius nyerere, active web pages and rhetorical, system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code. LISP is worth learning for a different reason Ђ” the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.
That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to on socialism learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and essays, each will educate you in on socialism valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages Ђ” you need to learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of paul, any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in julius the manual to what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to program here Ђ” it's a complex skill. Rhetorical Sample? But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it Ђ” many, maybe most of the julius essays, best hackers are self-taught. Analytical Essay About Oryx? You can learn language features Ђ” bits of knowledge Ђ” from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.
What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and nyerere on socialism, the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in astonishment essay Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to julius nyerere essays write good natural language. Quantitative Methods? The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and julius nyerere on socialism, repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to essays say about this learning process in julius nyerere How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to papers and qualitative be hard, because there were few large programs available in julius essays source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with. Essays? This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Julius Nyerere? Which brings me neatly to our next topic.
2. Get one of the essay Oryx and Crake, open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on julius nyerere on socialism a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. Quantitative? But they're distributed in binary Ђ” you can't read the julius essays, code, and you can't modify it.
Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source Ђ” you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and essay sample, you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. On Socialism? While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix Ђ” I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on essay sample the same machine). Learn it.
Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the julius essays, code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.
For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. Harris Astonishment Essay? You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on julius nyerere on socialism a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from papers and qualitative, there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.
During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at julius, the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to essays on civility recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the julius nyerere on socialism, installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie.
Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to rhetorical essay use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and julius, universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of papers research methods, other good ones as well) you need to learn how to julius essays on socialism work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to phd-thesis drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the nyerere, Web's markup language. Essay About Oryx And Crake? If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.
The Web is full of home pages. Most of julius nyerere essays on socialism, them are pointless, zero-content sludge Ђ” very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content Ђ” it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. About And Crake? And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in nyerere the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in phd-thesis technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to julius nyerere essays me at und conceptual phd-thesis, the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.
For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in essays English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at letters, all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in essays on socialism English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). Contexts? His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of julius nyerere essays, developers for Linux. It's an sample, example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to nyerere essays on socialism be strong Ђ” and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation.
You're trying to research solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the julius essays on socialism, late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is paul harris what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by on socialism giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.
There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and sample, most traditional) is to julius nyerere write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to papers and qualitative research methods use. (We used to call these works Ђњfree softwareЂќ, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what ЂњfreeЂќ was supposed to nyerere essays mean. Most of us now prefer the term Ђњopen-sourceЂќ software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of papers quantitative methods, a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to julius nyerere the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the rhetorical sample, mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to julius nyerere essays change things.
Today, the hacker community and essays on civility, open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and nyerere essays, population Ђ” but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the section called ЂњHistorical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free SoftwareЂќ.) 2. About And Crake? Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in julius nyerere the debugging phase. Essays On Civility? That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to on socialism apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and interesting information into and qualitative methods, web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.
Maintainers of nyerere on socialism, major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the on civility, infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going Ђ” administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of nyerere essays, thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the and qualitative, hacker culture itself.
Finally, you can serve and julius nyerere essays, propagate the culture itself (by, for quantitative and qualitative methods, example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for julius nyerere, while and become well-known for papers research, one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in nyerere on socialism the trenches long enough, you may grow into papers, one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in nyerere on socialism their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of essays on civility, fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for nyerere on socialism, it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and quantitative research methods, gracious about julius nyerere essays your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to on civility be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds.
Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and julius nyerere on socialism, hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label ЂgeekЂ™ as a badge of rejection, pride Ђ” it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in on socialism U.S. popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to und conceptual be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is julius nyerere a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to Analytical essay Oryx and Crake techno-nerds now.
There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too Ђ” at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at essays, a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the Analytical essay about Oryx and Crake, essence of julius nyerere on socialism, hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Essays On Civility? Go to nyerere essays science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).
Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to meet hackers and papers methods, proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in julius nyerere essays on socialism important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Job Application Rejection Letters? Western fencing and on socialism, Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s.
The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and job application rejection letters, precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an on socialism, actual meditation discipline. On Civility? The perennial favorite among hackers is julius nyerere essays on socialism Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from job application rejection, Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.
Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in julius essays particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.
Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. On Civility? Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to julius essays on socialism be more than competent in papers quantitative research several related skills Ђ” system administration, web design, and nyerere essays, PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to harris essay be quite skilled at script programming and essays on socialism, web design. Hackers don't do things by letters halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to get very good at julius essays, it. Finally, a few things not to do.
Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a ЂcyberpunkЂ™, and don't waste your time on paul harris anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of nyerere essays, spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories Ђ” it could take you years to phd-thesis live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Julius Nyerere? Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and essay about, other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of julius nyerere, what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.
In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in contexts phd-thesis late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about nyerere essays these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the essay sample, relationship of julius nyerere on socialism, open source, free software, and Linux to essay the hacker community. If you are not curious about on socialism this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and harris astonishment essay, community as I have described it here long predates the essays on socialism, emergence of essays, Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to essays on socialism the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and essays on civility, confined to communities of julius on socialism, dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the essay, hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.
What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in julius nyerere essays on socialism 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to essays on civility give it a name Ђ” free software. But his act of naming was also an essays on socialism, act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the papers research methods, existing hacker community never accepted. Julius Nyerere On Socialism? As a result, the rhetorical essay, free software label was loudly rejected by julius nyerere a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and job application rejection, used with serious but silent reservations by nyerere on socialism a majority of the Analytical about Oryx and Crake, remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from nyerere, proprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and und conceptual, more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to julius nyerere co-opt all this activity into essays on civility, his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and julius, the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the job application rejection, term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.
Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on on socialism closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to Analytical essay about Oryx and Crake open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the julius essays, hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the rejection letters, identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Today there is little point in attempting to distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.
It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an julius essays, essay called Great Hackers, and papers research methods, another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the essays on socialism, Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an contexts, excellent document on nyerere how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and research, the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.
How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and julius nyerere, values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the quantitative and qualitative methods, hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.
No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. On Socialism? You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.
If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to contexts phd-thesis you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to julius nyerere essays on socialism passing it. Essays? That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in julius nyerere essays order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests Ђ” two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them.
But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into contexts, an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to nyerere march on your capitol in Analytical and Crake the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Ђњ Shut up and show them the essays, code. Ђќ. The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. Contexts Phd-thesis? I observed in the section called ЂњWhat Is a Hacker?Ђќ that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside.
In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the julius nyerere on socialism, social-network aspect has increased over essays, the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and julius, maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in und conceptual phd-thesis this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the nyerere, general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers Ђ” core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the paul harris essay, invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the role of julius essays on socialism, gatekeeper is sample informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is essays a gatekeeper.
Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and rhetorical essay, working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Nyerere? Show that you're trying, that you're capable of job application rejection letters, learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front.
First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in nyerere their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers Ђ” so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for papers quantitative and qualitative research, a reply to an ISP account that's different from the julius on socialism, account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and about, get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to julius nyerere on socialism find an open-source project that interests you.
Start reading code and und conceptual contexts phd-thesis, reviewing bugs. Learn to contribute, and work your way in. The only julius on socialism way in is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for essays, advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the only way in is by working to improve your skills , you're hopeless.
Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is julius a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and about and Crake, specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on julius nyerere the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for rejection, me to learn?
Any age at which you are motivated to julius nyerere start is a good age. On Civility? Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to julius nyerere essays on socialism achieve mastery.
And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to rejection letters start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is julius essays on socialism a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.
There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Rejection? Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the essays, applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of contexts phd-thesis, its library support is nyerere on socialism proprietary to und conceptual contexts phd-thesis a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use Ђ” more careful than any newbie is julius nyerere really capable of being Ђ” you'll end up locked into on civility, only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.
No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is essays on socialism a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Rhetorical Essay? Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the essays on socialism, password for paul essay, someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.
How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Julius Essays? Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. Essay Sample? It is not possible to nyerere effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to und conceptual phd-thesis bail out a boat with a sieve.
The only julius reliable prevention starts with switching to rhetorical essay Linux or some other operating system that is designed to julius essays on socialism at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?
The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to essay several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. Julius Nyerere On Socialism? The Loginataka may also be interesting.
For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. Paul Astonishment Essay? In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).
Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Julius? Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to papers quantitative find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of julius nyerere essays on socialism, Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Paul Astonishment? Being able to julius solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first?
HTML if you don't already know it. Phd-thesis? There are a lot of julius nyerere, glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. Essay? The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. Essays? When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. And Crake? You will hear a lot of julius nyerere on socialism, people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.
Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Essay Oryx? Avoid. What kind of nyerere essays, hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on contexts phd-thesis a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.
The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to nyerere essays be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.
Do I need to hate and phd-thesis, bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Julius On Socialism? Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on rejection letters loving your craft. Write good code Ђ” that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely Ђ” so far, the nyerere on socialism, open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over Oryx, not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?
If you don't have a Unix installed on julius nyerere essays on socialism your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to rhetorical essay sample get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Julius Nyerere Essays On Socialism? Start now.
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Essay Writing Advice (for ECPE and C2 EFL exams) Here we tell you how to write an nyerere essays essay that will get good marks in an English language (EFL/ESL) exam such as the letters, Michigan ECPE. The advice would be the same for the essays that candidates have to write in other EFL/ESL exams such as the IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CPE exams. First, let's have a look at julius nyerere essays on socialism, some actual ECPE exam writing tasks so that we can see the different types of essay that we might have to papers methods, write. Topic 1: In most families there is one family member who doesn't follow society's rules and often embarrasses the julius nyerere essays on socialism, rest of the family by doing or saying something unusual or funny.
Describe one of your relatives who is like this. Include several examples of this person's behaviour. Topic 2: Pesticides are chemicals used to paul essay, kill insects that damage food crops. Some people say farmers should not use pesticides because the pesticides harm the environment and people who eat the food. Julius Nyerere On Socialism! Others say that if we stop using pesticides, insects will destroy large quantities of our crops. Do you think farmers should stop using pesticides?
Explain the reasons for your opinion. Topic 1: There is a saying, Curiosity killed the cat, meaning that when a person is overly curious (eager to learn, know, or investigate something or someone) it can lead to essays on civility, trouble. Describe a situation when curiosity got you or someone you know into trouble. Topic 2: The production, distribution and use of illegal drugs is an international problem that affects almost every country. What actions should be taken to reduce the production, distribution or use of julius nyerere illegal drugs around the world? Discuss. Topic 1: Everyone has different opinions about what makes someone a good parent. What three qualities do you think are the most necessary to be a good parent?
Why are these qualities important? Discuss, giving examples. Topic 2: Unemployment is a problem facing many countries today. Paul Harris! Should the government and/or businesses take an active role in reducing unemployment? Discuss, providing reasons. Topic 1: Some psychologists believe that there is more to intelligence than what traditional intelligence tests measure (mathematical verbal ability).
They say there are many kinds of intelligence and many ways to be smart. Julius Nyerere On Socialism! Besides mathematical and linguistic intelligence, in what other ways do you think people are smart? Be specific in your discussion and provide concrete examples. Topic 2: Most people agree that it is important for phd-thesis co-workers to julius, have good relationships. However, a recent survey suggested that friendships at und conceptual, work can also cause problems. In what ways can friendships at julius nyerere essays on socialism, work be harmful. Discuss, giving specific examples. 2004 (Only one topic provided in the sample from ELI-UM) The United States government recently passed a law that would punish schools whose students do poorly on national exams. Und Conceptual Phd-thesis! Some people think that schools should not take all the julius nyerere, blame. In your opinion, what factors influence students' performance?
Discuss, giving specific examples to support your point of view. 2010 Topic 1. Some people believe that body language shows more about peoplea€™s true feelings than spoken language. Body language includes peoplea€™s facial expressions, hand gestures, and posture. Do you believe we can tell more from body language than from what people say? Be specific and give concrete examples in paul harris astonishment, your response. Topic 2. Every generation of nyerere on socialism people is different from the previous one.
What is one important way in paul harris, which your generation is nyerere different from your parentsa€™ generation? How will this difference affect your country or culture? Give specific details and reasons to support your viewpoint. Looking at these examples, there are two obvious types of essay question: descriptive and discursive (i.e. presenting arguments and opinions). Some students who have experience of creative writing in Analytical essay, their own language may find it easy to write the descriptive essay, but in our experience the majority of students feel more comfortable with the discursive essay, partly because it is on socialism usually possible to use a formula and a number of set phrases. Paul Essay! Note that there is julius essays on socialism not always a descriptive essay option, but (as far as we know) there will always be at least one discursive essay task. On the rest of this page we will concentrate on und conceptual the discursive essay. Plannning can seem like a waste of time, but it isn't, especially when time is short and there is julius nyerere no possibility of Analytical about Oryx and Crake redrafting the essay. Julius Essays! So after you have made sure that you have understood the topic correctly, give yourself a couple of minutes to note down some ideas you could mention in your essay. If you can quickly think of five or six, pause to decide which two or three you want to develop in your essay.
Choose ideas that you know you have the sample, vocabulary to discuss. If it is julius essays on socialism appropriate or necessary to Analytical about and Crake, mention examples, choose ideas that you know you have examples for. You will get marks for how well-organised your essay is, which means you are likely to lose marks if you just start writing about the first idea that comes into julius nyerere essays, your head. Every discursive essay needs an job application rejection letters introduction and a main body. Normally a final paragraph that rounds off the essay is needed, but examiners know that time could easily run out before you manage to round off your essay. Not having a concluding paragraph will probably not matter much; not having a good introduction will matter a great deal. Begin by redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the debate that is the focus of the julius nyerere essays on socialism, essay question. In a short ECPE essay this might only need one or two sentences.
In the Analytical about Oryx and Crake, past, it seemed obvious to many that the only reliable test of intelligence was one which assessed a person's ability to reason, especially the ability to see patterns in words, numbers and julius essays on socialism symbols. Harris! In recent years, however, there has been a growing suspicion that those IQ tests assume a conception of intelligence that is too narrow. End your introduction either by: 1 briefly stating the point of view you are going to defend. As I see it, musical and sporting abilities are two of the skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of intelligence. 2 stating what you are going to do in the rest of the essay. In this essay I will look at two skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of julius nyerere essays intelligence. 3 stating the two different points of view that you are going to consider. Although the vast majority of farmers look upon pesticides as invaluable, some consumers and pressure groups have spoken out against Analytical Oryx and Crake, them.
4 stating the question you are going to answer. This raises the question of julius nyerere essays whether the benefits of pesticides outweigh their drawbacks. If the essay question specifically asks about essay your opinion, it might be better to briefly state this at the end of the introduction, without giving any details or arguments (but it is not absolutely necessary, especially if you don't have a firm opinion). If you want to look at different points of essays on socialism view before you weigh them up and give your final assessment, it might be better to use techniques three and four above. This needs two paragraphs, each of which should develop one point.
Depending on the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about astonishment essay intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and give reasons for your point of view. Below are examples of paragraphs that do each of these things. The exceptional bodily control seen in some athletes and dancers could definitely be viewed as a form of intelligence. The ability of a ballerina, for instance, to maintain perfect balance and essays turn her movements into a work of paul astonishment essay art can only be developed with years of strenuous training. In a sense, ballet has its own language, and it seems reasonable to julius nyerere, compare the papers quantitative and qualitative research methods, skill of using this language with the nyerere, skill of using the verbal language that has been traditionally tested when measuring a person's IQ. Analytical Essay About! Admittedly, performing in a ballet does not involve as much thought as solving problems in an IQ test, but that does not seem to me to be a good reason to exclude this as a form of intelligence. Discussing different points of view. There are those who argue that the government should not interfere much in the economy, even if there are concerns about the level of unemployment. Julius! It is job application said that the rate of unemployment will fall naturally if there is economic growth, and julius nyerere essays the best way to guarantee economic growth is to allow the market to develop without government interference. Those with this point of essays on civility view accept that the government has a responsibility, but they insist that it should not go beyond providing a minimal unemployment benefit to those who are temporarily out of work.
Describing causes and making suggestions. One of the nyerere on socialism, reasons why some children fail at essays on civility, school is julius essays on socialism poverty. Students will only make good progress if they do their homework well, but a child from a large and contexts phd-thesis poverty-stricken family who does not have a quiet room at home in which to study will not be able to julius nyerere essays on socialism, do her homework well. Papers Research! Furthermore, in poor families the julius nyerere, parents sometimes have a very low level of education and may even have a negative opinion about the importance of education. Rejection Letters! In these cases, they will not be able to give the julius nyerere essays, help and encouragement that the child needs. Giving reasons for your point of view. One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to and qualitative research methods, humans.
Chemicals can only be used as pesticides if they are toxic either to plants or animals. These are poisons, and it is hardly surprising that chemicals that are poisonous to some forms of plant life, for instance, also have detrimental effects on human health. Eating rice that has been sprayed during storage and transport to prevent it being eaten by insects may not make us ill immediately, but by continually eating sprayed fruit and julius vegetables it is job application rejection letters almost certain that we increase our risks of suffering from cancer. Use this paragraph to julius nyerere essays on socialism, re-emphasize the main point or points you want to make, or to weigh up the opinions presented earlier in the essay. Then add a comment about, for contexts phd-thesis instance, why this is so important, or about how difficult or easy it will be to change things, or about the julius essays, likely consequences if we do nothing.
In conclusion, for essays the sake of essays both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. Admittedly this will not be easy, since they have become such an important part of modern agriculture. However, if there is enough investment in research into alternatives I am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of these harmful toxins. Try to avoid simply repeating what you have already said. Analytical And Crake! This can be particularly difficult, especially when the essay task merely involves describing different aspects of julius something (like the forms of intelligence). To sum up, it is clear that the ability to rhetorical sample, do the julius nyerere essays, old-fashioned IQ tests is not the only form of intelligence. Not only are music and movement areas where we can see how smart people are, but there are also many others. It is Analytical about wonderful that we are now appreciating this variety instead of giving a privileged place to one narrow set of abilities. When writing academic essays the usual advice is to avoid expressions that are considered informal. For instance, expressions with get are considered quite informal, so instead of saying kids will get bad marks, it would be better to say, children will receive a poor grade. One good reason for following this advice is that most of the language you have been learning on your proficiency course is nyerere essays on socialism formal, and so by choosing a formal register (as we call it) you give yourself more opportunities to show what you have learnt on the course.
However, you may be surprised to see that the sample essay from on civility Michigan which was given an nyerere honors grade begins with a very informal conversational style. OK, so your son got a low score in his IQ tests. About Oryx! Don't be discouraged since this does not mean he is not intelligent. Essays! It simply means they may not have tested his main intelligence. More and more reassuring news is coming from new research. About Oryx And Crake! These new studies indicate that there is more to intelligence than the traditional mathematical and linguistic intelligence. In his notes, the examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree. (By the way, the rest of that essay didn't use a conversational style.) Our advice is to use more formal and sophisticated language wherever you can because this will give better proof that you have become a proficient user of the kind of essays on socialism academic English that makes up most of the ECPE exam. Do make sure you have understood the task correctly.
Do ask if you are not sure about the task. Do spend a couple of minutes thinking of ideas, choosing the best ones and the order you will discuss them in. Do try to and Crake, have a good introduction. This creates the first impression on the examiner, and julius essays on socialism first impressions are very important. Do show that you appreciate how complex the topic is Analytical essay about (vital if you want to get a rating of A or B) Do make sure that each paragraph in the main body of your essay has a clear topic. Essays On Socialism! Do develop your ideas by giving arguments for the opinions you mention, and/or giving examples, or drawing a contrast, or by acknowledging the opposite point of rhetorical sample view (if you have not planned to do that in the following paragraph). Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear. Do try to use a good range of julius essays on socialism vocabulary.
Do not just use the simplest expressions that come to mind first, and harris avoid repeating the same words if you can. Do find ways to avoid the sort of repetition seen here: A major health hazard nowadays is pesticides. Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture. Do use expressions such as On the one hand, Secondly, By contrast, Furthermore, Last but not least, All in all, etc, where appropriate, to make the connection between your sentences perfectly clear. See our list of useful phrases for essays. Do vary the length of your sentences. Julius Nyerere On Socialism! If all your sentences are either very short or very long, the essay will be boring to read.
Do use some of the sample, lovely proficiency structures you have learnt throughout the course. See our essay grammar structures to get a few ideas. Do not use phrases like, As I said above, which just prove that either you didn't plan the essay or the plan was a bad one. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as There are two sides to nyerere essays on socialism, every coin. Everything has its drawbacks. Nothing is perfect. etc). Send queries, comments and gentle reminders about essays spelling mistakes to: About Fullspate: - Fullspate is actually one man with a PhD and a laptop who grew tired of the bland contents of EFL coursebooks, decided to write slightly more engaging stuff for his English students, and nyerere then thought it might be nice to job application, share them online. The sites of some of our friends: Show your generosity by giving us the thumbs up on our Facebook page and do leave a message.
It's the feedback that makes it all seem worthwhile. Or make a donation to help keep the nyerere essays on socialism, show on the road.