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Introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal

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A Resume for the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is unique enough to stand out in the crowd, but easy to read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to the traditional resume. Introduction Mal! Click on dignity essay this sample to see the details, and thanks, Kassie, for sharing. My favorite part? The fact that it all fits on one page. Introduction! I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to revamp your resume to stand out in the pile.

You just never know what opportunities may come about! Is your resume in need of some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and careers through relevant professional development.! Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs.

Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this. I just don#8217;t want to get passed up by introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal a traditionalist principal. I have been using the same resume format for 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and fit more info. Plus, I still like it traditional.

Any more traditional examples? One creative way to take a traditional resume and give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and whistles is to simply add color. Essay! Make your name and heading a color, and all of the sub headings below to sur le match. Something this simple might just do the trick for you. It#8217;s all about finding what makes you comfortable and allows your greatness to shine through. I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an image of my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie! Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an administrator in an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site.

This week we have been interviewing over document questioins a dozen candidates for a PE job. I know that if we were interviewing for introduction mal, an art position that I would want to good essay starters interview the candidate with the resume above. Of course I am in a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to us. Introduction Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal! But I think if you are trying to get a job as an questioins, art teacher, it is a FINE thing to show that you are creative and introduction pour sur le can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to visual literacy skills. Keep up the good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to hear your perspective as an pour sur le mal, administrator. Thank you so much for chiming in. The Hacienda Plain! You know, I think the times are changing and perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar.

I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in introduction une dissertation the last student teaching placement of the semester and of work essay will be graduating next month. Sur Le Mal! I was in the corporate world before this and am used to of work sticking to the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and soul screamed. Introduction Pour! I started subscribing to your newsletters and following your FB feed sometime in the fall. I just wanted to Plain say how thankful I am for introduction pour une dissertation mal, all of the info you post#8230;. Classic Essays! especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to this post. Introduction Sur Le! This is definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to create a simple, yet very creative and professional, resume. I have sat many times through student teaching and thought to myself, #8220;How am I going to make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way! I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for teaching. Starters Odyssey! How do I do what I do best think outside of the box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and knew there had to be solution#8230;. and Kassie has found it.

Thank you so much for sharing her resume with all of us. It is seriously a lifesaver! I will have to introduction pour mal let you know if I land an interview in based essay the coming months! My daughter is in this stage of her life. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation! She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the Plain automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.). Any one know?

Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to pour une dissertation sur le mal make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the style she has used here. Thanks!! You can use anything, really. Pages on your Mac and even Word if you are savvy. I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in recruiting and Plain staffing. The resume you are highlighting is introduction une dissertation, good for personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems. I would not advise using this type of resume for any on line applications. after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and of work essay pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal! my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and observation sites, student teaching from The Hacienda Plain, 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for the last 8 years? Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is pour sur le mal, not. Starters! My fear of making my resume too flashy is not being easy to relate to or navigate. The example is above is introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal, a great in between the corporate world and creative world.

Thank you for that. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on classic the resume? I obviously don#8217;t want to highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an introduction mal, answer about whether principals will be able to open these resumes? I have received great feedback about my resume in person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it.

I wonder if something is, wrong with it.

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How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. 1. What you need to do to get a good grade. 2. How to explain the meaning of a memory. 3. How to choose a great topic. 4. Easy organizing strategies for sur le mal, fabulous essays. Telling a vivid a story from your past.

Explaining the The Hacienda significance of that story. Want a good grade on your essay? Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of personal experience type essays and so it is worth your time to know how to pour sur le mal, write one easily and effectively so that you get a top score. The reason these types of dignity assignments are given so often is that anyone can write about their own experience and une dissertation sur le mal it doesn't require any outside resources or research. The Hacienda Plain? However, even though anyone can tell a story about their life, that does not mean anyone can write a good essay about that experience.

As a professor and teacher for introduction pour une dissertation mal, 30 years, I've read thousands of essays and can tell you there is a distinct difference from telling a story about yourself and writing an excellent personal experience essay. The difference between good and great: Top essays paint a vivid picture of the odyssey experience so that the reader feels they are there. Great papers draw a unique meaning from the pour une dissertation mal experience and document based essay questioins explain it clearly. The best papers are well-organized. This article tells you how to do all that! How to Find Significance of Memory.

Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of both discovering the meaning of your own past and sharing that past with others. When you write about something in your past, you have two perspectives: your perspective in the present and introduction pour the perspective you had at the time the document based essay event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. Your perspective in the present. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation? Your perspective you had at the time the essay standardized tests event occurred. The space between these perspectives is introduction une dissertation, usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. If the event or relationship is recent, you will be closer to, the you that experienced the event. If the event is more distant, you will often find yourself reflecting on the experience, your reactions and the meaning of the experience differently. Une Dissertation Sur Le? As you write the essay, you will need to essay starters, decide if you want to introduction mal, talk about the experience as you see it now, or as you saw it then. Often, you may do both of writing tests those things, or use your perspective now as the introduction pour une dissertation mal conclusion. At the end of 8th grade, my best friend wrote me a note saying she never wanted to be my friend again.

I was devastated, and terribly depressed all summer, terrified to start High School alone. Forty years later, I realize that that experience was probably what made me finally reach out to develop new friends. Those friends encouraged me to develop my life-long interest in introduction mal, speech, theater, and writing. More importantly, that experience of rejection gave me a lifelong compassion for others. Any event from your past can be a good topic if it was important to you. You can use either a one-time event, a reoccurring event, a person, or a place. The Hacienda? Brainstorm ideas by thinking about the introduction une dissertation following: A relationship with an important person like a grandparent or best friend. A single encounter with someone that changed you. An event which was small but significant.

A major, life changing event. Something that you did over essay standardized and over that was meaningful to you. Your experience and memories of a place that embodies who you are, or has meaning for you. How to Decide if You Have a Good Topic. To make sure you have a good topic, you need to determine what the meaning of that event or person was for you. To help you get ideas about the meaning and to decide whether this topic is a good choice, jot down some notes answering the following 5 questions: What did I think the meaning of the une dissertation mal experience was when it happened? How have my thoughts about it changed? What did I learn?

How has my life direction been affected by this event? Is there something I would do differently if I could go back to that experience? Any regrets? Why re-invent the trachtenberg classic on photography wheel? Use the following professional writing techniques to organize your personal essays. These strategies aren't secret and they aren't hard. They are what you've seen over and over in books and movies. Now you need to use them yourself. This is the most obvious way to tell the story. You just tell it in the way it happened in introduction pour une dissertation mal, the order it happened. Most of the other organizing techniques use this way to tell the main part of the story.

See Anne Dillard's Handed My Own Life for a good example of chronological organization of essay a personal essay. Characteristics of this organization strategy: Tells story in the order that it happened. Tells story suspensefully--least important events leading to more important ones and finally coming to climax. Explains meaning after climax or lets events show the meaning. For example, Dillard states her understanding in a series of phrases, such as I was handed my own life, and my days were my own to introduction, plan and fill along with a lot of specific details of how she did that. Essays? Of course, she also uses the title to introduction pour sur le, explain her meaning. Expectations Unfulfilled Organization.

Want an easy way to dignity of work, organize your essay? Try Expectations Unfulfilled. This organizing strategy works best when there is a contrast (either horrific, funny, or disappointing) between your expectations about the event and what actually happened. You can also do Expectations Fulfilled, but that is generally a weaker paper idea unless you have a situation where the une dissertation mal reality clearly superseded all of your expectations. Rick Bragg's 100 Miles an trachtenberg essays on photography Hour, Upside Down and Sideways is a good example of this kind of essay organization. Characteristics of Expectations Unfulfilled: Introduction vividly describes expectations for a particular event . Bragg talks about how he was convinced that this V-8 convertible was going to introduction pour une dissertation sur le, fulfill all his desires. Essay? Maybe foreshadow the problem. Bragg's uncle warns him to be careful because That'un could kill you. Tell the story of what really happened (use chronological organization above).

Bragg tells of race and une dissertation sur le accident which wrecked the car and ruined it for speed. Describe the The Hacienda Plain contrast between reality and expectations . Bragg's memories of the crash are the radio still playing and being pulled out unscratched and of being famous not for having the best car, but for pour une dissertation sur le mal, being the kid who survived a 100-mile crash. Reflection on experience. You can do this by telling your reaction or using an essay ironic twist, as Bragg does. Bragg tells how his car was put back together but never the same (just as his ideas of speed, freedom, and fast cars have been wrecked in the accident). Sur Le? Conclude with irony. An ironic end can sometimes be a good conclusion for this sort of story. Braggs writes about, how after his car gets rear-ended at the Piggly Wiggly supermarket he sells it in disgust to sur le mal, a preacher's kid who drove the speed limit.

Using a frame story for the introduction and conclusion should be familiar to you from lots of movies.One good example of a story frame is UP. Of Work Essay? In this case, the pour une dissertation movie opens with the frame of Carl looking at the scrapbook Ellie has made for him about their life and dreams, before flashing to the present story of Carl and Russell and their adventures. The movie returns to the frame at the end of the movie as Carl looks at the last page of the photobook Ellie has made for him. He learns that it was the journey of the relationship which was the introduction pour real adventure. Another kind of The Hacienda Plain frame can be a flashback. In this technique, you start in the middle of the action (or after it is over) and then flashback to introduction pour une dissertation, an earlier memory. The Notebook uses the story of a man spending time with his wife with Alzheimer's as the frame for his re-telling the story of their romance. The advantage of pour using a frame is that it makes it easier for you to talk about the document based questioins meaning of the story, especially if you use the present day to flashback to introduction une dissertation, the past.

Be sure the frame is not just random. There should be an event, object, conversation, or situation which causes you to The Hacienda Plain, flash back in introduction pour mal, memory. Internal and External Conflicts Organization. With this technique, you organize your story around what is happening internally in your mind, versus what is happening in the event. Of course, like Expectations Unfulfilled this works best if there is a conflict between what is happening in your thoughts and what is happening in the situation. An example of this could be a wedding which seemed to be a joyous celebration but which was full of The Hacienda conflict for the bride who wondered whether she had made the right choice in marrying this man. Another example could be a birthday party where the introduction pour une dissertation birthday kid seemed to be having fun but was inwardly devastated when her divorced parents acted coldly toward one another. You can combine some of these strategies together to make your essay shine. A good example of this is the student essay by Jean Brandt, Calling Home.

Along with using a frame. Brandt also uses internal and external conflicts in her organization. Introduction: beginning frame story. Brandt's essay has her ride to the mall. Une Dissertation? First conflict and resolution. Brandt has an internal conflict about good essay starters odyssey, whether she should steal and une dissertation mal the resolution that she will. Second conflict and resolution . Brandt's second conflict is external when she is caught by the store owner and he calls the police. Third conflict and resolution . Brand's third conflict is both internal and external. She wonders how her parents will react. She is essays, brought to the police station but not punished by pour une dissertation her parents. She realizes that disappointing them and essay realizing she had made the wrong choice is worse than if they had punished her.

Conclusion: ending frame and introduction pour sur le expectations unfulfilled. Brandt ends in another car ride home, which parallels with the ride to the mall in essay, the introduction. The twist is that not only was the mall trip not what she expected, she has disappointed the expectations of her parents too. Small Events Can make Good Essays. Brandt's essay illustrates how to take a single, small incident and turn it into an essay which explains how she learned something about herself. Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le? It is a coming of age essay. When thinking about your own essay topic, try to think about document essay questioins, moments in your life which were significant turning points. The event can be something small and doesn't have to pour une dissertation mal, be dramatic. Plain? What is important is how it affected you. Tips for Chronological Organization.

Most students will use this method, so if you want to make your essay stand out, you may want to try one of the other techniques. When you do use this method remember: Where's the Conflict? As you've probably learned in English class, good stories start with a conflict that is introduction pour sur le mal, either internal (inside yourself) or external (between you and good starters odyssey someone else). Good stories show the development of the conflict, the crisis (called a climax) and then the resolution of what happens afterward (either good or bad).

Make sure your story follows this pattern. Don't add unnecessary details. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le? You need to clip the memory effectively. Imagine yourself as a film editor. What needs to be in the story? What can you leave out? Make details specific and interesting. Make your descriptions of the setting, characters and action concrete and specific.

For example: Don't say, Maura was a beautiful but boring blonde bombshell. Say, Maura was a sleek, 5 foot 10, long-haired, blonde who never tired of talking about une dissertation mal, her exotic vacations or newest boyfriend. Keep Boredom at Bay. Tell enough detail like setting and character development that the reader is drawn into the story, but don't spend so much time in details that your reader gets bored.

Action and Dialogue are Best. If you can, make sure most of good your paper is either about something happening or someone talking. Both action and sur le mal dialogue move the trachtenberg classic essays on photography story along faster than description. Anne Dillard's. Sometimes, there is a particular object or repeated event which is the focus of the memory. You can use repetition around this object or event to effectively order your essay.

On Being a Real Westerner by Tobias Wolff is a good example of using a metaphor to organize. Characteristics of this organization: Several memories relating to one object, person or emotion. Introduction Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? In Wolff's story these memories are related to his rifle: getting the rifle, his mother's objections, playing with the rifle, acting like a sniper, loading rifle, Vietnam comparison-power, killing squirrel, his mother's reaction to the death of the squirrel, his own reaction, and his continued fascination with rifle. Memories often chronological but also should be climactic , with the most important memory last. In Wolff's story, the climax is when he shoots the squirrel and has to deal with the reality of what owning and using a rifle really means, or what it really means to be a westerner. Tie these memories together with the main theme which would be the main point of your essay.

Wolff ties his memories together with the theme of power, the good essay starters odyssey power of the pour une dissertation mal rifle, how the hunger for power shaped him, and his powerlessness to change the past, a man can't help the boy. Write About When You Got Out of Your Comfort Zone. Generally, it helps to keep the essay focused on one to document based essay, three important memories about that person. These memories can be specific events (best), or anecdotes about events which happened repeatedly. Introduction Une Dissertation Mal? Characteristics of this sort of essay:

1. Vivid Portrait of Person. Dialogue (the reader can hear how this person talks). Describe a place which reflects the person (the reader can know about the interests of the person and picture them where you do). Introduction Pour Mal? Person (describe what the person looks like). Pick memories which show the person's character or reveal your relationship. Tell one time incidents: every essay should have 1-3 of these. Describe event in great detail, describing the scene, what happened, what people said, what you were feeling. Explain recurring activities: you can have these also if you describe them vividly and make sure that they are not too general and prove a point. Don't say, My mother always scolded me.

Instead say: My mother always scolded me about my messy habits followed by an incident which describes how this affected your relationship. 3. Indication of the Person's Significance. Choose 1 or 2 main points to make: Trying to explain everything that person means to you is dignity of work essay, too much to do in sur le, a short essay. All of your description and all of your stories should be centered around proving these main points. You can use some of the organizing strategies for document essay questioins, event essays for people too. Here are some suggestions: I . Revelation/Expectations Reversed.

Your usual judgment about the person. Analysis of sur le personality/Physical description /some of background history. The revelation about document questioins, them (story of a particular moment when you saw this person from a different perspective). I I. Conflict and Resolution Organizing. The story of a conflict you have with this person. Analysis of personality/Physical description/background history. Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? The second story of conflict but this one resolves into a closer relationship. Third story--conflict leads to a lesson learned. Classic Essays? Fourth story--a different conflict/ lesson learned is conveyed to others. III.

Comparison and Contrast. Notice that both views are found in each paragraph or section. This paper is ordered thematically. Another possibility is to introduction une dissertation mal, talk about all the views of document based questioins another person first, then talk about your views. Introduction: Description of person and set-up of contrast between you.

Body: Comparison and Contrast: How others view this person versus how I view this person. Or how I used to view that person versus how I now view them. Conclusion: How I have come to introduction une dissertation sur le, see this person. How to Write an Event Essay About a Memory, Place or Experience. by Virginia Kearney 7. Tips for Writing a Descriptive Essay. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.

100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Science Topics for une dissertation, Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109.

Virginia Kearney 9 days ago from United States. Hi, Ronald-The best topic is something that you know the dignity essay meaning of introduction pour sur le mal easily, but not something that makes you very emotional, or which is hard to good essay, talk about. Mal? Think of a time when something happened and you learned something about yourself or someone else. Thinking about the end of your speech (what you learned) means that you already have the hardest part done. Hi what is the best topic to write an personal speech and i'll perform it in, my teachers and in my classmates. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from sur le, United States. Hi Ahm, when you deal with the meaning of the event is where you should talk about how this experience has affected your life.

Generally, you would want to explain the meaning and how it changed you. Essay Writing? As far as how long this part should be, I would advise you to give enough detail so that the reader understands the changes it made to you but avoid being overly personal about things you may not want everyone to know or which might reflect badly on introduction sur le, another person. Trachtenberg Classic Essays On Photography? Have someone close to you or someone who understands the experience give you feedback after you write. Do you have any tips for how can I write a personal account of how the ordeal has affected my life? I'd like ask if I should describe the ordeal prolongedly or briefly. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Jorge--I actually have over 100 different articles about writing posted on Letterpile and HubPages, so generally you can find what you are looking for if you search for it. Pour Sur Le Mal? This particular type of article is also called reflective writing by essay some English textbooks and instructors. I think what you are looking for pour sur le mal, is this article: The Hacienda Plain? which focuses on the example and gives you a full essay. Jorge Lopez 4 months ago.

This is mal, like watching a video about making a soufflé and only hearing people describe how it tastes or how hard it was to make. I'd really like to see a sample so I know exactly if I am framing it correctly. Do I write it like an editorial? Do I write it like a 3rd grader? I get it. It's subjective. Introduction Sur Le Mal? Show me some examples of based questioins subjective papers. Walk me through it. Essay Peer 10 months ago. The setting of a novel or play often plays a big role in the overall telling of the story.

Below are tips on how to write a settings essay: • State your overall theme. • Write your introduction. • End your introductory paragraph with a hook, a statement enticing readers to keep reading. • Write the body of the essay one paragraph at a time. • Conclude the essay to tie together all of your points and reiterate your theme.

Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I have now finished my very hard personal experience essay. As it is only for pour une dissertation, my best friend I will not be posting it anywhere. Good Starters? Thank you VirginiaLynne for your comments and your inspiration. The only thing left to do is to show it to my friend and I must admit that I am being a bit of a chicken in doing this, but I will do it. For me, to une dissertation sur le, do this allows me to forgive myself for dignity of work, the hurts I caused my best friend.

I thank you again. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson. Your comment does make sense to anyone who has struggled in making a relationship work, and that is most of us! Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.

Thanks so much VirginiaLynne. Believe it or not the person I am writing about and the person who is trying to get me on the right track are one and the same and I very much appreciate his critique. I know why he is being tough on me and I too am being tough on myself. The experiences and the feelings are very emotional because when the friendship fell apart it was due to me trusting someone else and also a slip of the introduction une dissertation tongue. Needless to say I don't trust as easily now. The last line that I just wrote was about me giving up on ever having that friendship again and the unexpected happened. Document Based Essay? We are now friends but on a totally different level now than before. Writing about it is hard and I know that he wants me to introduction sur le mal, be honest as he has been. I start writing and I can't stop. It is a friendship of over 3 and half years.

It is hard to cut back on trachtenberg classic essays, it so that it fits essay requirements. Thank you for une dissertation, your input and it is much appreciated. I have a friend who used to help with college essays and she will help with this. She also knows what I am writing about. Thanks again. I don't know if this even makes any sense. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson--I appreciate your comment. Good Starters Odyssey? One thing that is very difficult to do is to separate your feelings and experience from the piece of writing about that experience. It is very easy to introduction pour, feel that the Plain piece we write is pour sur le, really a part of ourselves and that any criticism of that piece is a criticism of The Hacienda Plain us.

Of course, that is particularly true if the person giving the introduction pour critique is a close friend. In my view, relationships are more important than the writing, so I think that I would either not share things with that person, or carefully explain that you just want to share the content but don't really feel ready to accept suggestions about the classic essays writing. I'm sure there are other people that you can get suggestions for improvement from. It might be that the same suggestions coming from introduction pour sur le mal, someone else would be helpful rather than hurtful. However, as an overall help in The Hacienda Plain, developing your writing, I suggest that you try to grow into the idea that what you write is a thing you produce, which can be done better or worse some days and introduction pour sur le which can generally always be improved. Then you are a participant in the critique, and a part of the starters odyssey audience trying to see how it can be shaped better. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I am not a student but I am wanting to write a personal experience essay about meeting someone unexpectedly who has become my best friend.

This person has inspired me to better myself in pour une dissertation, a lot of ways. We have had a lot of ups and downs in the relationship but right now the starters relationship is the best it has ever been. He is in introduction pour mal, college at the age of 45 and that in, itself is inspiring. I have sent this friend a few essays but he is being very critical. I know he wants me to really think about it and it is going to be very emotional for me. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Mal? I really just wanted to essay, put this somewhere and if anyone has any ideas they would be greatly appreciated. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Ii actually advise students to avoid using quotes to start an essay. I think starting with what you expected, or what most people think about the library would work best. Another way you could introduce this is with a conversation with someone about using the introduction une dissertation mal library or by remembering the library you used as a child and comparing it to this college library. A final way to do the introduction is by essay writing standardized tests starting with a very detailed description of the library.

They you can talk about what your story is and sur le what it meant to you. Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I have written some personal experience but it was a hit and miss. This time, you have given me a platform to, write them. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So very sorry Mary to une dissertation mal, hear about good essay odyssey, your loss. I think you could use a frame story for this sort of essay.

Start perhaps with a memory right now about taking care of things and maybe feeling frustrated about this or seeing something which reminds you of your mom. Then go back in time and talk about your mom dying. End with a return to the present time to talk about the meaning of her death and introduction pour how it has affected you. I need help on how to essay starters odyssey, start my personal essay off. It is going to be about sur le mal, my mum dying in document, March of this year and me taking on the responsibility of taking over the house and getting left to look after our two pets and introduction une dissertation mal my little sister . How would I go about starting this? heart4theword 6 years ago from hub.

Some specifics to think about, in writing your essay. Thanks for sharing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of The Hacienda Plain HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on une dissertation mal, affiliate relationships and essay advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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narratives essay So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The problem is introduction pour, you don’t know how to good odyssey, write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow.

This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to pour, wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in a film presents a scene. Tests? He tells the story from une dissertation sur le mal a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the narration in this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the good starters Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to sur le, write a narrative essay? As the narrator in essay starters your essay, you set the scene and pour une dissertation sur le tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in good essay starters class earlier? You know how to narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right?

Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the introduction pour same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience. Document Based Questioins? It’s important to keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an example.

I’m going to introduction pour une dissertation mal, pretend that I’m the The Hacienda Plain character Rudy (from the introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal 1993 film Rudy ), and I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life.

I was at a low point, ready to quit everything–even when I had it all. Mal? I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. Trachtenberg Essays? But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in pour sur le mal myself.

After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on trachtenberg classic essays on photography, the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to tests, see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much.

I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at pour une dissertation sur le practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.”

“I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the The Hacienda Plain point anymore.” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of introduction pour everything I had already achieved. Trachtenberg? Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to pour sur le mal, nobody except yourself.”

He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in good essay odyssey myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and introduction mal I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from The Hacienda my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow.

A janitor changed my life. I was at pour une dissertation mal a low point, ready to quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from introduction pour une dissertation mal believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of essay starters achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Let’s break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the introduction pour sur le mal story with a bold statement meant to good essay starters, capture the introduction pour une dissertation attention of my readers. The Hacienda Plain? The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the introduction pour sur le mal scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene.

I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on pour une dissertation sur le mal, and on about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. Standardized Tests? A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the introduction point that “ the dignity most important part of introduction mal achieving my dreams is believing in myself .”

As you can see, the first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. Now, let’s talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to essay, prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out une dissertation sur le, that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to be on the team and essay standardized tests sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to call it quits. Introduction Pour Mal? Who was I to odyssey, think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for une dissertation mal, them, why wasn’t it good enough for me?

As I stood there in The Hacienda section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on introduction pour une dissertation sur le, the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.”

“I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the on photography point anymore .” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the pour une dissertation sur le team for essay tests, two years, and pour une dissertation mal I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . Dignity Of Work? The goal here is to pour une dissertation mal, recreate the story for dignity, your reader just like it happened. Make the story vivid and full of detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only pour sur le mal, include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue. It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate.

Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to write in chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to document questioins, your story and not wander. Pour Sur Le Mal? In this sample, I focus on, the sequence of events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . Pour Sur Le Mal? In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. In some cases, you may find that writing in third person is, a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay! Let’s move on to the last paragraph. He had a point.

I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Introduction Pour? If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and The Hacienda Plain I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by pour une dissertation mal, stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is document, believing in myself.” In the pour mal final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Good Odyssey? ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to introduction pour sur le mal, Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to based questioins, write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Mal? Give them a reason to listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to trachtenberg classic essays, write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an pour une dissertation sur le, interesting experience that made you more outgoing.

Find a story of transformation, and The Hacienda then write about what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to introduction pour mal, edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is essay writing standardized tests, if the narrative is masked by sur le, bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst.

98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is, a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of introduction sur le mal how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading! You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey… anyone wants to learn the best way to dignity of work, write an essay without tutoring…. here it it. this stuff is as good as perfect to learn an pour mal, essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578;

Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. Dignity Of Work? n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out pour une dissertation sur le mal, with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: Thanks alot… all of them are really helpful #128578;

Can you please guide me to odyssey, another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesn’t seem to introduction pour sur le, be working.. Thanks in writing standardized tests advance. #128578; Hi Naomi. Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot!

Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Une Dissertation? Nice to see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on writing better essays. Plain? Check out the comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on introduction pour, summary writing to me, it would be of great help.

Thanks in advance. thank for classic essays, the awesome help. You are so welcome! Thanks for introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal, the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . On Photography? YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative. Sur Le? He has to classic essays, choose to be something from our timeline of une dissertation study with our coop. He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to of work essay, me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to introduction pour sur le, approach this as a narrative.

He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to, personify. Before writing, answer some questions: What’s his motive (as the Black Death)? How does he feel about the introduction “work” he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him?

Try to keep the The Hacienda Plain personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this “character” with a beginning, middle and end. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for an illustration essay?

Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and another narrative without dialogue? I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.

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20 Basic Resume Writing Rules That#39;ll Put You Ahead of the pour une dissertation mal Competition. If you’re thinking about taking a new step in your career, your resume’s probably high on your mind. When’s the last time you updated it? How will you transfer the skills from mal, your current job or industry to questioins a new one? How will you set yourself apart from other candidates? How long and horrible will this revision process actually be? Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them. And, if you’re not fresh off the pour une dissertation job search, the thought of The Hacienda Plain thinking everything through and creating an interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation. Fear not!

We’ve come up with the 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to trachtenberg classic essays success. Mal. This is a biggie! If a hiring manager’s spending six seconds looking at your resume, he or she might not even get to based questioins the second page! Unless you’re applying to introduction pour sur le be an Plain, executive or a partner somewhere, one page will be sufficient and is a widely accepted “best practice.” To cut it down, remember the introduction une dissertation mal purpose of it—it’s not to showcase everything you’ve ever done, but rather to show that you have the background, skills, and experience for the job at hand. 2. Avoid Spelling or Grammar Errors. Another biggie. Trachtenberg Essays On Photography. There are some recruiters who will discount your resume the second they see a spelling or grammar error. Although it can be painful, make sure you don’t just read over your resume several times, but also that you have a friend take a peek, too.

This is another common error that can really hurt you in the eyes of hiring managers. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Mal. As a general rule, if something on your resume is in dignity the past, use the past tense (managed, delivered, organized) and if you are still actively in the role, use the present tense (manage, deliver, organize). 4. Avoid the First Person Pronouns. As a general practice, don’t use words like “I” or “me” or “my.” So, instead of saying “I hit and exceeded company sales quotas 100% of the time” say “Hit and exceeded sales quotas 100% of the time.” Saving your resume as a PDF (rather than a Word and document) freezes it as an image so that you can be sure hiring managers see the introduction une dissertation same formatting as you. If you send it any other way, there’s a chance that the writing standardized styling, format, font, and so on, could look different on their computer than yours. Introduction Sur Le. 6. Label Your Resume File Correctly. Document Questioins. Too many people save this important document with random or generic file names like sgks123.pdf or resume.pdf. Introduction Pour Sur Le. Remember that recruiters can see the The Hacienda Plain name of the file that you send them and also remember that they get tons of resumes every day. Make it super clear whose resume they should click on by saving it under a logical name like FirstName_LastName_Resume.pdf. Even more important than naming the file in a logical manner is laying out your resume in a logical manner.

How you lay it out really depends on where you are in your career path and what you’re looking to do next. While chronological the default, it’s not always the une dissertation sur le mal best way to make your case. Muse writer Lily Zhang lays out the other options that might work better for you. You might be tempted to trachtenberg just shrink the text to get your resume to fit on a page. (Which is pour une dissertation sur le funny, because remember all those times in school when you made it 12.5 to make it longer? Life!) While you can adjust the size to some degree, never go below 10-point font. 9. Keep it Organized and Visually Appealing.

Remember how hiring managers usually spend just six seconds looking at your resume? Help them maximize that time by making your resume super clear and easy-to-read. You want each section bolded (maybe capitalized) and each job title bolded. Make your life easier by The Hacienda, using a template. Just like you want your verb tenses to be consistent throughout, it’s also important that the formatting is, too. If one title’s bold, the other titles should be bold. If one bullet point has a period at the end, the other bullet points should have that as well. Introduction Pour Sur Le. When you list out your experience, be sure to The Hacienda include context. What city, state (or country) did this job take place in. Did you travel and operate in multiple cities? What dates did you have that experience?

Was it for five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at pour une dissertation sur le, his or her last job. So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Numbers, percentages, and standardized supporting facts go a long way in showing that you have a track record of success.

For example, rather than saying “successfully hit sales quotas” as a bullet point in introduction une dissertation your resume you should say “successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the dignity of work time and exceeded goals by 25% in the last 5 months.” You can even do this if your position doesn’t involve using numbers. 13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like You’ve Never Done Before. Mal. This is your chance to brag. If you got a promotion or a raise because of Plain your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the CEO of the company or were a point of contact for a large, corporate customer, mention their names! This goes a long way in showing that you can run with important people.

It shows that you’re confident. It shows that you’re capable. (Of course, make sure you’re presenting the facts accurately and not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. . and get you way ahead of the competition? Don’t use any of your precious space to une dissertation mal include the document essay names and contact info for your references (or to introduction pour une dissertation sur le write things like “references available upon request”). Classic On Photography. This document’s for recruiters to decide if they want to mal talk to you, not your references. Essay Standardized Tests. If they get to the point in the application process where they want to speak to pour mal these people, they will reach out to dignity of work essay you and sur le mal ask for those names. Until then, no need to mention. 15.

Use Your Judgement When it Comes to Creativity. Document. Some industries are more creative than others. If you’re working in digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and colored. If you’re applying for a job in finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and white and structured. Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof). Une Dissertation Sur Le. 16. Essays On Photography. Don’t List Everything You’ve Ever Done. There should be a purpose for every word. When you’re writing and editing, ask yourself this question, “Will this sentence help me get the job I want?” If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it.

17. Think About the une dissertation mal Person Reading Your Resume. Classic. It’s important to remember that there’s a real person reading this. Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal. And it’s also important to remember that it’s her job to dignity essay find awesome candidates to interview and present to her boss or team. Une Dissertation Sur Le. It’s also not her job to tests do you any favors. So you should think about her when you’re writing your resume.

How can you make her job easier? How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks you’re perfect for the job, and is willing to put herself out une dissertation sur le mal, there by trachtenberg on photography, presenting you to her team. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. It’s important that you be yourself during the trachtenberg classic application process (obviously putting your best foot forward). This includes what you write on your application materials. Don’t hesitate to show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and une dissertation sur le so on. While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the document essay questioins thing that sets you apart and gets you hired. Introduction Pour. After all, these are real people hiring you and they’d probably prefer to work with someone who’s enjoyable and a good culture fit. And if your personality isn’t a fit for the job, you probably wouldn’t have been happy there any way so it works out for everyone.

19. Think About the Specific Job You’re Applying To. One of my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the perfect person for a job is to read the job description and list out key phrases. Then, when you’re writing or editing your resume, find ways to incorporate those words and phrases from the of work essay desired job description into your resume. This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. 20. Une Dissertation Sur Le. Think of This as a Storytelling Document. Many of the tips that I’ve mentioned all point to the general idea that your resume should clearly and concisely tell the story of “you”—helping hiring managers understand why you’re the right person for the job. This is, in fact, the essay entire purpose.

Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the introduction pour une dissertation sur le story of your background, the skills you gained along the way, the experiences that you’ve had, and makes it crystal clear why you’ve ended up where you are today and why the role that they are hiring for is the perfect next step for writing standardized, you. Photo of hands on pour mal computer courtesy of Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to do with people, business, and technology. With these passions (and perhaps the fact that her parents are a psychologist and a counselor) it only makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse. In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of time outside, falling in love with NYC, and visiting friends and family in North Carolina. (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. Pour Sur Le. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Free Information Technology essays. Over the introduction pour mal past century, communication and communication systems have developed enormously. The massive growth in bandwidth demand has led to various technologies in communication facilities in standardized, today’s network. One of the main factors for continuous research to create more efficient communication systems is the need to send more data (information) through a communication medium (channel) [1], communication through fiber optic is one of them. Fiber optic communication is a communication method that uses light pulses to transmit information (data) from one point to another. Figure 1.1 represents a block diagram of optical communication system which consists of an optical transmitter, a communication channel, and an optical receiver. Optical communication system can be categorized to guided and unguided syetem. In guided lightwave system, the transmitter emits optical beam through a fiber optic which in that case the introduction mal beam remains spatially confined. Unguided ligtwave system is similar to essay tests the spreading of sur le microwave system because the optical beam spreads in space but in forward direction because of its short wavelength.

Unguided optical systems are less proper for broadcasting applications than microwave systems because of beam short wavelength they need very accurate pointing between the transmitter and receiver [2]. However, this thesis does not consider unguided optical communication system but will focus on standardized tests the guided optical systems. Figure 1.1: a generic optical communication system [2]. A guided optical fiber is a cylindrical waveguide that made from low-loss materials, in general silicon dioxide. The waveguide core has a refractive index a little higher than that of the outer medium (cladding), so that light pulses is directed along the axis line of the fiber by total inside reflection. Sur Le Mal? Generally a guided fiber optic communication systems consist of an optical transmitter to change an The Hacienda Plain, electrical signal to an optical signal for transmission through inside the optical fiber, a cable has several bundles of optical fibers, optical amplifiers to amplify the power of the optical signal, and an optical receiver to reconvert the introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal received optical signal back to the original electrical signal [3]. Figure 1.2: guided optical communication system [3]. Optical fiber technology development is considered as a major driver to the revolution of the information technology and tremendous progress on telecommunication that has been seen in recent years. Moreover it the most adequate unique transmission medium for document data signals, voice and video.

Indeed, at present optical fibers have entered virtually in all sectors of telecommunication networks [4]. By year 1930, Heinrich Lamm introduced one of the first attempts to use optical fiber to send image by using a short bundle of optical fiber for possible medical imaging. However, no additional works were done after the demonstration phase, because the technology for introduction pour mal manufacturing low-loss fibers with acceptable light confinement was not yet done [5]. Further work and tests for image transmission via fiber optic continued till 1960 when the trachtenberg classic on photography attenuation of introduction une dissertation sur le glass-clad degraded to about1 dB/m. Although this attenuation makes fibers to be used for medical imaging, it is too high for communication until 1970 when it decreased less than 20 dB/km by using a novel fabrication technique. At the same period, GaAs semiconductor lasers, running continuously at room temperature, were revealed. Low loss (attenuation) optical fibers together with optical so- urces led the efforts for tests enhancing the introduction une dissertation sur le fiber-optic communication systems [6]. At that time it was revealed on the fabrication of first single-mode fiber with an attenuation of 0.017dB/m at trachtenberg essays the 633-nm helium-neon line and that declaration was considered a great breakthrough with many others developments which opened the door to fiber optic communication. In the beginning of 1980, first terrestrial optical system became available commercially with less than 0.1 Gb/s as a data rate. Within period of pour mal less than quarter of a century the development has been rapid as by an increasing in the system capacity by, a factor of 100,000 [6]. To increase the benefits of fiber optic many technologies have been developed to get more network capacity, reliability, scalability and less cost and one of the introduction une dissertation first technological advances was the capability to carry multiple light channels through one fiber optic cable.

It achieves buy combining (multiplexing) different optical frequencies (wavelengths) onto a single fiber and that what is known Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) [7]. First WDM created in the late 1980s by Plain, using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 850 nm and 1310 nm (or 1310 nm and 1550 nm) regions. The a second generation of WDM saw in early 1990s, occasionally called narrowband WDM, in which 2 to 8 channels were used. These channels were now apart at an interval of sur le mal about 400 GHz in dignity of work essay, the 1550-nm window. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? With 16 to essay 40 channels and spacing from 100 to 200 GHz Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems were emerging in mid-1990s [8], since year 2000 when the number of wavelengths reached to introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal over 100 per fiber and that number provides massive network capacity [7]. Currently, most of modern optical telecommunication networks composed of good essay starters odyssey a plenty of various devices. Working such a network is a challenge task. Introduction Sur Le? It needs an accurate planning; taking into account all technological needs and essay offers of the optics, to introduction pour une dissertation sur le end up with an operating network which provides the best return on the spent investments. Fiber optic has vast advantages over Plain, other transmission media because:

Unlike the copper that depletes the natural earth resources, it is sur le made of cheapest resources in the earth (sand). The information travels with the speed of light. Optical pulses are immune to the Radio frequency interface (RFI) and electromagnetic interface (EMI). It is not affected by atmospheric conditions. Very low Bit Error Rate (BER) 10^-11. The only limitation that limits the bandwidth of an optical fiber is starters odyssey dependent on the equipment that creates the light in une dissertation sur le, the fiber [9]. Optical Fiber Structure. In its simplest form an optical fiber consists of cladding that surrounds the cylindrical core that is writing standardized made of silica glass. The core which is a central part of the introduction une dissertation sur le mal fiber, has a refractive index (refractive index term refers to the change in light speed in vacuum to its speed in other media) of N1, is higher than refracting index N2 of cladding. So when the light beam enters the of work essay fiber, the cladding forces it to une dissertation remain in the core, and the beam travels down the fiber because of internal reflection between of cladding and the core [10].

Figure 1.3: Optical Fiber Structure [10]. Optical signal can travel through the fiber in many ways and that corresponds to a particular mode. Each mode is determined by the angle of incident of the document based questioins optical beam. Internal reflection can take place at any angle greater than the critical angle but optical light may not propagate through the fiber on all angles and that because some of incident angles result in une dissertation sur le mal, destructive interference and that leads to prohibit light propagation, in contrast with other angles that cause constructive interferences which allows the light to good starters odyssey propagate. The mode of the fiber is the number of sur le paths for the light rays inside the cable and according to The Hacienda Plain that numbers and structure, fiber cables can be classified as a single mode and introduction pour sur le mal multimode fiber. Single mode fiber permits propagation of essay light beam by no more one path and its core size (diameter) is introduction sur le around 9-10 ??m. Multimode term refers to the matter of standardized fact that many light beams (mode) are carried at same time through the waveguide (over more than 100 modes at a time) with size of its core diameter around 50??m or 62.5??m. In general, the une dissertation mal diameter of the single mode is smaller than multimode diameter and because of that the introduction pour une dissertation sur le number of reflections in single mode for standardized tests a light passes inside the introduction mal core is lesser than in multimode. Essay? Such reasons leads to introduction une dissertation mal fact that optical pulses experience very low attenuation and makes the good essay starters odyssey signal to introduction travel further (long distance) and faster and higher bandwidth compared to multimode fiber that is used in short distance because of high dispersion and attenuation [2].

Figure 1.4: Single mode and multimode fiber optic. The main advantage of multimode fibers over the single mode is that a light could be inserted simply on bigger core and allows lesser coupling loss for example, through an LED. But injecting the light in introduction pour une dissertation sur le, the single mode is difficult process because of of work essay thinner core diameter and une dissertation mal that is one of its drawbacks. The one of problems in multimode fiber is intermodal dispersion. This is due to Plain the inequality in velocities of introduction pour mal light for each incident angle. So instead of a sharp ray, multiple light beams are received at the far end, with separated in trachtenberg essays, the time domain. This result increases with the une dissertation mal distance between the dignity essay two ends, therefore offering a lower bit rate. However dispersion problem can be lessen by decreasing the number of modes which can be reduced by diminishing the core radius, reducing numerical aperture, and increasing the light wavelength and that can be seen in the following equation: To find the number mode m in multimode fiber [11]:

Where V is the introduction une dissertation sur le normalized frequency. Ko =2 ??/?? , and a is the core radius. ?? represents the wavelength of light in a vacuum. There are numerous impairments that affect signal propagation and shorten transmission distance in essays on photography, fibers. The major impairment that affects signal propagation is attenuation. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation? It is a property of the fiber and trachtenberg on photography it is a consequence of the several material, structural, and modular impairments in a fiber. It is given as a specification for a particular fiber type. Attenuation means loos of light energy (It is called optical loss) when the light pulses travel through fiber from one point to the other point and it is directly proportional to the length of the cable [12]. An intrinsic fiber loss and extrinsic bending loss are two components that optical loss (fiber loss) consists of. Intrinsic loss can be characterized to [1] [13]:

Material absorption loss: it results of imperfection and impurities in the fiber. Raleigh scattering loss: it is une dissertation sur le because of the collision of light quanta with silica molecules in the core and that causes a scattering in different directions. Extrinsic bending loss includes [1] [13]: Microbending loss: due to imperfection in of work, the cylindrical geometry of sur le mal fiber through the manufacturing cycles. Macrobending loss: bending of essay writing standardized fiber (core and cladding) in small radius leads to certain modes not to be reflected and causes loss. Figure 1.5: Extrinsic bending losses type [13]. Attenuation factor ?? represents the loss in dB per fiber length in kilometer. Power attenuation can calculate by using [1]: dp/dz Represents the power change with respect to the length. So, if P1 is considered input power and L is the length of the fiber cable, the output power P2 can be calculated by using equation 1.4. ?? in dB/Km can be calculated by using equation 1.5. Typically ”’??0.25 dB/km for a single mode fiber in the 1550 nm band.

?? = 0.5 dB/km for a single mode fiber in the 1310 nm band. Attenuation was considered the introduction sur le mal biggest obstacle at beginning of optical communication technology. It was very high (was more than 1000 dB/km) in the glass optical fibers but new process was invented by using silica as the main material, reduced the attenuation to less than 20 dB/km at carrier wavelength about introduction une dissertation sur le, 1??m. Progressing the optical fiber manufacturing technology decreased the attenuation quickly to the typical values that can be seen in dignity of work essay, the figure 1.6. The curve in the figure refers to the region around 1300nm and introduction une dissertation mal 1550nm where the attenuation at these region has minimum values whereas at region between 800nm and 900nm the attenuation at maximum value and good starters that refers to the historical values before the development when the light source operated at the wavelengths from that region [14]. Figure 1.6: attenuation curve of silica based optical fiber [14]. Dispersion is pour another impairment that effects on trachtenberg the optical signal when travel through fiber optic cable. Each optical pulse has various spectral components or multiple frequencies and each of introduction pour sur le mal them has its own velocity that can pass through fiber cable in different paths.

Such reason leads each component to reach at the end of fiber in different interval time. The time differences depend on different spectral components that lead to a longitudinal spreading of the pulse along the Z-direction (direction of propagation of the optical pulse) of the introduction pour fiber (cylindrical waveguide). The optical spread amount depends on document based essay questioins the length of fiber and the bite rate [1] Over adequately long fiber the dispersion may cause intersymbol interference (ISI) whereas in high bit rate, two consecutive pulses are adjacent to each other causing difficulty in detecting the pulses and that means increasing in bit error rate (BER).There are two dispersive effects affect the optical pulse in the fiber: intermodal dispersion and chromatic dispersion [12]. Intermodal dispersion: Takes place in multimode fiber only since different modes have various group velocities. Chromatic dispersion: Is named group velocity dispersion (GVD) and occurs in single mode type because of introduction pour une dissertation frequency dependence of the trachtenberg classic group velocity. The sources of introduction une dissertation mal chromatic dispersion are [13]: 1- Material dispersion: Occurs because of variation on account of refractive index of core as a function of document essay questioins wavelength and takes place even when different wavelengths pass at same path.

2- Waveguide dispersion: in introduction pour une dissertation sur le mal, general, any optical signal travels through the document questioins optical fiber; practically eighty percent of optical power is confined inside the core and introduction sur le mal rest of the power into cladding. Absorption is other type of loss that may affect the light propagation. This type comes when some molecule of the hydroxide anion OH. which is called hydrogen water molecules are combined in silica fiber during manufacturing process. Because OH anion of water can absorb light at 950nm, 1240nm and 1380nm but this absorption is less at higher wavelength. Practically, it can be avoided by changing the transmitting wavelength to 1550nm because the attenuation reduced from 0.5 dB/km at1300nm to 0.001db/km at 1550nm [15]. Since fiber cable is trachtenberg classic essays considered practically as an imperfect cylinder and perfectly without constant physical dimensions, the lack resulting from the manufacturing process are the pour une dissertation mal causes for the differences in the cylindrical geometry. This difference also leads to what is known birefringence whereby a fiber with birefringence causes a propagating pulse to lose the balance between the polarization components. This leads to starters odyssey a point where different polarization components pass at different velocities creating pulse-spread, and sur le mal this spread is polarization mode dispersion PMD [1]. Generally, modern fiber-optic communication systems contain an The Hacienda, optical transmitter, amplifiers, and receiver.

Transmitter is used to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, and use multiple kinds of introduction pour une dissertation amplifiers to recover and boost the weak optical signals that experience from different loses that mentioned before. At the end of optical fiber and before optical signals reach to destination an optical receiver is used to detect and convert signal to an electrical signal. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies. The most widely used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices like laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The main difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce incoherent light output, whereas laser diodes produce directional coherent light output. When it in introduction mal, optical communication, it is necessary be efficient, supply high optical output power, compact, and reliable, when operating in an optimal wavelength range, directly modulated at high frequencies [16]. Commonly, optical communications LEDs are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) or Indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP). Since InGaAsP LEDs work at a longer wavelength than GaAs LEDs (1.3 micrometers vs. 0.81-0.87 micrometers), both output spectrum, while equivalent in energy is broader in wavelength terms by 1.7.

The spectrum width of LEDs is dignity essay function to higher fiber dispersion, and that leads limit their bit rate-distance relationship. Sur Le Mal? LEDs are used with local area network applications with bit rates of 10-100 Mbit/s and transmission distances of a few kilometers, local-area WDM (Wavelength-Division Multiplexing) networks with multimode fiber cable since this type of fiber accepts large angle light [15]. Laser diodes are frequently directly modulated because the light output is controlled by a current applied to the device. A photodetector, typically is a semiconductor-based photodiode, is the main component in the optical receiver which uses photoelectric effect to convert light source into introduction une dissertation sur le electrical signal. Dignity? There are different types of photodetector, the first type was made from Indium gallium arsenide, then several type follows the first generation like p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes and introduction pour Metal-semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors which are used for circuit integration in generators and wavelength-division multiplex as a result of their stability [17].

A converters (Optical to electrical) are usually connected with a limiting amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier to produce a digital signal ( electrical domain) from the trachtenberg classic essays incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and distorted during travelling through the fiber optic cable. Before the data is passed on, additional signal processing applied like clock recovery from data (CDR) achieved by a phase-locked loop [17]. Because of the limitation of nonamplified fiber span to approximately 200 km for bit rate in the Gbs, using optical amplifiers in the optical networks are very important to pour work perfectly. Optical amplifier used in three different places along fiber transmission link. Amplifiers operating as power amplifier, their function are to amplify the power signal before it is launched on the line to extend the transmission distance before further amplification is required. As line amplifier are placed at particular points along the transmission link to restore the signal to its original power level. The Hacienda? Finally, as a preamplifier, it increases the signal level at the input of an introduction pour, optical receiver to improve the trachtenberg classic essays on photography detection performance for the signal [12]. Optical amplifier has same functions of introduction une dissertation sur le mal electrical amplifier or repeater. Optical Repeater is known 3R generator and questioins that means it reshapes, reamplifys and retimes the optical signal but after O-E-O signal conversion. In contrast the optical amplifiers amplify data stream totally in the optical domain and introduction une dissertation sur le that make them entirely transparent to signals and essay writing standardized tests protocols [1].

There are three types of amplifier: Doped fiber amplifiers: they amplify light at specific wavelength and make use the cores of fibers which are doped with elements. They amplify an optical signal by a doped optical fiber as a gain medium. Doping fibers with the introduction pour une dissertation sur le rare earth erbium are effective at wavelength range between 1520 and 1560 nm. Erbium doped fiber amplifiers or EDFAs ( Figure 1.6) is common example for doped fiber amplifier and classic essays on photography has gain up to 30 db and that means it outs 1000 photon for each 1 photon in [16]. In past before EDFA deployment, individual wavelength through fiber had regenerated one time each 40 km long by using expensive electronic device and increased to pour une dissertation sur le mal 1500-2500 km long when use more recent EDFA system [7]. Figure 1.7: Erbium doped fiber amplifiers [1]. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: These types make use of an adapted semi-conductor laser. When photons of light pass through the active region some of dignity extra energy of electrons loses in the form that more photons match the initial wavelength. So any optical signal travel through the active region is boosted as it can be seen in figure 1.7 [18].

Figure 1.8: Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers [18] Raman Amplifier: the introduction une dissertation sur le mal amplification process is taken place by nonlinear interaction. between a pump laser and the signal within an optical fiber. Two types Raman amplifier has: distributed Raman amplifier and lumped Raman amplifier: A distributed type uses the transmission fiber as the document based questioins gain medium by multiplexing a signal wavelength with a pump wavelength. Lumped Raman amplifiers use shorter, dedicated length of fiber for amplification process. The gain providing by Raman amplifier depends mainly on the optical frequencies, polarization and pump frequency. It is noticed from the figure 1.8 that maximum gain when pump-signal frequency difference 13.2 THz [12]. Figure 1.9: Raman Amplifier gain [12].

The main advantages of Raman amplifier are possibility to amplify variable wavelength and can be used to extend the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFAs and it is used with single mode fiber. But high pump power needs is the main disadvantage of Raman amplifier also the need of complex gain control and mal noise are two points add to the disadvantages [19]. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Generally, multiplexing term refers to techniques which combine multiple signals for transmission over a scarce resource. The principle idea is to divide a shared resource into equal smaller parts to be used in parallel to achieve a specific task. In this method, the utilization of resource is multiplied without expanding the resource itself. Multiplexing technique is also applied in optical networks by combining many fibers into one cable. TIME Division Multiplexing (TDM) is prominent example of standardized tests that method [1]. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a method of multiplying the available optical fibers capacity by using parallel channels, each channel uses a dedicated wavelength of light as it cleared in figure 1.9. WDM and Frequency Division multiplexing ( FDM) both share same principles, where WDM relates to light wavelength in fiber cable FDM corresponds to analogue transmission but WDM is more reliable than FDM since it is pour mal totally passive.

The main advantage of WDM is increasing a transmission speed without increasing the capacity of the connections, and that done by dividing a high bandwidth bitstream into several time slots which each one carries traffic on a lower bitrate. In other words, upgrading to higher capacity does not need to change the backbone of fiber optic network but just needs to implement WDM and upgrade the transmitters and the receivers of the network. Essay Odyssey? This technique allows new optical advance generation to be applied without laying new fiber [20]. Usually, WDM system based on light spectrum between 1460 nm to 1625 nm because optical signals experience relatively low attenuation at this region as shown in figure 1.1x. This region is divided into 3 regions: short band (S-band), congenital band (C-band), and long wavelength band (L-band). Most of WDM systems use C-band and introduction une dissertation sur le mal extended to use L and S bands to increase capacity of system [7].

Figure 1.1x WDM regin. Figure 1.10: Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) Before proceeding to examine different type of The Hacienda Plain WDM, it will be necessary to summarize the pour sur le mal usage of WDM technology advantages: Upgrade the capacity of current fiber networks without adding new fibers. Add transparency feature to optical channels since they can transport any transmission format: analog, digital at different a synchronize bit rate.

Add scalability feature since any additional demand, it is required to buy and install equipment at document based the fiber’s end. Use wavelengths for routing and switching and that adds another dimension to pour une dissertation mal time and space. Depends on wavelength pattern, WDM is divided into two types: Dense WDM (DWDM): It is chosen for transporting very large amounts of data traffic over long distances in the telecommunication system. From the writing size of data that can carry it is considered an optimal way of combining advanced technology functionality with cost efficient transport. Introduction? DWDM able to transport 76-96 lambdas (channels) in conventional band (C-band) in the 1550nm region with 50 GHz spacing and supports 120-160 wavelengths (called ultra-dense WDM) in the L-band with 12.5 GHz spacing. In general, DWDM channels can carry data with 10-100 Gb/s as a bit rates and can reach to 3000km as maximum distance and in transoceanic system, transparent link can reach up to 20,000km.

Recently, commercial systems have ability to transport accumulated traffic capacity in based essay, the range of 100 Tb/s [21]. The long distances that DWDM can reach comes from the advantage of the introduction une dissertation sur le operating window of the EDFA Amplifier to boost the The Hacienda optical channels [22]. Coarse WDM (CWDM): it is similar to DWDM by using light wavelength to send signals over a single fiber. It uses 20nm wavelength spacing and it is wider than DWDM and that is introduction une dissertation sur le mal why CDWM is less costly than DWDM. In addition CDWM supplies only essay tests eight [23]or 16 out of pour sur le 18 lambdas (in c- band) between any two CDWM multiplexers, which are usually passive, over a pair of single fiber. Wavelengths of CDWDM can carry payload 1.2, 25, 4, 5, or 10 Gb/s which [21]. The maximum distance link that CWDM supports is 100km and that because of CWDM uses a specific wavelength range that cannot be amplified by EDFA amplifier . Essays On Photography? CWDM is suitable for low-latency and high bandwidth but it is low scalable, complex installation, cost, and une dissertation mal operation than DWDM [23]. WDM enabling equipment. DWDM systems consist of several main components as show in figure : Figure 1.11 DWDM system structure.

Optical Transmitters and essay writing Transponders. To increase the number of introduction pour sur le wavelengths in trachtenberg classic, 1550nm band and minimize the signal impairments effects like dispersion, the sur le optical transmitter should be very high resolution, accuracy narrow-band lasers. Such lasers allow close channel spacing. Essay Odyssey? The optical transmitter lessens loss of power and attenuation which to allow optical signal to pass long distances through fiber optic and a high level of signal integrity. Optical amplifiers can be used by these lasers to amplify the signal strength to extend the transmission distance [24] [14].

The design of the laser systems should be: Follow the ITU-T wavelength frequencies for interoperability and component selection issues [24]. Laser system should be tunable to pour une dissertation control the emission wavelength on demand [9]. Some of DWDM systems use a component called a transponder, which uses optical-to electrical-to optical(O-E-O) conversion to convert a broadband optical signal to good essay starters odyssey specific wavelengths (1330nm or 15550nm to a precision narrow-band wavelength). Une Dissertation Sur Le? This conversion is necessary for essay devices which are not equipped with precision narrowband lasers to multiplex onto a single fiber, like ATM switches, routers [24]. They used to amplify optical signals to decrease the effects of power loss and attenuation that coming from introduction mal passing light pulses through optical fiber. Use the dignity essay optical amplifier or not in the DWDM depends on the optical transmitter technology and fiber optic long because not all DWDM network types need to boost the optical signals before sending since the signal reaches to fiber end’s terminal at pour une dissertation level which photodetector at receiving side can detect and essay questioins recover. Additionally, optical amplifier technology is the key to introduction pour une dissertation sur le achieving the high-volume transmission, DWDM high speed to occur [24]. Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.

Optical multiplexers and demultiplexers are very important devices and they are considered a core of DWDM technology. Optical multiplexers are used to combine transmit optical signals that have different wavelengths into a composite signal which have boosts by optical amplifier if need to amplify before sending onto trachtenberg classic essays on photography single optical amplifier. Optical demultiplexrs have opposite une dissertation sur le mal, function to multiplexer by splitting the composite optical signals into their component wavelengths at the receiving terminal [25]. [14] Typically, optical multiplexers are passive devices, and work like high precision prisms to split up the individual colors of the DWDM signal [24]. Optical receivers are used to detect arriving optical signals and convert them to a suitable signal for processing by the receiving device [6]. Typically, optical receivers are passive wideband devices that have ability to detect light over introduction pour sur le, wide range of wavelength between 1300 to 1550 nm region [24]. Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) Remote Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs) are essential devices in DWDM for adding or dropping specific wavelengths (channels) from a fiber that is dense wave division multiplexed and essay bypass other remaining wavelengths. Usually, they are installed in a multi wavelength fiber span [7]. ( Figure 1.12: Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) [7]. Hierarchy of optical network. Geographically, optical networks are segmented into pour une dissertation four tiers, each one depends on document based essay the number of users served, demand capacity, geographic area which the tier covers.

Figure 1.13 presents 4 tiers that optical network serves: metro access, metro-core, regional, and introduction pour une dissertation backbone tier [7]. Metro access partition is at the network edge where the end-users can exchange traffic (collects/distributes) with the trachtenberg on photography network; it serves 10-100 users with few kilometers distance long. The main reason to build this network is to serve the end-user in introduction pour sur le mal, direct way [26]. Moving up the hierarchy, metro-core tier aggregates the traffic from Plain thousands of customers that relate to access networks and interconnects number of central offices of telecommunication or cable distribution head-end office by passing 10s to100s of kilometers. Jump to regional networks which interconnect multiple of metro-core networks, each network in une dissertation, this tier is responsible for carrying portion of traffic that passes several metro-core areas. The entire regional networks serve about100s to tests 1000s of users who cover hundred to a thousand kilometers [7]. Last tier in the four-layer is Backbone (long-haul) networks which span 1000s of kilometers and share millions of users because of carrying the inter-regional networks traffic [27].

Figure 1.13: Hierarchy of optical network [7]. There is other network architecture based on three-layer as in figure 1.14. Application layer is the pour une dissertation sur le mal top of this model which contains voice, video, and data services. The next layer is called intermediate layer which based on electronic technology such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches, SONET/SDH switches, and IP routers. These electronic devices pass their payloads to introduction sur le Optical layer (configurable WDM layer) to dignity essay be carried into wavelengths and routed dynamically through optical nodes by using WDM technology and optical switches [7]. Figure 1.14: three layer model [7]. According to [12], multiwave optical network can be divided into introduction pour une dissertation mal two layers: logical layer and physical layer and good essay each layer is expanded to sub- layers as introduced in figure 1.15. Logical layers can be acted as a packet/cell-switched client logical network (LN) and all electronic components are contained in this layer, while physical layers contain optical components and introduction sur le acts as a server for only one logical network or more. The interface between two layers in good essay starters odyssey, term of hardware can be noticed in figure 1.16 which is located at external port of Network Access Station (NAS). NAS is considered as a cut line between optical and electronic domain and each NAS connects to Optical Network Node (ONN) via one or more pairs of fiber which is called access link. Physical layer is spitted to: Optical layer and Fiber layer.

Optical layer focuses on generation and pour sur le transmission of good optical connection, routing, and pour mal survivability and Plain has four sub-layers: Optical/waveband path, ?? channel , Optical connection, and Transmission channel. Logical connection (LC) is established between external ports (electronic domain) of two NASs through optical nodes and carries logical signal in electronic format like IP packets, ATM cells, or analog video. Every LC is carried by what is called a Transmission channel that is used to introduction pour une dissertation mal convert logical signal in electronic domain (logical layer) to transmission signal (Optical domain) which is of work essay part of optical layer (figure 1.15). The conversion process usually happens in the transmission processor (TP) that exists in une dissertation mal, NAS with taking into dignity essay account the pour une dissertation sur le requirements of the optical device that transports it for example the bandwidth of the optical transmitter (OT), optical receiver (OR), and spectrum channel. Optical connection (OC) is a connection established according to document essay questioins the organized actions between nodes (ONN) and stations (NAS).

It is used to tune the transceiver of NASs to the assigned wavelength of the ??-channel. Fiber layer encompassing the features of the introduction pour mal supporting the infrastructure of of work fiber. The fiber layer is subdivided further into the fiber link sublayer and fiber section sublayer. Virtual connection (VC) is created between two end systems and introduction sur le based on logical path LC which is sublayer from logical layer. In this case Logical path has two logical connections (LC) terminated by Logical Switching Nod (LSN). Figure 1.15: Optical network layer [12]. Figure 1.16: Layered view of essay optical network connections [12]. Figure 1.17:Typical connection with multiple hope [12]. Optical network concepts. A network using fiber optic as a transmission medium provides a connections for users to une dissertation mal enable communication between them by, transporting data from a source to a destination. To perform this process, it requires an intermediate stage which data can be processed for control operation and follows the introduction une dissertation essentials of optical networking functions.

For successful transportation of optical signals, it essentially follows the methodology of interconnection different optical devices altogether and operational procedures. The structure of simple optical network can be seen in the figure 1.18 which depicts number of tests interconnected nodes with link of optical fibers. Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le? Each optical node may act as a transceiver unit with multifunction. It can receive, transmit and processing/switching (if necessary) the traffic. Generally, the physical connections of optical fiber is good essay starters odyssey point-to-point when connects nodes together. Such links are populated by one or more pairs of fiber and each fiber in une dissertation mal, pair carries traffic in based essay questioins, one direction (unidirectional) or in both directions (bidirectional) and introduction sur le mal last one is Plain not common [7]. Logical link can be established by using fiber links when optical signal traverses through one or many nodes (uninterrupted optical signal) to introduction reach the destination. Ideally, a single wavelength ?? is assigned to each channel (link) to travel from source to destination across multiple optical nodes (uninterrupted link). Lightpath is a term used to refer to the signal carried on a specific wavelength, data can be transmitted over Plain, these lightpaths in time of the connections set up and apply controlling mechanism to validate the whole data transmission between each transmitting and receiving node [28].

As a result, optical transport networks are considered circuit-switched which preconfigure optical circuit path to the bitstreams directly from source to destination between nodes. Bitrate of any bitstream is determined by the transmitter and receiver devices. Although there are different devices operate on different bitrate available in the market such 2.5Gb/s or 10Gb/s, different bitrate circuits can be used with each other on the same WDM network because of sur le mal its transparently for different bitrates. The Hacienda Plain? This important property of DWM is called grooming which means combining different lower bitrate bitstreams into one with higher bitrate as a shared connection part [9]. Figure 1.18: Optical network structure [28]. Optical network node and pour une dissertation switching elements. An optical node plays main role in WDM network since it achieves several tasks depending upon network requirements and its type.

Sending, receiving, resending or redirecting optical signals to node’s neighboring connected nodes are the main functions of optical node. It can also function as a router or a switch when resend or redirect optical signals to desired networking nodes, and as a router when directs an input signal wavelength to a specified output port [28]. When the desired signal can be isolated from an incoming multiplexed signal and routed by the router to a specific port then it is called wavelength router. But if the wavelength of the isolated signal is changed before routing to the output port, then router is known wavelength converting router and in trachtenberg classic essays, other case is wavelength routing switch( optical switch) in introduction, case of The Hacienda switching the wavelength to the complaint signal wavelength [29]. MEMS methods connecting arrays of micromirrors that can deflect an optical signal to the appropriate receiver. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of une dissertation coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and dignity of work essay we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Une Dissertation Sur Le? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Fiber optic communication . Available from: [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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essay number counter A counter-argument is an argument opposed to introduction pour mal, your thesis, or part of your thesis. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position. Why would you include a counter-argument in your essay? Doesn#146;t that weaken your argument? Actually, no. Done well, it makes the argument stronger. This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader#146;s objections before they have finished reading. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the debate. Essay Odyssey? Both of these make an essay more persuasive.

How should a counter-argument be presented? A counter-argument should be expressed thoroughly, fairly and objectively. Sur Le? Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. Good Odyssey? A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an une dissertation, unreasonable amount of essay, space to give to the counter-argument. Again, the point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the question, and to sur le mal, make it easier to answer the counter-argument. It#146;s easier to respond to a point you have already spelled out#151;and it#146;s easier for your reader to follow you. Make sure you express the counter-argument fairly and objectively. Ask yourself if the person who actually holds this position would accept your way of stating it.

Put yourself in their shoes and give them the essay standardized tests benefit of the doubt. Don#146;t use biased language or stack the deck when presenting their position. Readers see through that sort of thing pretty quickly. Obviously, if you really believe the position expressed in introduction pour mal, your thesis, you will not be able to be completely objective in how you express the counter-argument#151;but you should try. One of the most common purposes of counter-argument is to address positions that many people hold but that you think are mistaken. Therefore you want to starters odyssey, be respectful and give them the benefit of the doubt even if you think their views are incorrect. They#146;ll be much more likely to be persuaded then. (The other approach, to use sarcasm and introduction une dissertation sur le satire to expose mistaken ideas, is very powerful, but should be used with care, especially before you#146;ve mastered the art of, rhetoric.) How can a counter-argument be rebutted? One of the most effective ways to mal, rebut a counter-argument is to show that it is based on faulty assumptions. Either the facts are wrong, the classic analysis is incorrect, or the values it is based on are not acceptable.

Examples of each are given below. Introduction Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? Furthermore, some counter-arguments are simply irrelevant, usually because they are actually responding to a different argument. Classic? And some counter-arguments actually make your argument stronger, once you analyze their logic. All of these examples use a claim from James Loewen#146;s book, Lies My Teacher Told Me. In that book Loewen makes the sur le claim that #147;To function adequately in civic life #133; students must learn what causes racism#148; (143). The examples below are ideas that you might use as a counter-argument to this claim, in of work, a paper agreeing with Loewen. Then you would rebut, or answer, the counter-argument as a way to introduction une dissertation sur le, strengthen your own position.

Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don#146;t need to bother with it. The factual assumption in this example is The Hacienda Plain, that racism is a thing of the introduction pour past. One response would be to essay, muster facts to introduction pour, show that racism continues to be a problem. Good Essay Starters? (There#146;s a second assumption, which is that students don#146;t need to bother with what#146;s in the past. Introduction Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? Another response would be to show that students must understand the Plain past as well as the present #147;to function adequately in civic life.#148;) Learning about pour une dissertation sur le racism might make students more racist. The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist. The response would be that understanding the causes of of work essay, a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem. (Another assumption in this argument is that it#146;s not good to introduction pour une dissertation mal, make students racist.

Loewen#146;s argument shares this assumption, so you wouldn#146;t rebut it.) Who cares if students are racist? This counter-argument is based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not share#151;namely, the good essay starters odyssey idea that it#146;s ok for students to be racist. The response would be to point out this value, state why you don#146;t share it and introduction pour sur le state why you don#146;t think your readers do either. Of course, values are both deeply personal and extremely varied, so you#146;re always going to have some readers who do not share yours. The key is to base your arguments on values that most readers are likely to good, share. Students are already familiar with racism; they don#146;t need to study it in school.

Many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism. Pour Sur Le Mal? But Loewen is not saying they need to learn about racism, he#146;s saying they need to learn what causes it. You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it. This is a very common form of good starters, counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument. (Note that here, too, there#146;s a faulty assumption: being familiar with something is introduction une dissertation sur le, not the same as knowing what causes it.) Previous generations didn#146;t study the causes of classic on photography, racism, so why should we start now? The response here would be to show that previous generations did not #147;function adequately in civic life,#148; because they had a lot of problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination). Therefore, the fact that they didn#146;t learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students do need to learn what causes racism. (Here again there#146;s a faulty assumption, implied but not stated: Previous generations supposedly did function adequately in civic life. The response shows that that assumption is incorrect.) When should a counter-argument be conceded?

Sometimes you come up with a counter-argument that you think is true and that you think responds to pour une dissertation sur le, your actual argument, not some other point. Then you are faced with a choice: Do you abandon your thesis and adopt the tests counter-argument as your position? Often it turns out you don#146;t need to une dissertation sur le mal, abandon your thesis, but you might need to modify or refine it. Let#146;s take a modified version of the second example given above (learning about racism might make students more racist). The new version might look like this: Students get turned off by dignity of work, what they are forced to introduction une dissertation mal, learn, especially when it#146;s about good starters forcing them to introduction pour, be #147;good.#148; Then they turn against what they#146;ve been taught and deliberately go in The Hacienda Plain, the other direction.

So, studying racism might just make them want to be racist out of sheer contrariness. This might help explain the backlash against #147;political correctness.#148; One way to respond to a counter-argument like this is to pour mal, acknowledge that, if it#146;s done incorrectly, education about racism might just end up turning kids off and making them hostile. Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this: Students should learn what causes racism, but should not be constantly lectured that #147;racism is bad.#148; Instead, they should be taught the causes and history in a way that they find interesting and that lets them decide their own values. By refining your thesis in this way you are able to retain your original point, while strengthening it by incorporating part of the on photography opposition#146;s views. This also takes away some of the reasons a reader might have to pour une dissertation, disagree with you.

What makes a good counter-argument? Some counter-arguments are better than others. You want to use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive. There#146;s nothing to be gained by rebutting a counter-argument that nobody believes. Two things to based, look for are reasonableness and popularity. If you yourself are somewhat unsure of the introduction pour position you#146;ve chosen as your thesis, it will be easier for you to identify good counter-arguments.

You already recognize that there are reasonable arguments on writing tests the other side#151;that#146;s why you#146;re a little unsure. Look for those arguments that make sense to introduction une dissertation sur le, you or that seem reasonable, even if you don#146;t agree with them. On the other hand, you may be quite sure of your position, which makes it harder to see other views as reasonable. They all look flawed to, you because you can point out une dissertation sur le their errors and show why your view is better. In that case, look for ones that are popular, even if they are flawed. Remember, you#146;re trying to persuade your readers to agree with you. Trachtenberg? So you want to speak their language. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? That means answering their objections even if you don#146;t think the objections are reasonable.

If you look at the examples above, you#146;ll probably find some more convincing than others. Essay Writing Standardized Tests? Most people will probably not find the #147;Who cares if students are racist#148; argument very convincing. Sur Le? On the other hand, you might find the #147;students already understand#148; argument pretty persuasive. Pick the arguments that you, or a lot of other people, feel are reasonable. The more you can answer those objections, the stronger you#146;ll make your case. Where does the Plain counter-argument go? The short answer is a counter-argument can go anywhere except the conclusion.

This is because there has to sur le mal, be a rebuttal paragraph after the trachtenberg essays on photography counter-argument, so if the counter-argument is in the conclusion, something has been left out. In practice (there are exceptions), the rebuttal is usually not the pour une dissertation concluding paragraph, which means that generally the counter-argument is anywhere but the last two paragraphs. Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against a popularly held view. However, it#146;s also very common to place them after the presentation of the case for the thesis. In other words, they would go after all of the main points that support the thesis, but before the conclusion#151;in the third-to-last paragraph, with the rebuttal in the second-to-last.

This is pour une dissertation, probably the most common position. Generally, unless there is some compelling reason specific to the particular argument being made, it does not make sense to put the based questioins counter-argument in the middle of the case for the thesis. In other words, you would not typically present two points in support of the thesis, then the counter-argument and pour sur le rebuttal, and then more points in support of the thesis. Here are two outlines showing the most common placement of the counter-argument. The first is probably the most common.

Introduction Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of supporting points] Counter-argument Rebuttal Conclusion Counter-argument, which also serves as introduction Rebuttal, which would usually include the thesis statement Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of dignity of work, supporting points] Conclusion. How should the counter-argument be introduced? It#146;s important to use clear signals to alert the reader that the une dissertation paper is about to express a view different from (typically, the opposite, of) the thesis. Since the purpose of the whole paper, including the counter-argument, is to pour sur le, support the thesis, these signals are crucial. Without them the The Hacienda Plain paper appears incoherent and pour une dissertation contradictory. Generally, the counter-argument will begin with a word, phrase or sentence to indicate that what follows is not the author#146;s view. These can range from the very simple#151;sometimes the single word #147;But#148; or #147;However#148; is odyssey, sufficient#151;to quite complex whole sentences: In his majisterial work on representation in western literature, a foundational text in the discipline, Auerbach argues that the mixture of pour une dissertation, styles is an essential ingredient of document essay questioins, all modern realism, a view that has found wide acceptance in the half-century since its publication.

Notice, however, that even this sentence is careful to attribute these views to introduction sur le mal, other people, and to trachtenberg essays, call them #147;views#148;#151;in other words, to subtly hint that they are not facts or truths. In general, the strategy is to make it clear quickly that this is introduction pour une dissertation sur le, someone else’s view. Typical introductory strategies include the following: Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] It is, often [thought/imagined/supposed/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] [It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] It might [seem/appear/look/etc.] as if [state the counter-argument here] Another common approach is to use a question: But isn#146;t it true that [state the counter-argument here]? [Doesn#146;t/Wouldn#146;t/Isn#146;t] [state the counter-argument here]? You can also cite specific writers or thinkers who have expressed a view opposite to your own: On the introduction pour une dissertation sur le other hand, Fund argues that. Essay Writing Standardized Tests? However, Ngugi has written, . Dangarembga takes the position that. How should the rebuttal be introduced?

If the counter-argument requires careful signaling, so does the rebuttal. The essay has just done a 180° turn away from its thesis, and now it is about to introduction pour une dissertation mal, do another 180° turn to complete the The Hacienda circle. The reader needs warnings and introduction pour mal guidance or they will fall off or get whiplash#151;you#146;ll lose them, in other words, because the questioins essay will seem incoherent or contradictory. The common strategies for sur le, introducing the rebuttal are the mirror image of those for introducing the essay counter-argument, and introduction une dissertation sur le mal they all boil down to the same basic concept: #147;Yes, but. #148; They can be as simple as that, or as complex as this example sentence: While Auerbach#146;s claim seems initially plausible, and is backed by The Hacienda, the copious evidence provided by his astonishing erudition, it is marred by an inconsistency that derives from an unsupportable and ultimately incoherent definition.

In all cases, the job of this transitional language is to show the reader that the opposing view is now being answered. Une Dissertation Sur Le Mal? The essay has returned to essay standardized, arguing its own thesis, strengthened by having taken the opposition into account. Here are some typical strategies. These are generic examples; they work best when tailored to suit the specifics of the pour une dissertation individual topic. What this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into based essay, account] is . This view [seems/looks/sounds/etc.] [convincing/plausible/persuasive/etc.] at first, but . While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical/etc.] Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its [reasoning/application/etc.] For more on this topic, see the #147;Counterargument#146; section of the une dissertation sur le #147;Argument#148; web page at the University of North Carolina Writing Center. Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong.

New York: Touchstone, 1996.