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boston red sox essay Writ 102 Sec 15. October 31, 2012. Harvard Case Rodan. Boston Red Sox: More Than Just Baseball. Not everyone realizes how difficult it is to run a sports organization. A sports organization is seen as a success depending on the ability of the players and coaches to blossom essay fan peach perform on business study rodan and fields the field. However, performance is just a small part of what makes a sports organization successful. While winning games is important, how the organization is and green run is case study and fields just as important. As of 2011, the Boston Red Sox are one of the writing a term paper most successful organizations in harvard case Major League Baseball. For over a century now, the Boston Red Sox have thrived athletically and economically to become one of the top three Major League Baseball organizations today. It is writing a term paper hard to believe that the harvard case rodan Boston Red Sox have been an organization since before 1901. The Sports Illustrated article, “The SAGA of the SOX,” explains the history of the team.
In 1901, Charles Somers donated the money the Boston Americans needed to join the American League. In just two short years, the Boston Americans won their first World Series, beating the Pittsburg Pirates in 1903. Winning the 1903 World Series launched the Boston Americans into a successful and unbeatable dynasty that would continue for years to henry david transcendentalism essay come. After the 1904 season, the Boston Americans won another World Series championship leading many people to cheer for harvard business study and fields Boston and allowing The Boston Americans to grow and thrive as an organization. David Thoreau. In 1907, The Boston Americans changed their famous name to study rodan the Boston Red Sox. Five years later, the team opened Fenway Park, which has and will remain their home field for henry transcendentalism essay decades to come. In 1918, the Red Sox won another World Series championship, making them the most prominent baseball team of the time.
In 1919, Harry Frazee, the owner of the Boston Red Sox, traded away Boston’s best player Babe Ruth in exchange for cash. Babe Ruth not only pitched for the Red Sox but was considered one of their best hitters as well. Ruth played a key role in harvard business study winning two world championships for Boston and knew that he was a vital part of the team. Being that said, Ruth demanded a pay increase of 10,000 dollars to writing a term his current 10,000 dollar three year contract. Case And Fields. However, Boston did not have the cash to blossom essay give him the money he wanted. Instead of trying to negotiate with Ruth, Frazee sold “The Great Bambino” to the New York Yankees on business study rodan and fields December 26, 1919 for 25,000 dollars along with three bank notes worth $25,000 each. This is perhaps one of the on red scarf most famous moments in the Red Sox’s history because it became known as “the curse of Babe Ruth.” Although this was not a literal curse, the business case and fields nickname was given to the Red Sox due to their streak of bad luck following the dreams essay trade. In 1926, a fire started in the stadium led to over 25,000 dollars in damage. From 1926 to 1932, the Red Sox had several 100-loss seasons. This was not like the Red Sox and led many people to harvard blame the team’s misfortune on “the Curse of Babe Ruth”. While the Red Sox streak of bad luck continued after they sold away Babe Ruth, the team they sold him to, the New York Yankees, began to become major winners in Major League Baseball.
Babe Ruth went on to become one of the best players to ever play the game of baseball and led the New York Yankees to numerous world championships (Farber). In 1933, the writing a term paper outline Red Sox were bought by millionaire Tom Yawkney. Yawkney went on to spend over one million dollars to better improve Fenway Park, adding the famous left field wall, nicknamed the green monster. After the renovations were completed, the Red Sox had one of the harvard business most dignified and premiere stadiums in henry david thoreau transcendentalism essay baseball. Although the Red Sox had a newly renovated, almost new stadium, this would not help them succeed.
For years to come, the Red Sox had many top players in the league such as Ted Williams, Jimmy Carter, and Carl Yastrzemski. Business Study And Fields. However, even with remarkable talent, they still could not manage to win a championship. In 196, after many failed seasons, the Red Sox finally made it back to the World Series but were defeated by the St. Louis Cardinals, keeping the Red Sox’s streak of seasons without a World Series championship in tact. “The curse of Babe Ruth” was beginning to seem real to the players, coaching staff, and fans. For the software development next 37 years, the Red Sox would continue to watch championships slip through their fingers. However, loosing championships did not stop the Red Sox from creating some of the most famous events in the history of harvard business case rodan baseball. In 1967, Carl Yastrzemski led the blossom fan peach league in homeruns, batting average, and runs batted and went on to win the Triple Crown.
Yastrzemski is the last player to have conquered this feat. In 1975, Carlton Fisk hit his famous World Series Game 6 homerun against the Cincinnati Reds. His hit has become one of the most recognizable images in the history of the game. In 1986, Red Sox pitcher Roger Clemens struck out 20 batters in one game, and business case holds the Major League record for most strike outs in a game. Essay. The same year, Bill Buckner made the famous error allowing the business study and fields Mets to win Game 6 of the World Series. The Mets would also go on dreams to win Game 7 of the World Series. People still considered “the curse of Babe Ruth” to be the cause. Finally in 2004, after 86 long years, the Red Sox won the World Series.
The Red Sox would also go on to win the 2007 World Series. In 2002, John Henry purchased the Boston Red Sox for the price of 380 million dollars. Henry did a lot with the organization including hiring new staff, putting more money into the organization, and improving the overall game day experience for fans. As reported in 2011, the case study rodan Red Sox are worth roughly around 912 million dollars (Ozanian). Henry increased the Boston Red Sox yearly total revenue to 230 million dollars from ticket sales, jersey sales, food sales, and blossom essay fan peach other merchandise sales. Since 2003, the harvard business case and fields Red Sox have sold out essay on surat a clean city every single game they have played at Fenway. In 2009, the Red Sox average ticket price was $52.32 which was highest in the Major League’s only behind the Chicago Cubs. Ticket scalpers often buy tickets at full price and then resale them to Boston Red Sox fans. Harvard Business Study. However, nearly all of this money goes back to the Red Sox program and contributes to Boston’s yearly revenue (Condon and Ellis).
The Red Sox do massive things to stay at the top of their respective sports. One way they do this is how they handle their players. When John Henry bought the Red Sox in 2002, the david thoreau transcendentalism essay Red Sox had not won a World Series since 1912. John Henry was determined to change this. The first thing Henry did was add more seats into case, Fenway Park. He did this by adding seats to the top of the famous Green Monster. These seats were considered to be nice seats and could help bring in more revenue. When the Red Sox won the World Series in 2004 their payroll was 124 million dollars which was the second highest in baseball only behind the on red girl rival New York Yankees. The Red Sox were determined to win a World Series and did this the economical way: buying good players to bring them home a championship. A writer for the Boston Globe said of the 2004 Red Sox: “The Red Sox used to be in the 'no' business.
Their first answer to everything was no, now they're in the 'yes' business(Nocera and Useem). The team that won the World Series in 2004 were thought to be a bunch ofmisfits. Business Case Study Rodan. The players were even nicknamed the writing paper “idiots”. The picture above depicts some of the players on harvard business study rodan that team. A Clean And Green. Shown in the picture are players Jason Varitek, Dave Roberts, Keith Foulke, Bronson Arroyo, Curt Schilling, Doug Mientkiewicz, Kevin Millar, and Derek Lowe. The picture shows the case rodan and fields joy the Red Sox players had after ending the drought of 86 years without a World Series championship. The way this team broke the drought of 86 consecutive years without a world championship sounds like a Hollywood script. The Red Sox were playing the hated New York Yankees in on red the 7 game ALCS series.
The first three games were everything the Red Sox had not hoped for. They lost the case study rodan and fields three games and were one game from not winning a World Series for the 87 th consecutive year. However, the players did not give up. Three outs from elimination losing four to three in game four of the india of my ALCS, the Red Sox did the unthinkable. They would time up the game and go on to win it in extra innings to force a Game 5. Harvard Study And Fields. The Red Sox would go on to become the first team in essay the history of Major League Baseball to come back and win a series when down three games to business none. Their wins included games in which Curt Schilling pitched a game with a ruptured tendon, a game in which Johnny Damon hit a grand slam, and several games in which David “Big Papi” Ortiz had crucial hits to tie games up or take the lead. After the Red Sox defeated the New York Yankees in unbelievable fashion, they swept the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series to end the winless streak of 86 years (Verducci). The Red Sox would also go on to defeat the Colorado Rockies in the 2007 World Series . Thoreau Transcendentalism Essay. The history of the Boston Red Sox leads them to where they are in 2011.
Many strategies are used to keep the harvard case study Red Sox at the top of outline Major League Baseball. Marketing is one of the main ways they stay relevant. One way the Red Sox market is how they sell their tickets. Chuck Salter wrote an article to explain how they do this. The Red Sox are partners with EBay and Stub hub. This allows them to be able to sell their tickets with ease. They place the tickets on these sites and sell them at harvard case study rodan, a decent price.
This allows people who do not want to buy season tickets to buy single game tickets. Another way Boston markets is by showing their games on television. The Red Sox are partnered with the New England Sports Network. Essay. 3.7 million people in the Boston area are allowed to watch all Boston Red Sox games on their televisions because of the New England Sports Network. The NESN, as it is called, is harvard rodan one of the best known and best money making television networks in all of the United States. From 2003 through 2009, the writing a term paper outline NESN had the highest baseball ratings among any other regional sports network (Badenhausen).
The Red Sox are also partnered with New England Sports Enterprises which helps them market their team. (Symonds, Lowry, Polek, and harvard study rodan Weber). Lastly, the Boston Red Sox merchandise their products through their merchandise. Most sports organizations do not see a boost in their sales unless their teams are winning. However, this is not the case for the Boston Red Sox. The Red Sox are always among the top 10 teams in merchandise sales. The reason for of my dreams essay this is because the study and fields Red Sox fans are crazy about their team. They are willing to buy merchandise that has to on surat a clean city do with their team even if their team is not doing well.
Much of Boston’s success financially is due to their fans (Clancy and Kelly). With this history, the Boston Red Sox are obviously one of the case study rodan top teams inbaseball. Whenever looking at essay on red scarf girl, the history of harvard Major League Baseball, the Red Sox are always one of the first teams to come up. On Red Scarf. Whether it is the Red Sox early success in baseball when it was first getting started, the curse of Babe Ruth, or their remarkable comeback of the Yankees, the Red Sox have been in significant moments in Major League Baseball history. It is hard to believe that the Red Sox did not have 20,000 dollars to give Babe Ruth in case and fields 1919, but in 2011 are the third richest team in baseball. It is also hard to believe that fans stayed by the Red Sox through those 86 consecutive years of development failure. It speaks to case rodan and fields how great the fans are that support the Red Sox.
Whether win or lose, the development essay fans never give up on their team. Case Study And Fields. This furthers the Red Sox greatness because when many teams do not do well their attendance, jersey sales, and overall revenue goes down. However, this does not speak for the Red Sox. Although the Red Sox are the third richest team when in terms of money, they are second to none in terms of baseball history, fan support, and overall greatness in writing paper outline Major League Baseball. The Red Sox receive a great amount of money from fan support. They are not just liked by fans in the New England region, but by fans all over harvard rodan the world. ESPN and essay MLB Network show baseball games regularly throughout the season. It is harvard business study not uncommon to software essay see Red Sox jerseys everywhere throughout the world. A person may be in south Florida and see a David “Big Papi” Ortiz jersey.
A movie was even made around the Red Sox history. Jimmy Fallon and Drew Barrymore starred in the movie Fever Pitch which evolved around the Red Sox history and a fan’s love of the Red Sox. The movie was actually filmed in the Red Sox’s miraculous 2004 season. The Red Sox are always mainstream in the media and, therefore, are the best known Major League Baseball team around the world. Just looking at the Red Sox’s players in the past, it is hard to doubt they are one of the tops in Major Leaugue Baseball history. They are right up there with the harvard New York Yankees in of my terms of number of Hall of Fame players that played for their team. With storied players playing for their franchise, the Red Sox will continue their greatness. Also, the harvard case Red Sox have the most storied baseball stadiums in the history of baseball. There is no other place like Fenway Park. The massive left field wall can be found no where else and writing a term makes Fenway Park one of Major League Baseball’s most signature stadiums. A person walking into Fenway park for the first time is sure to get chill bumps.
The history and historic moments can be seen on the walls and rodan and fields felt in essay on red the very seat a person sits in. The players and Fenway Park help add to the Red Sox’s greatness. The Boston Red Sox are one of the top teams in baseball. The Red Sox’s history and financial management make them the top team in baseball. With owners who are willing to spend money on players, bringing in countless amounts of money through merchandise, and keeping ticket sales up, the Red Sox will forever be a top MLB team. Study Rodan. The Red Sox may not have the most World Series championships, but they are the most storied and most significant baseball team in history. Hopefully, the fan peach Red Sox will continue their greatness because Major League Baseball would not be the same without it. Badenhausen, Kurt. John Henry Rides Red Sox And Liverpool To Billionaire Status. Forbes.com (2011): 23.
Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. Harvard Business Case And Fields. 24 Oct. 2011. Condon, Christopher, and James E. Essay On Red. Ellis. Business Case And Fields. The Red Sox Nurture A 'Sellout' Streak.Bloomberg Businessweek 2 Aug. Essay. 2010: 24-26. Business Source Complete. Web. 2. Farber, Michael.
The Curse That Ruth Built. Sports Illustrated 101.(2004): 14-20. Academic Search Premier. Harvard Study. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. Scarf Girl. Nocera, Joseph, and Jerry Useem. How the Curse Was Really Reversed. Fortune 15. Nov.
2004: 37-40. Business Source Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. Ozanian, Mike. Boston Red Sox Owners Are Proving To Be Great Value Investors.Business Source Complete. EBSCO, 18 Apr. 2011. Web. 27 Oct.
2011. The SAGA of the SOX. Sports Illustrated 101.22 (2004): 55-59. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. Business Study And Fields. 24 Oct. 2011. Salter, Chuck. The Red Sox Secret Lineup. Fast Company Apr. 2008: 70.
Business Source Complete. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. Symonds, Wiliam C., Tom Lowry, David Polek, and development essay Joseph Weber. Breaking the Curse. Business Week 26 Apr. 2004: 74-83. Business Source Complete. Web. Harvard Case Study And Fields. 27.
Verducci, Tom. On Top Of The World. Sports Illustrated 101.(2004): 56-67. Essay On Red Scarf. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for other ways to business case study rodan and fields, read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to henry david transcendentalism, a charge from Congress, the business case study rodan committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and consumption of energy from essay on surat a clean and green city various selected sources. We were asked to business case study rodan, focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into the market price of essay on surat a clean energy or into government policies related to case study and fields, energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of dreams essay energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to society are enormous. However, the rodan estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.
When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. Blossom Fan Peach? It provides factors to keep in mind when interpreting the results of the evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and production of heat for the residential, com- mercial, and industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.
For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to air pollution from harvard business study rodan and fields coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from methane emissions from essay transporting natural gas by pipeline for heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of climate change. We also considered the literature on a variety of damages that are associated with the harvard study rodan and fields nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to software development essay, accidents and possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.
The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in markets related to business study rodan and fields, energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for essay on surat and green, improvement of study rodan and fields social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Although other distortions and essay on red scarf girl, equity concerns may be appropriate for policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and damages involves a several-step process based on harvard business study rodan, many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to henry, convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the case committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of burdens and henry david essay, damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.
Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the case study entire energy system with the time and resources available to the committee. India Dreams Essay? Even within the sources selected by the committee, we were unable to monetize all externalities over business case and fields, a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and decisions about blossom essay analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into business study and fields, the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is uncertainty in the analyses with respect to the quality of the henry transcendentalism data available, the completeness of the study and fields analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.
For example, some climate effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in on red scarf girl which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and business and fields, damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and biomass. In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and writing paper outline, processing, and the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of harvard business rodan GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to climate change. India Of My? Those damages are discussed in separate sections in this chapter.
For electricity generation from harvard case rodan coal, the development committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to harvard business rodan, building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) in city 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per plant varied widely. The distribution of damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for 25% of case net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).
In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to on red girl, largest based on aggregate damages. Rodan? The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the writing smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on the top of each bar is the harvard rodan and fields average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the india variation in damages across plants is harvard study rodan and fields explained by dreams essay differences in net generation. The map in Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by harvard business rodan each of the thoreau essay 406 plants by plant location. Harvard Business? Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the essay a clean Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in the South.
Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to harvard rodan, less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the variation in essay a clean and green damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per kWh) across plants. In the case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.
FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of harvard business case study rodan air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Thoreau? All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per ton of harvard business study rodan and fields pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to and green, be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in business case study damages per kWh is explained by the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the heat rate (energy from coal needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. Blossom Fan Peach? The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about 1 ton of CO 2 per MWh of case power generated). Henry? The main factors behind the harvard business case study rodan and fields differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to generate the david thoreau power and the age of the case rodan and fields plant.
For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from gas and had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and a term outline, PM from these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of business case study damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). Henry Essay? The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.
FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of harvard business case study rodan and fields aggregate damages from natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). India? Plants were sorted from smallest to harvard business study rodan, largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the software development essay 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The number on the top of rodan each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and india dreams, PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to business, 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by all 498 plants.
The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for only 4% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and a term outline, Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from business rodan and fields more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the plant relative to population distribution and essay on surat a clean city, prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in harvard business study rodan PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per essay a clean and green kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to harvard study, 0.11 cents per kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). The reduction is due to a predicted 19% fall in NO x emissions per kWh hour and dreams, a 32% fall in business case study and fields PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the henry david transcendentalism heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 tons per MWh. As discussed later in this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.
The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from case and fields natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. Henry David Transcendentalism Essay? dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the harvard business case rodan and fields possibility of writing a term paper outline damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.
For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into account in miners’ wages, it is not considered an harvard business study and fields, externality. For members of the public, the most significant pathways from an essay, operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for business case rodan and fields, this study. site or on associated water bodies. Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and the production of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.
Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on writing a term, a large scale in harvard business case the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is writing a term outline stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of harvard business case study as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for essay, radioactive wastes. For spent nuclear fuel that is harvard case study and fields not reprocessed and india, recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. The issue of having a permanent repository is perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and considerably more study on the externalities of harvard case study and fields such a repository is warranted. The committee relied on information in the scientific literature for its assessment of wind power for development, producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.
Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Harvard Business Case Rodan? Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM and GHGs over the life cycle are much smaller per paper kWh than for coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to business case study rodan and fields, the wind-energy plant’s site for essay, final assembly. Effects related to downstream activities include visual and harvard business study rodan and fields, noise impacts, impacts on bird and bat species, and land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over the entire life cycle are also likely to be smaller for electricity generation from wind than for coal and natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in light of the henry david probable increase in the number and density of wind turbines. Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of case study rodan and fields the. numbers of bats killed are not available.
In addition, the lack of understanding of the demography and david transcendentalism, ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by harvard case rodan and fields wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).
In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to essay on surat a clean and green city, an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into harvard study rodan and fields, the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to henry essay, supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the harvard case rodan and fields compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the largest growth rate for solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to blossom essay, produce electricity. Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Worn-out panels have the potential to produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.
Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of business case rodan and fields leaching of toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to become an important part of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to blossom essay fan peach, damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to study rodan, estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the amount of electricity generated from biomass feedstock is blossom essay relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to remain so. 5 Many of the issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Case Study And Fields? Nonclimate-change-related damages from biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from coal in some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of property values.
The latter concern is not an transcendentalism essay, externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an harvard business study rodan, increasing concern in association with renewable energy sources. Software Development Essay? Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and harvard business study, damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in transportation. Development Essay? Our discussion.
Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. For each fuel and vehicle combination, the committee analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emissions, and and fields, then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of david thoreau essay GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of harvard study rodan and fields climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.
Health Effects and essay girl, Other Damages Not Related to business case rodan and fields, Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of damages from development essay different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the business study rodan and fields aggregate national damages in 2005 to on red girl, health and other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of medium-duty and business rodan, heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the aggregate estimate to approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for software, the contribution of light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on case rodan and fields, a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the blossom essay uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on harvard study rodan, a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to different fuel and fan peach, technology combinations in 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and corn stover feedstock) and harvard business study rodan, compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and software development, Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)
Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.
Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in harvard business case study 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in on red scarf girl 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the harvard rodan 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and india of my dreams essay, electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over business rodan, all other fuel and thoreau essay, technology combinations when only damages from operations are considered. However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.
In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from electric vehicles substantially. Although the underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of harvard case and fields projected increases in population and increases in development essay the value of a statistical life, the results in our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for harvard case and fields, light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the actual operation of the vehicle is one-quarter to one-third of the damages per VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for the larger part of damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to essay, estimate the health and business rodan and fields, non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. India Dreams Essay? This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by business case study and fields the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per writing a term gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the harvard case rodan and fields committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for essay fan peach, most fuels ranged from 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of that range at approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.
FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for different combinations of harvard business study rodan and fields fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per on surat a clean and green city VMT (2007 U.S. dollars). Going from bottom to top of harvard business case and fields each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of software development essay emissions and damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the most significant contributors to case, estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.
These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of on red girl hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the harvard case study latter in dreams Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and study rodan, accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of of my dreams essay assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in harvard business case study rodan and fields limited sensitivity analyses to check the effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in results among the wide range of fuels and india dreams, technologies we assessed.
Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Harvard Business Rodan? Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and writing a term, comparing fuel and technology combinations, some instructive observations from Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in harvard business study rodan 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over software development, the life cycle; in terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from business corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.
CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of GHG Emissions in 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.
SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and fan peach, RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of harvard business study and fields any of the thoreau transcendentalism fuels that the committee considered. As shown in Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the harvard business case and fields operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the case, however, with either the essay grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. In the harvard business rodan and fields latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for essay, different combinations of fuels and harvard business case study, light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Going from bottom to top of development each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing.
One exception is harvard business study rodan ethanol fuels for india of my dreams, which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. Case And Fields? The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the positive value to paper, arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. Harvard Business Study And Fields? 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the fan peach life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of vehicle types and and fields, configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.
In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to essay on surat a clean and green city, a much higher weight of cargo or number of passengers being carried per harvard and fields VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for india dreams essay, a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and harvard case study rodan, others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for heat in residential and commercial building sectors.
The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for heat in buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about essay a clean 12% of U.S. households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the harvard above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from essay on red upstream emissions.
The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per study and fields thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). Software Essay? The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in the South region of the United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to business case and fields, heat produced from city electricity, based on average values of the harvard case rodan and fields U.S. India Of My Dreams? electricity grid. Estimated damages from business case rodan and fields natural gas for heat in commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for residential buildings. Paper Outline? The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to business case and fields, the median range presented for the residential sector.
In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon the development of additional sources to meet demand. Reduction would probably result from changes in the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the writing damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of average externalities associated with the business case rodan industrial sector use of natural gas is $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of on red girl natural gas combustion for heat.
That amount is business case study greater than the combined amount of 617 million tons of CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to girl, climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about $1.4 billion per case year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of effects resulting from heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. The largest potential for david essay, reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of energy use.
Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only result from more significant changeslargely in the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. Case Rodan? The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the david thoreau fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.
Energy production and use is harvard case study rodan a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and biodiversity. Changes in these physical and biological systems in turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and on red scarf, valuing climate-change impacts to case rodan, calculate the marginal damage of a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an essay, intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the harvard case relationship between emissions and temperature change and henry thoreau, temperature and economic impacts in multiple sectors. The magnitude of these impacts depends to a large extent on changes in climate and on human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. Harvard Business Case Study Rodan And Fields? The discount rate used to determine present-day values of future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.
Given the thoreau essay complexity in evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. Business Study And Fields? The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an of my, additional ton of carbon are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the choice of harvard case damage function can alter estimates of marginal damages by essay on red scarf girl an order of business rodan and fields magnitude; for example, at a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $2 per ton of on surat a clean CO 2 -eq using the FUND model and $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of magnitude: in the PAGE model; for business case and fields, example, the marginal social cost of carbon is dreams approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at business case rodan and fields a 1.5% discount rate and $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to essay on red scarf, 80% larger than estimates of damages from harvard case and fields emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.
The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of henry transcendentalism essay CO 2 -eq, as cited in business study rodan and fields this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in blossom essay fan peach climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is usually handled in IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. The model is run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from rodan and fields those results is development usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes and impacts.
These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the results of the committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and harvard rodan, use of energy. The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for illustrative purposes, the essay table presents three different estimates of external global damages on a per-unit basis from effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for the production of heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the case study rodan and fields range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to climate change on a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. Writing Outline? These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.
How the monetized value of damages related to harvard, climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on software development, the value chosen for the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of carbon were $30 per ton of harvard rodan and fields CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at coal-fired power plants and 1.5 cents per kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of climate-change damages begins to approach the value of david thoreau transcendentalism essay nonclimate damages at business case rodan and fields $30 per david ton of CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the damage estimate from business and fields nonclimate damages. Thus, in Table 7-3, damages related to essay on red scarf, climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the harvard case rodan and fields social cost of carbon. Software Development Essay? Climate damages for electricity generation from coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for harvard case study rodan and fields, the social cost of carbon. Estimates of damages presented in fan peach this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the business case study rodan damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to dreams essay, zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of reducing another ton of emissions or other type of burden equals the harvard business rodan marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and henry david thoreau transcendentalism, the cost of reducing them; it cannot be.
TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to business case and fields, 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to henry transcendentalism, .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on harvard business study rodan and fields, emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars.
Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of blossom essay GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of type of harvard business case study rodan fuel used to generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the henry david thoreau essay regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per kWh from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an business rodan and fields, order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).
SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. India Essay? For coal plants, the case study rodan 5th percentile of the distribution of essay fan peach damages was only harvard case rodan 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.
Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. We note that the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM at all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to essay scarf, be compared with the costs of controlling emissions related to criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the marginal costs of reducing the emissions. The distribution of damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM is business case rodan and fields highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. The 10% of coal plants with the software lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants produced the same amount of electricityabout 25% of net generation from coal.) The 10% of natural gas plants with the harvard business study rodan highest damages per plant in our study produced 24% of the essay electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is useful to know the damages associated with emitting an additional ton of a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. Case Study And Fields? These damages vary significantly depending on the pollutant (NO x vs. PM) and on where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at blossom fan peach coal plants and from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).
The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. Business Case Study And Fields? These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to software development, be taken from the transportation analyses is that, when viewed from a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the harvard business case and fields relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from emissions in life-cycle phases other than the operation of the vehicle. (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to essay, air pollution (excluding climate change) and GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in business study rodan our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and of my essay, GHG emissions from the case existing grid and scarf, the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in harvard business rodan our analysis.
Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and on red scarf, nonclimate damage analysis by harvard business case study rodan the substantial reduction in diesel damages from 2005 to 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to essay fan peach, regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Similarly, a significant shift to lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the case rodan implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for transcendentalism essay, light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of overall life-cycle emissions and damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of vehicle technologies and fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.
It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to and fields, dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of blossom energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. Business Case Rodan? This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the india electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and gasoline. Study Rodan And Fields? Regarding energy use for heating, the of my climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in study rodan greater attention to improving the efficiency.
The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and india of my essay, 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the complexity of evaluating the harvard study and fields externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the and green marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in business case rodan and fields world GDP (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the essay on surat and green discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of harvard business case study rodan and fields marginal damages by an order of magnitude.
Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of damages from india dreams emissions occurring within the past few years. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of case study rodan changes in climate on the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the transcendentalism vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and harvard case and fields, possible attack, the external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and india dreams essay, disentangle externalities from other motivations for harvard business case study rodan and fields, energy policy. Essay? The committee concludes as follows:
The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to outages and to power quality degradation events because of transmission congestion and the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. Damages from harvard business case and fields this could be significant, and it underscores the importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of investing in henry thoreau transcendentalism essay a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from harvard study rodan accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the case of the U.S. oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is not an externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.
We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the U.S. Essay On Surat A Clean City? economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to $8 per barrel in 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is case study often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in essay on red girl oil consumption, for harvard business rodan, example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. Henry David Transcendentalism? The extent to harvard business and fields, which externalities exist is difficult to measure.
Moreover, it is very difficult to quantify them. On Surat A Clean City? Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Developers of the committee’s statement of harvard business study rodan task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to henry david thoreau, assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the study rodan committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in india of my dreams essay this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.
In assembling its repository of literature, models, and data needed to carry out an business study and fields, assessment of externalities, the india committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to pursue this line of research. For example, the APEEP model used in our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to harvard business case study, estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and essay a clean city, ongoing programs in damage and benefit assessment of harvard business rodan and fields air pollution but offers limited resources for research to improve and evaluate its approaches or to develop and and green, assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the harvard business case rodan Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA, to essay, support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to address the recommendations for the key topics below in harvard study rodan and fields a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the essay fan peach externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to case rodan, take into account activities (for example, the essay storage and disposal of case rodan coal combustion by-products and the in situ leaching techniques for henry david thoreau transcendentalism, uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.
Given the importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the business case rodan size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is needed to determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and software, with population characteristics, such as age and health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to characterize the mix of electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at city, state, and regional levels. Rodan? The current disaggregation of national-level information to henry david transcendentalism, regional or state levels that are available from the Department of Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is harvard business study and fields necessary in the development of methods to quantify and monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of electricity generation, especially of fuel extraction, emission of india of my essay pollutants, and land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and rodan, valuing risks when the india of my essay probabilities of accidents and of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. Harvard Study Rodan And Fields? It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in writing paper outline the technology and harvard case rodan and fields, regulations and to determine whether the henry david thoreau essay costs to business case study rodan and fields, utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to reflect advances in technology and writing, science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in quantifying bird and harvard business case study rodan and fields, bat deaths; in software development quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in harvard business study and fields valuing them in terms comparable to economic damages.
For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the possible releases of toxic materials and development, their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of study worn-out panels and dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in essay scarf a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is harvard business case study rodan imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and technologies to writing a term, avoid those externalities as the business study and fields fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the fuel and vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.
In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of india life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and databases used to construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the case rodan and fields current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in on red scarf particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.
A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Such an assessment was not possible in this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is case study rodan and fields needed to estimate the impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. More research is needed on their impacts, the thoreau transcendentalism magnitude of the damages in harvard business rodan economic terms, and the probabilities associated with various types of catastrophic events and essay on red scarf girl, impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.
This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the burden of business and fields climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the writing a term paper damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Case Rodan? Just the damages from external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the essay damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.
In many cases, we have identified the omissions in this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to harvard business case study rodan and fields, policy. Transcendentalism Essay? From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero but only to business case study rodan, the point where the cost of reducing another ton of henry david transcendentalism emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and the cost of lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in harvard business managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.
For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to essay on red scarf girl, policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the harvard business case study rodan federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from essay on surat and green city grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in the earliest stages of research and harvard business study and fields, development on energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to minimize the technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.
Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. Essay On Red Scarf Girl? When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for and fields, government interventions in india of my dreams essay the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and rodan, risks to essay, national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. Business Study? A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. Dreams? The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and harvard business case study and fields, economists in essay even the earliest stages of business rodan and fields research and development on energy technologies. Front Matter i–xxxii Summary 1–21 1 Introduction 22–63 2 Energy for Electricity 64–153 3 Energy for Transportation 154–221 4 Energy for Heat 222–247 5 Climate Change 248–308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309–336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337–371 References 372–399 Abbreviations 400–404 Common Units and Conversions 405–408 Appendixes 409–410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411–419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420–422 Appendix C: Description of the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Its Application 423–431 Appendix D: Description of GREET and Mobile6 Models and essay, Their Applications 432–469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470–474.
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Teen Dating Violence Essays (Examples) Economic exploitation also includes the harvard case study rodan threatening to take money, forcing a date to writing a term outline pay solely for items that are to be shared, or stealing money or property, (Jackson Oates 1998:92). These forms of abuse are much harder to identify and harvard business rodan and fields, combat, and in writing paper many cases go unnoticed within large bodies of previous research. Teen dating violence is at epidemic proportions and business case and fields, has become to essay scarf the topic of debate in recent years. The purpose of this discussion is to identify a single intervention in working within the family that would help a child's resilience to controlling his/her temper. The discussion will focus on describing the intervention; how and why it might be beneficial; what might motivate people to participate fully in the prevention. The paper will also explain why I think this intervention would be effective.
Finally, the business case investigation will document any publications that advocate the intervention approach that I choose to discuss. Let's begin our discussion by describing the cause of teen dating violence. Peers exert more influence on each other during their adolescent years than at any other time. Research carried out henry david, shows that peer attitudes and behaviors are critical influences on teen attitudes and behaviors related to dating violence. Friends are not only influential, but they are also more likely to be on the scene and harvard business case study, are a key element in a couple's social life. Roughly all the adolescent dating violence takes place in the presence of a third party. In teenage relationships, the relationship dynamics often play out in a very public way because a lot of teens spend a large portion of their time in software development school and in groups. Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating Relationships. Naugle, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: Moving towards a contextual framework.
Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1096-1107. Young people had always danced as a means of socializing with one another. However, prior to the 1950s, it was considered appropriate for a girl to harvard study rodan and fields dance with a variety of partners, even if she came to a dance with a particular young man. By the mid-1950s, views changed, and it was considered insulting to cut-in on india of my dreams, someone else's date (Sombat). In addition, rock and roll, which featured more suggestive lyrics than prior forms of music, seemed to case study encourage casual sexual contact between men and a term outline, women. Rock music has only business case rodan and fields grown more suggestive with time, as have rock stars, helping create a popular culture that thrives on marketing sexuality. dating in scarf the United States, and how technology has affected dating in the last 50 years. Specifically, it will express the impact of technology over the past 50 years on dating patterns of young adults (ages 13-30 depending on case, the social norm of the decade).
Dating has always been a ritual for young adults to and green city find themselves and discover their sexuality while trying out potential long-term mates. Today, dating, and how young people date, has changed considerably due to harvard study rodan and fields advances in technology. Technology has changed dating tremendously in the last 50 years, and yet, one thing remains the essay on red scarf girl same. Dating is a young adult ritual that helps prepare them for the relationships of adulthood, and that, no matter what changes on the outside, will continue to be a constant in case and fields dating today, and in the future. The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an on surat and green, electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and business, independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the essay on red scarf confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really knowing the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from harvard study, a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004). Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California Women's Law Center (CWLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by writing outline, their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for harvard study rodan and fields those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California. And as to reportedly lax laws that make it reasonably easy to purchase a weapon at a gun show, Kleck asserts . determined killers who plan their murders over a long period of time are the people least likely to be blocked from getting a gun by background checks. Essay On Red Girl. The perpetrators who are most strongly motivated and have long-range plans are also likely the most motivated and able to evade the controls, he explains.
psychological research there a thousands of pressing questions, yet among all those questions one rises to the top of the list. In the area of family psychology and family therapy the question of the psychological affects of domestic violence on children has been hotly debated and eternally researched, yet many questions remain unanswered. Business Study Rodan. These questions are pressing as the institution of essay on surat a clean city, family in our culture evolves and business case study, emerges as an entirely different social dynamic than existed even twenty years ago. The psychological effects of violence, in the family upon children are vast and will probably always need further address. REDUCING RISKY BEHAVIOR FOR African-American TEENS. All veteran therapists know that religious differences are the main causes for incongruity and sadness. (Dating and writing a term paper, Marrying Nonmembers) Hence Rachel needs to understand that it is not a wise decision to marry a person of a different race. Victim Advocacy -- National Center for Victims of Crime.
attitudes and values of high school students. Reforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated. Alcohol and substance abuse is a prevalent problem among youth. Effects of alcohol and substance abuse range from mental health problems like depression and suicide ideation to dating violence, to poor academic performance (Radliff, Wheaton, Robinson, Morris, 2012). Early exposure to substance and alcohol abuse in the home may lead to an earlier instance of drug and alcohol abuse. Harvard Business Case Study Rodan And Fields. This is writing, because of the higher degree of availability and potential lack of parental involvement. This research paper aims to highlight the various ways in which drug and alcohol abuse affect youth from within and outside the home. This is the result of the case study rodan and fields child's physical and cognitive growth. Software Development. Nature pursues a given path. One asks how does the world surrounding the child help or hinder the business and fields child's development.
This is the question that is answered by Bronfenbrenner's theory (Paquette Ryan, 2001). Cause of Homelessness in America. On a wider scale, the struggle of these immigrants would be familiar to many immigrants around the blossom country. Many of them come to this country to harvard study rodan and fields contribute their talents and ideas. Of My Dreams Essay. On a personal note, for example, my girlfriend's father Farouk is a West Indian immigrant from Trinidad Tabago. Harvard Study And Fields. After years of essay, taking night classes, he earned his associate's degree in Electrical Enginnering. Today, Farouk is an engineer working with EMC. He is earning a good salary and holds seven patents with EMC. Long streamers of harvard study rodan and fields, garments fluttered from writing paper, fire-escapes.
In all unhandy places there were buckets, brooms, rags and bottles. In the street infants played or fought with other infants or sat stupidly in the way of vehicles. Formidable women, with uncombed hair and rodan, disordered dress, gossiped while leaning on railings, or screamed in blossom frantic quarrels. Withered persons, in curious postures of submission to something, sat smoking pipes in obscure corners. A thousand odors of cooking food came forth to the street. The building quivered and creaked from the weight of humanity stamping about in its bowels. As Stowman and Donohue (2005) note: Child neglect is the most prevalent type of child maltreatment, yet only a few standardized methods exist to assist in harvard business case study the assessment of this widespread problem. Existing measures of child neglect are limited by the nature of child neglect itself, in addition to issues of software development, social desirability responding, and items that may infer blame and parental responsibility (p. 491).
There is nothing, of harvard case and fields, course, wrong in holding parents and other caregivers responsible for their actions and any harm that they do to children. Scarf Girl. However, this focus on guilt should not be the primary one. The primary one should be a focus on how best to keep children safe. Case Study And Fields. The children at hand should always be at the center of the process. That is not currently the of my dreams essay case (Conrad, Ellis, Ellett, 2006, p. 38). In the opening paragraph, his detailed physical description of Jewel and him walking on the path exhibits what we soon see is rodan and fields, a strong faith that language makes memory, perception, and action real. (Lockyer 74) These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and girl, resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers.
But parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of harvard, condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold). After all, if competing statistics using different methodologies were used, it is still likely that Coontz would be able to prove that nostalgia blurs the line between fact and fiction. Coontz in fact uses statistics that are drawn from too many different sources and and green, time periods to harvard business case study rodan invalidate the scarf girl thesis. The evidence used is drawn from numerous studies, from governmental and academic sources. The data extends into historical documents including primary sources.
Coontz also draws data from such a wide variety of sources that the argument is wholly valid. Harvard Case Rodan And Fields. For example, the author uses economic data, crime report statistics, birth statistics, and essay on red girl, a myriad of other sources to prove the central point of the argument. These are some of the changes that have greatly blurred the boundaries observed by the institution of marriage (Wood, 2011, p. 31). Children and the Media. Participant in a Community-Based Group for Troubled Youth. The possibility that such attention was paid to business case study these event in earlier times in European cultures is obvious but absent from modern representations of fan peach, rites of passage.
What can be interesting is the correlation between the two rites of passage discussed here, the sweet 16 party and the Quinceanera and their similarities to weddings. Because weddings are expected to be delayed, more so in U.S. culture but also in Mexican and other cultures, as a mark of good judgment some rites of passage and especially those for girls seem to have become mirrors or proxy weddings, where massive expenses are sometimes incurred and dress is decidedly formal. His convictions are believed to represent only a small portion of his actual crimes; he is believed to have committed upwards of 100 murders. Criminological Theories and Their Application. Kristin Died -- Case Study. America is much more diverse, and in some ways much less conscious of harvard business study rodan, that diversity, while in England being from Manchester or London is a big to-do. And the class issue is different as well -- it's more about culture, schooling, parents still in England, and here what class is to us, money is to Americans. That's my analogy, anyway. . . which offers a tongue-in-cheek 'guide' to the different facades required for dating different types of fan peach, girls.
The chapter highlights the impact of cultural differences in constructing impressions but, perhaps more importantly, demonstrates the extent to which the narrator feels he must go to conceal the most embarrassing dimensions of his family's poverty. Here, the narrator begins the chapter by advising, clear the case and fields government cheese from the refrigerator. If the girl's from the fan peach Terrace stack the boxes behind the business rodan milk. If she's from the Park or Society Hill hide the cheese in the cabinet above the oven, way up where she'll never see. . . Take down any embarrassing photos of your family in the campo, especially the essay on red girl one with the half-naked kids dragging a goat on a rope leash. . . Put the basket with all the crapped on toilet paper under the sink. Spray the business rodan and fields bucket with…… [Read More] Peer pressure also causes teens and kids to feel the need to a term paper fit in gangs.
Peer pressure in the form of coercion, harassment or intimidation, may result to a person joining the harvard business case study rodan and fields gang. The desire to appear cool is also a major cause to many young people joining gangs. The trends and signs and reputations associated with the gangs such as fashion, tattoos and class appear to appeal to the persons and hence attract them to join the gangs. The excitement of young a person to essay on surat a clean and green city defy authority also causes many to want to case study join gangs. This is an important consideration that each clinical practitioner must contemplate sooner or later -- and perhaps it is best done sooner rather than later. It is software development essay, not something I have considered lightly, but at the end of the day I am confident that I can find that balance in my life. I am person of rodan and fields, many different interests: music, art, philosophy, writing, research; and I am a spiritual person. For me, these have always been key elements in keeping my life balanced. Girl. It has not evolved me in a perfect way, but these things in my life serve to harvard business case rodan and fields bring me back to earth during those moments when my ego becomes to inflated, too deflated, bruised, or battered; and take comfort in, and I am grateful for all the things that keep me balanced. It is very likely that many children have been less fortunate than me and that they either became drug addicts themselves or they came to live on of my essay, the streets as a result of harvard business case study, having parents who express more interest in drugs than in their own children.
Rising Divorce Rates. Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. A Clean And Green. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010). Homelessness in America. Agents of Socialization on One's Personality and Perception of the World. Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in case a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused. Shame in My Game: The Economic Sociology of Poverty. She is too young to understand a lot of what goes on in the camp, but it makes an david essay, impression on her anyway. She spends three years of her life there, and changes from harvard study, a young child into a young woman.
As the on red scarf camp became more livable, her life settled into a pattern, and business case rodan, she even attends school again. Life becomes more bearable as the camp becomes more bearable. She remains cut off and distant from her father, something that will continue until he dies. The camp put a wedge between Jeanne and her father, and blossom essay, while it tore the family apart, it killed the harvard business relationship that could have developed between father and daughter. 4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. Writing Outline. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of business and fields, China in the past, but this is uncertain.
A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society. Media on henry essay, the U.S. Society. Gypsies, otherwise known as Roma, came to the Americas with the very earliest settlers. Throughout the harvard case study course of the past 500 years, the Roma, their preferred name, have held on to their traditions and practices. Historical written record says that the Portugese exported Gypsies to South America.
According to legend, the Portugese did the same thing in what is now South Carolina, long before the thoreau transcendentalism essay English came to case study settle the area. Human Sex Trafficking. Long-Term Effects of Bullying. Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings. Large number of respondents will require large number of questionnaires to blossom be given to the individuals and this would have high financial implications.
Hip Hop and American Youth Culture. Piaf, Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the harvard case and fields great French singer and and green city, arguably the and fields greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. On Surat And Green City. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for study and fields herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. Henry David. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Harvard Case Study Rodan And Fields. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets. On…… [Read More]
Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior. More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations. Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages unnecessary spending. Essay On Surat A Clean City. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of case and fields, private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008). The author of the article, Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School (Stits, 2001) related that prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in india of my districts where expectations were limited to business case rodan keeping the students in school as much as possible, and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students away from the blossom essay traditional high school campus. The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in study and fields continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the good students in the regular high school. S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and india of my dreams essay, abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on harvard rodan and fields, the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines.
The banditos use puppet or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf. Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and india of my, provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and study rodan, establishing contacts and essay fan peach, a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).
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cnu essay As their state government notes, of harvard business case study and fields, all the 11.5 million new jobs created since the Great Recession, 99 percent require more education than just a high school diploma. Going to of my essay college has never been more important. And Virginia is taking this reality very seriously. In 2016, the state devoted $316 million to higher education. This led to the lowest tuition increases in harvard and fields the past 15 years, which should help ensure that fewer students graduate with debt—and that those who do have a smaller, more manageable load. Going to college in the Commonwealth of Virginia, as it’s officially known, will not only thoreau transcendentalism essay put you in a strong educational environment, but in a beautiful and historic part of the harvard case and fields, country. Called the “Mother of Presidents,” Virginia has been the backdrop for much of American history: Jamestown, the American Revolution, and the Civil War being obvious examples. You’ll also benefit from proximity to the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., which is nearby. If you’re interested in areas like politics, defense, or technology, going to college in Virginia will give you the opportunity to build networks with likeminded students and alumni who might be able to connect you to the internships and jobs that will put your career on a firm footing. What are the best colleges in Virginia?
This ranking takes under consideration every college and university in Virginia that grants 4-year degrees. We take that list, and filter it through our methodology. A Clean And Green? Our methodology accounts for three central factors: student body diversity, academic quality, and harvard business study and fields, return on investment, which we analyze using data from IPEDS, a database on higher education statistics available through the National Center for Education Statistics. With roots that lead back to dreams 1749, Washington and Lee University is case study, one of the oldest universities in the country. Named for both George Washington and Robert E. Lee, the writing paper outline, school is business study rodan and fields, tucked in amid the a clean city, scenic mountains surrounding Lexington, VA. In 1985, women joined the undergraduate student population of this private, liberal arts university. Today approximately 1,900 undergraduates enjoy WL’s small class sizes and student/faculty ratio of 8:1. An education from Washington Lee University lays the groundwork for success after graduation. Harvard Study? Students become ethical leaders that are ready for scarf girl, “lives of consequence,” as envisioned by the university’s namesakes.
Opportunities abound at WL, such as the distinctive spring term that allows students to business case rodan complete an intensive four-week class at home or abroad. WL offers 37 majors leading to a bachelor’s degree as well as a graduate law program. Popular studies include: Washington and Lee University is the #11 liberal arts school in the country and the #9 in best value, as ranked by U.S. News World Report. Additionally, WL has more than 130 student organizations, and 80% of girl, students are involved in sororities or fraternities. As a side note, Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition graduated from WL in 1793. In 1819, Thomas Jefferson established the University of Virginia, and his vision to harvard rodan and fields create a revolutionary institution that would educate the citizenry of a newly-formed country continues to development live on at UVA’s campus in Charlottesville, VA. Some areas of the original grounds, designed by Jefferson, are named to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Almost 16,000 undergraduate students and 6,500 graduate students attend this public, co-educational university.
In 1970, women were admitted to UVA. The student/faculty ratio is 15:1. The University of Virginia was the first school to harvard business case study and fields practice interdisciplinary study which is still emphasized in UVA’s current curriculum. Students are taught how to lead, to push the boundaries of knowledge, and to influence the henry david thoreau transcendentalism essay, path of the world. Experiential learning is available during innovative summer session classes and January term. More than 140 undergraduate majors, 80 master’s degrees, and 54 doctoral degrees are attainable. The most popular majors:
The University of Virginia is a highly ranked university. Business Rodan And Fields? U.S News World Report lists UVA as #2 in paper the country for best public school, #24 of case study rodan, best public and private universities, #5 for value among public universities, and blossom essay, #8 among top law schools. For best value among public institutions, UVA is #2 according to Kiplinger’s and #3 according to Money magazine. The University of Richmond is a private, liberal arts university in Richmond, VA with a low 8:1 student/faculty ratio. Harvard Business Rodan? Nearly 4,200 students go to classes at henry david thoreau transcendentalism, UR and 90% live on harvard study rodan campus. Only 18% of undergraduates are Virginians. Software Development Essay? The history of UR goes back to 1830 when the business case and fields, school was first conceived as a Baptist seminary. Later the seminary transformed into Richmond College and on red, Westhampton College, which still exist today as part of UR.
The University of Richmond promises that each student is given $4,000 for an internship or research over harvard study rodan, the summer. Of My Dreams? This guarantee enables students to work closely with mentors and develop skills required for harvard case study and fields, productive careers. Not a single class is taught by india dreams essay, a teaching assistant, which underscores UR’s commitment to quality academics. UR makes available over 60 undergraduate majors and 7 graduate programs. Popular choices include: Business Management Social Sciences Biomedical Sciences Psychology. The first-year seminar is required for freshman at business rodan and fields, the University of Richmond and prepares them for academic success through critical discourse. Such programs have helped earn UR high marks from U.S. News World Report.
UR is #27 among top liberal arts universities nationwide and #26 for best value. Princeton Review and Kiplinger’s also called out UR as a top value for the money. Williamsburg, VA is home to the historic College of William and Mary. Dating back to software 1693 when England’s King William III and Queen Mary II established the college, the school is second oldest in the country. This public university became co-educational in 1918. Approximately 8,600 graduates and undergraduates are enrolled at William and business study and fields, Mary, where the student/faculty ratio is 12:1. The College of blossom essay, William and business case, Mary focuses its education on essay a clean and green original research, volunteer service, and academic excellence via top notch teaching. Students at harvard business case study rodan and fields, William and Mary are encouraged to make an impact on the world. Essay? The university presents students with 40 majors for undergraduates and 20 programs for graduates. Popular majors are the following:
The prestigious, academic honor society of harvard study and fields, Phi Beta Kappa was started at india, the College of William and Mary in the 1700s. The first law school in the U.S. was also established at William and Mary. Case Rodan? U.S. News World Report named William and Mary to the #6 spot for henry david thoreau essay, public universities in the U.S., to the #12 spot for excellent teaching, and to the #19 spot for top colleges for veterans. Kiplinger’s and Forbes also rank William and Mary among the business study rodan, best institutions nationally and for value. Nearly 1,750 cadets attend the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, VA. Established in of my dreams 1839, VMI is a public, co-educational institution and also the country’s oldest, public military college. VMI has a 12:1 student/faculty ratio and students receive individual support from VMI professors.
Classes are taught by faculty only, not teaching assistants. The Virginia Military Institute purposely keeps the number of harvard business study and fields, its majors to a minimum to maintain academic quality. There are only 14 majors for cadets, each resulting in a B.A. or B.S. degree. Popular areas of study are: Cadets must join an ROTC program while at VMI. Half of all students enter military service upon graduation, but going into the military is not required. Cadets are expected to follow the military lifestyle while at VMI which includes upholding values such as honor, integrity, and responsibility. For more than 15 years, the Virginia Military Institute has merited top marks for its education. This year, U.S. A Term Outline? News World Report selected VMI as #4 among public schools in the country, #3 of national colleges for value, and #72 in best liberal arts institutions.
Money magazine also recognized VMI as among top U.S. colleges. Not too far from Washington D.C. is where you’ll find George Mason University. The public, co-educational university started out in Fairfax, VA with fewer than 20 students in 1957 but today enrolls more than 34,000. Approximately 6,300 students live on campus, but the majority of attendees are commuters. Mason is one of youngest schools in Virginia and also the largest. The student/faculty ratio is 16:1. A forward-leaning education that prepares students to serve their communities and tackle the world’s biggest problems is the goal of George Mason University. Students are urged to complete an internship at case study rodan, places like the White House, the Justice Department, or ESPN. There are over 200 degree programs at Mason for the bachelor, master, and doctoral levels. A few of the generally popular majors are: Considered as one of the essay, top 15 innovative universities nationwide by U.S.
News World Report, George Mason University also placed #71 among all public institutions, and its law school placed #41. Additionally, Mason is harvard study, widely thought to be a best value by Kiplinger’s and Forbes. Upon graduation, Mason students earn the highest salaries on average of thoreau transcendentalism, those who attended Virginian universities. Almost 2,000 students are pursuing their degrees at Bridgewater College in harvard business rodan and fields Bridgewater, VA where the student/faculty ratio is 14:1. Tucked into Virginia’s scenic Shenandoah Valley, the school is only minutes away from Harrisonburg. From its founding day in david thoreau 1880, Bridgewater was the first private, liberal arts institution in harvard business case study rodan and fields the state to allow women. Bridgewater maintains ties with Church of the Brethren but also welcomes students from all religious backgrounds. Around 9% of outline, students are Brethren. Equality and inclusion are important ideals of the academic community at Bridgewater College.
The curriculum here challenges students to ask more of themselves, live with purpose, and contribute to society. Students experience a close-knit environment in which education holistically addresses each individual. Bridgewater’s 62 majors and 10 pre-professional areas of study lead to an undergraduate degree. The most popular majors include: Business Administration Biology Athletic Training Psychology Health and Exercise Science.
Through Bridgewater’s Center for Engaged Learning, students can experience hands-on learning outside the classroom via activities such as teaching in the community, research, peacebuilding, study abroad, and green programming. According to business case study rodan and fields Princeton Review, Bridgewater College is one of the city, best schools in the Southeast, an honor that Bridgewater has received multiple times. Hampton University’s history reaches back to the years prior to the Civil War, but the official founding date of the school is 1868. Harvard Business Case Study And Fields? This private, co-educational institution is a historically black university with an david essay, inspiring past and a multicultural, 21 st century future. HU enrolls nearly 4,700 students at its campus in Hampton, VA where class sizes are small with a 9:1 student/faculty ratio. Notable alumni include Booker T. Washington. Progressive teaching, diversity, and the pursuit of excellence are hallmarks of Hampton University. Rodan And Fields? The dual objectives of research and service come together during a student’s tenure at HU. Character is developed and graduates are ready to lead with integrity. And Green City? There are 49 undergraduate majors, 21 graduate programs, and 7 doctoral programs for harvard business case study rodan and fields, students.
Some of the fan peach, popular majors are the following: Among historically black colleges, U.S. News World Report named Hampton University as #3 in business case and fields the U.S. HU also scored #18 for software development essay, best colleges in the South, and #13 for harvard business study rodan and fields, best schools for veterans in the South. More than 110 student organizations are part of student life at HU, and the Black History Extravaganza is an engaging and widely-attended event. Hampden-Sydney College is one of the only private, all men’s institutions in the United States. Almost 1,100 men form the student body at H-SC in development essay Hampden-Sydney, VA about an hour from Richmond. H-SC was founded in 1775 by Presbyterians who modeled the school on the University of Edinburgh. Among the ten oldest colleges in the nation, H-SC has a student/faculty ratio of 10:1 and an average class size of 14. The majority of students (65%) are from study and fields, VA.
Hampden-Sydney College requires all students to complete its distinctive Rhetoric Program, an intensive reading, writing, and speaking course to build superior communicative skill. An H-SC education also focuses on critical thinking, honor, and a term outline, common good. Students can select from 25 majors and 5 pre-professional programs at the bachelor’s level. Popular majors at H-SC include: U.S. News World Report ranks Hampden-Sydney College among the business case rodan and fields, top liberal arts institutions in the U.S. Thoreau Transcendentalism Essay? H-SC came in at #105 overall and #11 for harvard rodan and fields, best schools for veterans. Forbes seconded that opinion, also placing H-SC among best Southern colleges. Students can join more than 60 clubs for extracurricular, leadership, and service. Outdoorsmen will love fishing, hunting, and camping in the nearby state forest. Harrisonburg, VA in the beautiful Shenandoah Valley is home to James Madison University.
A public, co-educational university with 19,300 undergraduates and 1,500 graduate students, JMU has a 16:1 student/faculty ratio. Established in 1908 by the state of Virginia to fulfill the need for a teacher’s college, JMU began as a women’s school but changed to include men in david thoreau transcendentalism essay 1966. Despite its larger size, James Madison University students receive personal attention from harvard study rodan, their professors, and writing, that is one of the reasons JMU’s student body is among the happiest in the nation. Harvard Business Study Rodan And Fields? More than 97% of on red, classes are taught by faculty, not teaching assistants. Approximately 80% of students complete an internship or study abroad. Study Rodan And Fields? JMU has a variety of coursework across 123 degree programs. Some popular majors are: Among public universities, Kiplinger’s selected James Madison University as a best value, and so did Princeton Review. U.S. News World Report picked JMU as the #2 public university in the South and the #3 most innovative school. Of all public and private Southern institutions, JMU ranked #8.
Additionally there are almost 400 student organizations ranging from 3-D printing to environmental management and everything in between. In and around the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains sits the blossom, 7,000 acre campus of Liberty University. Established in 1971by Baptist Pastor Jerry Falwell Sr., Liberty is the largest Christian university in the world and the largest university in Virginia. This private, evangelical institution is located in Lynchburg, VA and harvard business case study rodan, its total enrollment tops 110,000 students. Almost 95,000 of those are online students, and of the rest, approximately 9,000 live on campus.
Liberty University is one of the youngest universities in Virginia but it has grown quickly and smartly including its modern, world-class facilities. At Liberty, all aspects of education and student life are in writing step with Christian and Evangelical teachings. More than 500 programs of harvard business case, study for bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral, and specialists are accessible, and almost half of the programs can be completed online. Popular degree programs include: Liberty University is an innovator in distance learning and led the school to offer an scarf girl, extensive online body of coursework to students. On campus, students can learn to ski or snowboard at Liberty’s Snowflex Centre, open year-round. Additional activities include an ice skating center, fitness center, horseback riding, and intramural and collegiate sports. Eastern Mennonite University is a private, Anabaptist institution in Harrisonburg, VA.
Half of harvard business, EMU’s students are Mennonite, and blossom fan peach, the other half represents more than 30 different religious faiths. Almost 1,000 undergraduate students and 900 graduate students attend EMU where class size averages 14 students and the student/faculty ratio is business rodan, 10:1. EMU was established in 1917. Finding one’s purpose and serving the community are central to learning at Eastern Mennonite University. Developing peace, addressing social inequities, and respecting the environment are central themes found across the curriculum.
Students are urged to combine spring break with community service, and study abroad often includes missionary work and service. Henry David Thoreau Essay? EMU provides 35 undergraduate majors, 8 graduate programs, and seminary studies. Some of EMU’s popular areas of study: Nursing Environmental Sustainability Restorative Justice Peacebuilding. Eastern Mennonite University is harvard business case and fields, #41 out of the best universities in the South, according to writing paper outline U.S. News World Report. Students are required to complete some coursework while experiencing a different culture, typically while living with a host family and performing service work. Harvard Study And Fields? The pre-med program at EMU has resulted in 100% acceptance of all students pursuing physical therapy and 90% acceptance for physician’s assistants. EMU’s teaching program has placed 100% of henry david transcendentalism essay, graduates in educational fields. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, nicknamed Virginia Tech, is a research leader among Virginia universities.
More than 33,000 students are registered at this public, co-educational university, making the school one of the largest in the state. The rural campus in Blacksburg, VA includes an executive airport. Business Case Study Rodan? Originally established as a land-grant university in 1872, Virginia Tech began admitting black students in 1953, well ahead of other southern universities. David Thoreau Transcendentalism Essay? The current student/faculty ratio is 16:1. Science and technology are big players at Virginia Tech as the university commands $504 million of research among its 9 colleges and harvard rodan and fields, graduate school.
More than 250 majors and graduate programs (master’s and doctoral) make up a wide-ranging body of study provided to students. On Surat? Some of the most popular majors: Not just science and research oriented, Virginia Tech recently opened a $100 million Center for the Arts, and harvard business case study rodan and fields, there are more than 600 student organizations on campus that span various disciplines. Virginia Tech has been nationally and internationally recognized for superior academics (particularly in engineering, public affairs, and business) and software development essay, value. Money magazine, Princeton Review, Forbes, and U.S.
News World Report all rank Virginia Tech as a top school in multiple categories. Celebrating 175 years, Hollins University is a private, women’s college in Roanoke, VA. Although Hollins started out as a co-educational institution, it changed to admit only women students in harvard business study and fields 1852. Today Hollins’ graduate courses are co-educational. Approximately 800 students matriculate at this liberal arts school that was one of the first to include study abroad as part of its education. Essay On Red Scarf? There is study, a 9:1 student/faculty ratio. Hollins University allows students to pick from 27 programs for undergraduate study and 10 programs for graduate study. Some of india dreams essay, their popular majors are: While at rodan and fields, Hollins, almost 80% of students complete an internship, typically during the college’s January Short Term. Half of all students study abroad in places like England, France, Italy, Jamaica, and a term, beyond. Education at Hollins readies its graduates for meaningful lives that include continuous learning and service.
U.S. News World Report lists Hollins University as #105 in best liberal arts schools nationwide, #11 in rodan best colleges for veterans, and #27 in best value. Around 96% of students are employed or seek further education within a year of of my, graduation. Hollins is nationally renowned for its English programs which have produced many accomplished writers. Randolph-Macon College is harvard business case rodan and fields, a private, liberal arts institution with an 11:1 student/faculty ratio and 16 students in blossom essay fan peach an average class. The college was founded in 1830 by harvard business case rodan, Methodists, but students of all religious backgrounds are encouraged to attend. Slightly more than 1,400 undergraduate students make up the R-MC population. The school is located in Ashland, VA and not far from writing, Richmond. Getting students ready for extraordinary lives is the driving factor behind the education at Randolph-Macon College.
Students learn directly from faculty and not teaching assistants. Fellowships, internships, and business case rodan and fields, study-abroad are part of the competitive advantage afforded to a term students through R-MC’s specialized career center. Of the harvard business study, 50 majors offered at R-MC, popular selections include: Both U.S. News World Report and Forbes have recognized Randolph-Macon College as among the top liberal arts institutions in on surat a clean city the country. In addition, the college promotes its degree guarantee which promises that students will complete their degrees within 4 years, or the subsequent tuition is free. All students must reside in campus housing which fosters a sense of harvard business case, community, and R-MC is host to at least 80 student clubs. Virginia Commonwealth University started out as an offshoot of Hampden-Sydney College in 1838. Sixteen years later the school gained its independence and then later merged with another institution, but by 1968, VCU was firmly established as its own university. Currently, VCU is home to david thoreau upwards of 31,000 students in Richmond, VA. This public, co-educational university includes a first-rate research hospital.
The student/faculty ratio is 18:1. In 2016, Virginia Commonwealth University was responsible for $271 million in sponsored research, and applying that research to case rodan solve today’s most challenging health issues is what VCU does every day. VCU aligns itself with a diverse student body and graduates the largest number of minority students in Virginia. VCU gives students the option of 59 undergraduate programs, 69 master’s programs, and software development essay, 42 doctoral programs. Some popular majors: Virginia Commonwealth University is highly ranked for its graduate arts program (#1 in public universities) as well as its graduate schools of harvard business, pharmacy and social work by U.S. News World Report. Several of VCU’s visual arts specialties place in the top ten in the country, and VCU’s nurse anesthesia program is #1 in the nation. Roanoke College is henry thoreau transcendentalism, nestled on a cozy 80-acre campus in Salem, VA. This private, liberal arts institution conducts classes for almost 2,000 undergraduate students. The student/faculty ratio is 13:1.
Founded in 1842 and affiliated with the Lutheran Church, Roanoke is the second-oldest Lutheran college in the nation. Students of all faiths are encouraged to apply. Roanoke pioneered the concept of inclusion beginning in the 1870’s when Native American, Mexican, Japanese, and Korean students joined the college. Women were admitted in 1930. The philosophy of case rodan, Roanoke College includes helping students to discover what they truly love and make society better for all. To that end, students are required to take classes that are part of the intellectual inquiry core curriculum, which allows students to choose unique topics of interest to blossom essay fan peach them. Harvard Business Study And Fields? This innovative program sets Roanoke apart from other colleges. Roanoke has 34 majors and 11 pre-professional programs. Popular choices include:
Recent restructuring of its academic programs has earned Roanoke College the #4 spot for up-and-coming liberal arts colleges by blossom, U.S. Harvard Study Rodan? News World Report. Forbes and Princeton Review have also recognized Roanoke as one of the top schools nationally. The University of Mary Washington is named for david thoreau essay, George Washington’s mom. Although UMW traces its history to 1908 as a women’s college, the school went through several transitions before it was reborn as UMW in 2004. Men were admitted around 1971. Slightly more than 4,000 students are enrolled at this public, co-educational university in Fredericksburg, VA. Business Case? The student/faculty ratio is 14:1, and the average class size is 19 students. As a liberal arts university, UMW places high regard on software top-notch teaching, discovery, and a caring, academic community that serves the regional population.
Incoming freshmen register for seminars that set them up for success during their college years and in the future. Study abroad is encouraged, and around 30% of harvard case study rodan, students do so. There are over dreams, 60 majors and graduate programs. Business Case And Fields? Popular majors include: Among public universities in the South, the University of Mary Washington was named #6, and among public and private institutions UMW was #16, according to U.S. News World Report. UMW also rated as #11 for best schools for veterans.
Forbes, Princeton Review, and Money magazine all agreed that UMW was among the best nationwide while Fiske recognized UMW as a best value college. Old Dominion University started out writing, training engineers and teachers as a branch of both Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the College of William and Mary, but in 1962, ODU became its own four-year institution. Today, nearly 24,700 students call ODU home, and 25% of the student body has military ties. This public, co-educational university is harvard business case and fields, located in Norfolk, VA. The student/faculty ratio is 19:1. Old Dominion University focuses on research that stimulates business and india of my dreams, economy, resulting in a $2.1 billion yearly impact to the region and the state. Additionally, ODU is second in Virginia for proportionally awarding the most STEM-H degrees annually. ODU has more than 160 academic programs for undergraduates and harvard case study rodan, graduate students, including 42 doctoral degrees. The most popular academic programs are: Health Professions Multidisciplinary Studies Marketing Psychology Criminology.
U.S. News World Report placed Old Dominion University in the top 11% of best colleges and universities in the country, and ODU’s online M.B.A. Development? courses have received past honors as well. ODU has also been recognized as among the best schools in the world by harvard rodan, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Development Essay? Finally, ODU is nationally known for its expert knowledge in resiliency planning for coastal flooding and rising sea levels. Emory Henry College is a small, private liberal arts college with just over 1,000 undergraduate students and a couple dozen graduate students. Almost 80% of business study and fields, undergraduates reside at the college where the student/faculty ratio is a clean and green city, 11:1. Harvard Business? Emory Henry was established in 1836 by Methodists who named the college after Bishop John Emory and American Revolutionary Patrick Henry to represent both faith and civic responsibility.
Emory Henry is located in Emory, VA. Emory Henry College promotes the values of civic mindfulness and living up to one’s potential. Faculty at Emory Henry work with students to transform them intellectually and inspire them to effect change in the community. The college’s civic life center provides a wide variety of service opportunities for social change. There are 64 degree programs and an option to customize a major. Popular majors are: Social Science Education Business Administration Visual and Performing Arts. Washington Monthly, Newsweek, and USA Today have all recognized Emory Henry College for a clean and green, its top notch service learning programs. Emory Henry was named to the Presidential Service Learning Honor Roll in 2013. Additionally, all of Emory Henry’s grounds are in the National Register of Historic Places.
The coastal city of Newport News, VA is the home of Christopher Newport University. This public, co-educational institution began in 1960 and is one of the youngest universities in Virginia. With approximately 5,000 students and a 15:1 student/faculty ratio, CNU’s classes are generally small in size. Christopher Newport University’s core education is harvard, based on liberal arts. Superior academics via exceptional teaching is a main tenet of essay, CNU as is preparing students to lead and serve their communities. Students learn how to live in a way that makes a positive difference. CNU’s more than 60 undergraduate majors and business case and fields, 3 master’s programs give students a choice of software development, possibilities. Some of CNU’s popular majors include:
Many sources have praised Christopher Newport University for the quality its education. Business Case? Earning the #5 spot among Southern public schools, CNU also came in at #14 among private and public institutions, according to U.S. News World Report. CNU is #10 for best schools for veterans. In addition, Forbes and Princeton Review rated CNU as among the on red girl, best institutions in harvard business and fields the South, and Bloomsburg Businessweek specifically mentioned the strength of CNU’s undergraduate business courses.
Randolph College began as the women’s counterpart to Randolph-Macon College in 1891. It wasn’t until 2007, and thoreau, after much soul searching, that men were admitted and the school started its new life as Randolph College. Case Study And Fields? Today this private, liberal arts and sciences college enrolls fewer than 700 students. The student/faculty ratio is 9:1. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church, Randolph is located in Lynchburg, VA. With an overarching intent to guide students to a successful career path, Randolph College’s academics are taught by faculty only and students develop a strong foundation in writing well. Students work with advisors to design a Randolph Plan or personalized roadmap for maximum career potential. During Randolph’s summer research initiative, students can complete research with their professors. Randolph’s curriculum spans across 29 undergraduate majors and 2 master’s programs. Popular majors are: Pre-professional Sports and Exercise Social Sciences English Literature.
Fiske and Princeton Review have both chosen Randolph College as one of the development essay, best among Southern institutions. And, Sierra Club says Randolph is a “Cool School”. Newsweek reports that Randolph’s faculty is the most approachable and harvard business case study rodan, available nationwide. Essay A Clean? Perhaps the most well-known alumna of Randolph is business case, Pearl S. Buck. Southern Virginia University can trace its origin to 1867 when it existed as a home school for kids. Throughout the years, SVU had several identities, including a once-renown equestrian program. Blossom? In 1996, the Latter-day Saints shored up the struggling college. Today 90% of the harvard study rodan, student body is Mormon. Thoreau Transcendentalism Essay? Around 800 students attend this private, liberal arts institution located in Buena Vista, VA. SVU’s average class size is 15.
The teachings of the Latter-day Saints are present in all aspects of Southern Virginia University’s curriculum. Flexibility is harvard business case study rodan and fields, afforded to missionaries, devotionals are held weekly, and a larger meetinghouse has been built. Each semester, students are asked to on surat a clean city complete 15 hours of community service. The small nature of SVU ensures that students will have 1:1 attention from faculty. SVU’s coursework forms the basis for 16 undergraduate majors. Some popular majors include:
General Liberal Arts Business English Literature Visual and Performing Arts Foreign Languages. Southern Virginia University is the country’s only private liberal arts college that is committed to harvard business rodan and fields the teachings of Latter-day Saints. SVU has a 93% success rate for graduates finding employment within a month after receiving their degrees. And, if they could go back and do it again, 98% of students would make the same decision. The University of fan peach, Virginia's College at Wise. The University of Virginia’s College at Wise is its own, separate 4-year institution with a current enrollment of more than 2,000 students. This public liberal arts college has 17 students in class on average and a 13:1 student/faculty ratio. UVa-CW was originally established to educate Virginia’s western and southwestern population in harvard 1954.
The mountain area of Wise, VA is where UVa-CW is located and 30% of students live on campus. The coursework at the College at Wise is built upon a traditional liberal arts education and designed for professional success upon graduation. In addition to academics, UVa-CW seeks to serve the community of Southwestern Virginia and surrounding region. David Transcendentalism Essay? There are 30 majors and business study, 7 pre-professional programs leading to a bachelor’s degree and also teaching certifications. UVa-CW’s popularly chosen majors are: Business Education Social Sciences Software Engineering Pre-professional Studies.
The College at Wise is the only school to award a bachelor’s degree in software engineering. Almost 97% of students find employment or pursue further study after graduation, and students at UVa-CW are fortunate to have one of the lowest debt rates in the country. Writing Outline? There are more than 50 student clubs for extracurricular activity. Founded in 1901, Sweet Briar College was almost closed permanently in 2005 because of financial challenges, but efforts from alumnae succeeded in renewing the institution and keeping it solvent. Today, this private, women’s college enrolls around 300 students, and the average class size is less than 12. Men are admitted to Sweet Briar’s graduate programs. Sweet Briar College is located in Sweet Briar, VA and is named for the Sweet Briar Rose. A tight-knit community of learning and personal attention is at the forefront of the case study rodan and fields, student experience at essay on surat, Sweet Briar College. Close and continuing relationships with faculty are typical as students become leaders, researchers, and foreign exchange students. Harvard Study Rodan? Study abroad opportunities include JYF in Paris or JYS in Seville.
Sweet Briar has over 30 undergraduate majors or 2 graduate programs. Popular majors at Sweet Briar: Biology Business Engineering Science Creative Writing Environmental Science. In the South, Sweet Briar College has been recognized by Princeton Review as among top schools, best women’s institutions, and notable private colleges. Forbes and Washington Monthly listed Sweet Briar as among best value colleges.
Sweet Briar’s campus has garnered praise from Forbes, Business Insider, and a clean city, others. Harvard Case And Fields? Lastly, Sweet Briar is well-known for its equestrian center and blossom, equine studies.