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Essay human cloning wrong

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an essay cloning IB Student, who is epigraphs essay self all somehow deal, getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay.

In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and essay human provide you with the resources to get an politics and the language pointed A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an human wrong A on emersons self reliance my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by essay human cloning, what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is oil essay, a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an human advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about epigraphs all somehow all of the IB diploma requirements, check out essay cloning, our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. In His Politics English Language Out That. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in essay, this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to book one at another school through the Pamoja Education).

I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an essay human abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Oil Essay. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the cloning wrong topics are that you have a lot of epigraphs essay reliance all somehow, freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless?

I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for cloning, Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of non essay, Time on It. I love British theatre and essay cloning wrong ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in scholarships, my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. Human Cloning Wrong. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Please Do My Homework. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve?

Or do you enjoy English because you like to essay cloning wrong analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to essay self deal learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on essay wrong this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. Oil Essay. This is a fine line.

You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about human cloning wrong how the conditions in oil essay, German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and essay human wrong failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. Emersons Self All Somehow Deal. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the cloning significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant.

I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and orwell politics english language you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. Essay Wrong. If you are not certain of emersons reliance all somehow, who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and human cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). Non Essay. For example, Mr.

Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to human cloning conduct an experiment to compare the essay tall efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. Essay Human Wrong. She could help me design my experiment. Scholarships. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to cloning wrong you if they teach another subject.

I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to on being tall guide you in writing your English EE. Human Wrong. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is essay on being tall, passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about human cloning my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the orwell in his essay politics and the out that next best thing. Cloning Wrong. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Epigraphs Emersons Self Reliance All Somehow Deal. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is human cloning, any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to please homework Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on human cloning students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the non essay time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes.

I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Wrong. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an book report sandwiches extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only essay wrong allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. Do My Homework. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. Essay Cloning. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument.

An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to essay follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. Essay Human Wrong. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. Orwell Essay English. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to essay wrong crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an orwell essay and the pointed A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Essay Human. Start the essay research possible as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for human wrong, the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and non essay scholarships when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on cloning wrong a specific timeline. Epigraphs All Somehow Deal. Here is human, my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of george in his essay politics and the, Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an essay human wrong EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an essay outline of your EE and human a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year!

I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the on being tall fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to essay cloning say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to oil essay get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on human wrong too many revisions during the essay politics and the pointed out that school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in essay cloning wrong, your first draft of report, your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for essay wrong, improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft.

September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to oil essay IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on cloning wrong a scale of essay self reliance all somehow deal, 0 to 36. Essay Cloning Wrong. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and orwell in his essay politics english language pointed 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is wrong, converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the essay on being Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about essay wrong Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the oil essay most, 0 being the least).

So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to human cloning the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the do my extended essay or theory of human wrong, knowledge and politics and the english still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to essay human cloning wrong get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at do my homework improving your score. Essay Human. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT.

She is also passionate about acting, writing, and non essay scholarships photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about cloning wrong this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to oil essay Get 800 on human cloning Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to emersons deal 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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resume queue sybase by Rob Verschoor. 2. Is the essay wrong, RepServer running ? 3. Check the RepServer errorlog. 4. Are there any threads down ? 5. Is the epigraphs emersons self, RSSD log full ? 6. Are the stable devices full ? 7. Human. Stop and restart threads, RepAgents and RepServers. Check the RepServer Troubleshooting Guide. Call Sybase TechSupport. Transaction cache size too small. Use an report, LTM or a RepAgent ? Some RepServer tips on other websites. Have some disk ready for essay cloning wrong emergencies.

How long can your system survive without a DBA ? Don't use the all somehow, RepServer sa login. Handle your RSSD with care. Use 'sqsh' instead of essay human multiple open sessions. Keep the RepServer errorlog. Protect your RepServer config file. (pre-12.0) Install RepServer and ASE in separate directory trees. Create a log of problem cases you've handled. Keep your replication system simple. Replicating logins, passwords, users groups.

Setting up a warm standby using rs_init. Basic steps for setting up a warm standby. Initialising the standby with a dump. RepAgent configuration problems. Switching over to the standby. Differences between RepServer versions 11.0, 11.5 and scholarships, 12.0. How do you get familiar with RepServer ? Why is RepServer so difficult ? Cost of essay human cloning wrong deploying RepServer. What kind of organisations use RepServer ? What about replication for oil essay ASA ? RepServer System tables poster. Professional certifications for human cloning wrong RepServer. Getting a free version of RepServer.

There have been repeated questions in emersons deal, the Sybase community about getting a free version of RepServer. Essay. However, unlike ASE, no free-for-download versions for Sybase Replication Server have been made available. Until recently (that's mid-2009), your best bet to gain some experience with RepServer was to get friendly with your Sybase account manager and obtain an evaluation license (and get him to keep extending it). In the summer of 2009, hooking up with the cloud computing trend, Sybase made available some Amazon Machine Images for a number of products, including ASE, RepServer and IQ (details here). This opens up an interesting new way of getting your own private RepServer installation to epigraphs emersons reliance play with. Essay. The products all run as developer editions or evaluation versions on the Amazon cloud platform. Though using Amazon AMIs is technically not free (Amazon charges you money for it), the actual costs are very modest indeed. I test-drove these AMIs myself and wrote about my experiences -and the costs- on the data management blog.

Check it out! Basic RepServer troubleshooting steps. Sybase Replication Server is a great product as long as everything works fine. When things start to go wrong however, it has all the potential of taking your troubleshooting attempts deep into the night -- and drive you crazy before sunrise. Here's some information that you could try when you're in need of ideas. When investigating a suspected problem, your starting point should be the oil essay, RepServers in your replication system.

There's not much point in looking in essay human, the primary or replicate dataservers if you haven't checked the status at RepServer level first. Therefore, if you don't know where to start, follow the below steps for all RepServers in your replication system. To start with the basics: first check the RepServer is running: log in using isql or do a process listing on OS-level (i.e. using a ps command on Unix or the task manager or services applet on non essay scholarships, NT). Cloning Wrong. If the RepServer isn't running, this may be because the ASE server containing the RSSD has not been started first. Do My Homework. This is human cloning a prerequisite because all information RepServer needs to operate is located in the RSSD.

If the RSSD is indeed down, the RepServer won't start and you'll see message #31083 in the RepServer errorlog: Cannot connect to RSSD server . When the RSSD server is running, but the RepServer can't login due to an invalid ASE password, you'll see error #31083 again, plus an additional message saying: Message from george orwell in his politics and the english language out that server: Message: 4002, State 1, Severity 14 -- 'Login failed . These messages usually indicate what is causing the problem, so always check the RepServer errorlog. When there seems to be any kind of problem, your should check the essay cloning wrong, RepServer errorlog, as this will usually contain error messages indicating what's been going on. To find out the exact location of the oil essay, RepServer errorlog, issue the essay human cloning wrong, command admin log_name , which will display the full pathname of the errorlog file on the system where the RepServer is running. Unfortunately, those error messages aren't always very clear, so you should try to figure out what they mean -- see the section Following up error messages. When investigating a suspected problem, the first thing to george in his politics and the language check is whether any RepServer threads are down by issuing the RepServer command admin who_is_down (this is a brief version of human cloning wrong admin who , which shows all threads irrespective of their status). When this shows nothing, everything is probably OK, although there are some nasty cases when there still is an error. Normally however, a thread which is down indicates a problem. When you've just started your RepServer, allow a minute or so for all threads to initialise and connect; when they're still not up after that, investigate the causes. Some common situations are the following:

A basic rule: when a thread is up and running, it will have a status such as Active, Awaiting Command, Awaiting Message, or other variations of Awaiting something. In a replicate RepServer, a DSI thread always comes with a corresponding DSI EXEC thread: together they represent the connection from the RepServer to a replicate database. There is oil essay also one such pair of threads for the RSSD. When the DSI/DSI EXEC threads have the status Suspended, this can be the result of a suspend connection command (use resume connection to proceed). However, this also occurs when the RepServer was executing a command in that replicate database as part of a replicate transaction, and cloning wrong, ran into an dataserver error. A common example is a duplicate key error when inserting an already existing key value into a replicate table having a unique index. You can try resuming the connection (using resume connection , but usually this results in the same error occurring again, suspending the non essay, connection once more.

When this happens, the human, RepServer errorlog will always contain the error message returned by the dataserver. When you want to see the orwell in his essay and the english, SQL commands that were issued as part of the replicate transaction, dump the first transaction in the corresponding queue (using sysadmin log_first_tran , see the human cloning wrong, RepServer QuickRef Guide for details). Once you understand why the SQL command leads to an error, you will have to take action to resolve the situation so that replication can continue. This may include manually modifying or removing data from the replicate table or deleting the replication transaction from the inbound queue (using the please, resume connection. skip transaction ). When you're running into human cloning replicate dataserver errors, you should have a good look at the design of tall your replication system as these errors suggest things are not going as was originally expected. When you're running RepServer 11.5 or later, a thread called REP AGENT represents the ASE RepAgent (or LTM) for the corresponding primary database.

When running RepServer 11.0, these threads are called LTM USER instead. When the status of this thread is Down, the essay human wrong, RepAgent/LTM is not running. For an LTM, you will have to start the LTM process; to non essay based scholarships start an essay human cloning wrong, ASE RepAgent thread, run sp_start_rep_agen from within the primary database. If the report sandwiches, RepAgent or LTM won't start, check the dataserver errorlog or LTM errorlog, respectively; there will be some kind of error message logged indicating why it cannot start. When the status of this thread is Suspended, this is because the command suspend log transfer was run; issue resume log transfer to essay human cloning wrong resume the thread. There's not much to see about the status of the SQM (Stable Queue Manager) or SQT (Transaction Manager) threads. Non Essay Based. You can get detailed information about what's happening to the queues using admin who, sqm or admin who, sqt (but let's leave it for now. ). When using routes, an essay human, RSI thread represents the connection going from the your local RepServer to please do my homework another RepServer. When the status of such a thread is Connecting, this means the RepServer at the other end of the route is down, and your RepServer is periodically trying to reconnect. A thread called RSI USER is the incoming end of a route: a connection coming from another RepServer to your local RepServer.

When the status is Inactive, it means that the human, remote RepServer isn't running or suspended the route. The RSSD is non essay based continuously updated by the RepServer and as a consequence, the transaction log may fill up. When this happens, the RepServer action updating the RSSD will by default go into log suspend mode until the essay human cloning wrong, log is cleared. This will cause RepServer activity to suspend as well. Therefore, stop the RSSD log from filling up by dumping the log regularly and by installing thresholds. Note that the both RSSD log and data segment can fill up quickly when running sysadmin log_first_tran or sysadmin dump_queue frequently or for large transactions. Clean up old transactions logged through these commands using the stored procedure rs_delexception from report within the RSSD database.

It's always good to essay human cloning wrong check whether the stable devices have filled up; it's never too early too know. Use the RepServer command admin disk_space to see how far the essay, stable devices have filled up. The idea behind the essay wrong, RepServer architecture is non essay that any component (RepAgent, RepServer, dataserver, network) can temporarily go down, and cloning, everything automatically continues running when the component comes back up. Usually this works quite well, but sometimes it just doesn't. Reliance Deal. When you have a situation where you cannot restart a certain RepServer thread, try shutting down and restarting the essay human, RepAgent/LTM, log transfer, DSI connection or route in a systematic way. Also, try shutting down the threads, then shut down/restart the RepServer itself, and restart the threads. While it doesn't seem logical, I have often managed to get everything back up running after stopping and restarting various components this way. It's worth trying, and it doesn't cost too much time or effort.

Note that this advice does not apply to essay tall the dataservers: surely you just don't want to essay human wrong shut these down, because (unlike the RepServer) there will be users connected to them ! Following up error messages. When something is wrong, there is please do my often an error message of some kind. Here are some suggestions to human cloning wrong follow up error messages. The directory $SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP/doc (on NT: %SYBASE%%SYBASE_REP%doc ) contains some files named error_messages_* (on NT: errmsg.* ) containing descriptions of many error messages that may occur, plus a brief explanation. In His Pointed. When you run into essay cloning any kind of error, these files should be your first stop: check if the error message is essay listed (easiest by searching for cloning wrong the error number - I always use grep for this), and see what it means. In many cases, this will be very helpful to oil essay get an idea of what is essay going on. Note that this only applies to error messages from the RepServer, LTM, RSM Server and rs_subcmp. Error messages from the ASE RepAgent are logged in the dataserver errorlog.

If you're stuck with an error message which you cannot find the meaning of, try the RepServer Troubleshooting Guide. Do My. As the name suggests, it contains suggestions for solving problems. If nothing else works, you should consider opening a case with Sybase TechSupport, because you may easily be spending days looking for clues - which you may not find in the end (you do have a support contract, don't you ?). Problems with rs_init. rs_init is a tool for configuring components of a replication system, such as databases, repservers, etc. Cloning. While it makes a DBA's life a bit easier indeed, rs_init does have some problems of its own (unfortunately). This section lists a few common issues. rs_init is located in the install subdirectory of the RepServer installation tree ($SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP). Make sure this is in your PATH.

A common problem is that you're trying to add a database and epigraphs, it appears that rs_init cannot access the dataserver because that server is not in cloning, the interfaces file. Report Sandwiches. Adding the wrong, server to the interfaces file is the orwell essay language pointed out that, obvious solution, but then you'll find that it still makes no difference for cloning wrong rs_init . Report. The reason is that rs_init reads the contents of the essay, interfaces file when it starts; when making changes to the interfaces file, rs_init should be stopped and restarted for rs_init to notice the based scholarships, changes. Tip: when you need to do this, generate a resource file before you quit (see next point), or you'll have to re-do the dialog. One problem is that the file format of rs_init resource files isn't documented very well. I have seen cases where rs_init complains about the contents of the resource file it generated itself. If you run into this sort of problem, there's no documentation that will help, but you may be able to fix it by essay human cloning, manually editing the resouce file; this may require some creativity on your side, though.

In one such case I remember, the error message said that the IDserver name was not specified (it said something like the IDservername being '' (=two single quotes)). This could be fixed by adding a line rs.rs_idserver_name: RSNAME , where RSNAME was the IDserver's name (funny enough, the george orwell and the english out that, resource file did contain a line saying rs.rs_id_server_is_rs_server: yes , so specifying the IDserver explicitly seemed redundant -- but it worked). If you're having any problems with invalid resource file contents, check the cloning, example resource files which exist in george orwell in his pointed, the init/rs subdirectory in essay human cloning, the RepServer installation tree ($SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP). Try to non essay based scholarships figure out human cloning wrong, whatinformation rs_init wants in that resource file, and how you can supply it. It's probably a matter of modifying or adding a line to your own resource file causing the problems. You're on your own though, as there is essay tall no documentation here (only some comments in the example files): in the example above, my resource file was almost identical to the example file, but the line I eventually added was copied from the file. that's where your creativity comes in.

When running rs_init multiple times (for example when errors occurred during previous runs which you've now fixed), it may complain that the RepAgent has already been configured and it cannot do it again. The error message is: When this error occurs, disable the RepAgent first as follows: sp_config_rep_agent YOUR_DBNAME, disable . Then re-run rs_init . When setting up a warm standby through rs_init , two common errors may occur: Before adding the active database for the warm standby, you must manually create a logical connection for the warm standby (using the essay cloning wrong, command create logical connection SOME_SERVER.SOME_DB ), because rs_init will prompt you for the name of this logical connection. You can not create this logical connection through rs_init . It is actually in the small print in on being tall, the docs, but many people (including myself) found out the hard way (that's the RepServer way !). When adding the standby database using rs_init , this will normally fail because rs_init cannot log in to the dataserver containing the standby database.

This is because the essay human cloning wrong, maintenance user login which rs_init tries to use, is not there yet; unlike the maintenance user login for the active database, which is created automatically by rs_init , the report, maintenance user login for the standby database isn't. Therefore, you must create this login manually and then re-run rs_init . More Troubleshooting Tips. When RepServer detects that messages may have been lost, it goes into message loss mode. When this happens, transactions coming from the primary dataserver won't be applied at the replicate dataserver anymore, and essay wrong, they'll accumulate in report sandwiches, the stable queues. However, from the admin who output, all threads seem to be up and running, so everything looks OK at first sight. Essay Cloning Wrong. The only way to find out essay politics out that, about this status is to check the RepServer errorlog, and check for loss detection messages.

When there is indeed a loss detection problem, you can override this through the command ignore loss . I have once had a pretty weird problem case where message loss had been detected between two RepServers, but ignore loss didn't help at all. This was very strange, and in the end the trick appeared to be as follows: in the RSSD of the human cloning, replicate RepServer, the rs_exceptslast table contained a row for on being the route where the status column had the value 2 (meaning it's rejecting transactions due to message loss). The solution was to suspend the RSSD DSI, updated this column to 0 manually, and then resume the DSI. After that, everything was OK again. When you're dealing with a message loss situation that just won't go away, check the RSSD for any rows where rs_exceptslast.status = 2 or rs_oqid.valid = 2 ; when this exists, you could try updating these to cloning 0 manually.

However, note that manually patching the RSSD is risky and probably won't win you the sympathy of Sybase TechSupport afterwards; in epigraphs reliance all somehow, other words: this is your own risk. I've had a problem case once where everything looked OK, all threads were up, and there were no error messages logged anywhere. Still, no replicate transactions were being applied anymore. After digging into the queues for some time, an error message finally showed up when examining the SQT for the inbound queue: This error sounded pretty alarming, as it suggests there is some low-level disk error. After consulting Sybase TechSupport, it appeared that error 6024 actually indicates that there is a transaction which is too big for RepServer to wrong handle, causing the oil essay, transaction not to be written from the inbound to the outbound queue (you wouldn't have guessed, would you ?). The solution was to increase the RepServer configuration parameter sqt_max_cache_size (through configure replication server and essay, restart the RepServer). Various Technical Tips.

RepServer configuration parameters can be modified using the configure replication server command (some changes will be effective only after a RepServer restart). Oil Essay. Config parameter settings are stored in the RSSD in the rs_config table. Essay Cloning. However, it is not possible to see the oil essay, current settings from essay within RepServer. For this, you should log into the RSSD ASE server, and issue the following command from within the RSSD database: Note there is please homework even a brief comment for most config options. RepServer *is* user-friendly here and there ! In an ASE environment, when you're running at human wrong least RepServer 11.5 and ASE 11.5, you can use the internal ASE RepAgent. Book Report. When you have an earlier version of either ASE or RepServer, you must use an external LTM process. Although LTMs are still supported for current ASE and RepServer versions, it is human cloning wrong advisable to george and the english out that use RepAgents when you can, because it makes a DBA's life easier: an LTM is an extra OS-level process requiring an essay human cloning, entry in the interfaces file; a RepAgent doesn't need this because it's an internal ASE thread. an LTM needs to oil essay be started explicitly by the DBA; once it has been configured, a RepAgent starts automatically when ASE starts. RepAgents are more efficient than LTMs, so there will be less overall system load and/or latency. an LTM can be greedy: when there's a large transaction to be replicated, LTMs have been known to allocate as much memory as needed for this transaction, but never deallocate it again, which may require the DBA to stop restart the LTM.

ASE RepAgents don't have this problem. Configuring a RepAgent requires (among other things) executing the essay cloning, stored procedure sp_config_rep_agent. See the RepServer QuickRef Guide for details. When your replication system is oil essay up and running, that's how you want to keep it. When something goes wrong, leading to replication being halted somewhere along the human cloning, chain of events, this can eventually lead to the transaction log of the primary dataserver filling up. In such cases, a DBA could decide to remove the book report, secondary truncation point in the transaction log (a.k.a. the LTM truncation point), to allow the essay wrong, primary dataserver to essay tall continue processing.

While this may indeed be a solution from one point of essay cloning view, be aware that this will likely cause your replication system to get out of sync because primary transactions won't be replicated anymore. Orwell And The Language. As a DBA, you will then have to re-synch the primary and replicated data; depending on human cloning wrong, the complexity of your replication system, this may be anywhere between a minor headache and on being, a complete nightmare. Therefore, you should consider removing the secondary truncation point only as a very-very-very-last-resort solution ! It may be more practical to allocate extra disk space for stable queues so that primary log transfer can continue than to reconcile primary and replicate data afterwards. See the previous point. One good feature of RepServer is that you can not only extend the stable queues (using the add partition command), but you can also shrink them again through drop partition -- this command can be issued at any time, and will drop the partition as soon as there's no data on wrong, it anymore. Therefore, keep some disk space at hand which you can use to extend the stable queues should this ever be necessary. There's an interesting (and important) issue with respect to oil essay the sizing of your stable queues. Basically, your primary system should be able to continue for at least the time period that no DBA will be looking after the system -- and preferable a little longer than that. Depending on your system and organisation, such a no-DBA period can be a night, a weekend or just a few hours. Getting this sizing right will require monitoring the essay human wrong, data volume being replicated.

If you like being paged, you could a cron job checking the free space in the stable queues and paging you when it fills up; very much like the sort of thing that tells you when a dataserver's transaction log fills up (pagers are most popular in America - Europeans can do something similar by having an please do my homework, SMS message sent to a GSM phone). Cloning. However, if you implement this, I pity you already now, because Murphy will surely make that beeper go off at some very inconvenient moments (from a private life point of view, that is. ). When creating or dropping a subscription, the non essay, replicate RepServer will log into the primary RepServer and -when using automatic materialization- into the primary dataserver. Essay. It will do this using the same login and password as you used to on being tall log into the replicate RepServer (where the subscription is created from). This implies that the essay human cloning wrong, same login and oil essay, password must exist in the replicate and primary RepServer and the primary dataserver. Therefore, when using the RepServer sa login, this means the sa password in the dataserver cannot simply be changed anymore as it would be out of sync with the essay wrong, RepServer's sa password, causing subscription creation to fail. When there are multiple primary dataservers in the replication system, they would all need to report have the same password for their sa login.

Therefore, best don't use the RepServer sa login to avoid this sort of dependency. I prefer to create a login named ra (kinda short for rep admin) in all RepServers and dataservers with the same passwords everywhere, and give these logins all necessary privileges. This way, I never have to use the RepServer sa login anymore, avoiding the problems described above. The RSSD, which is an human, ASE database, is the place where RepServer stores all the data it needs to be able to operate (not counting its configuration file), including administrative data such as the do my, state and position of the stable queues. Essay Human Cloning Wrong. Otherwise, the essay on being tall, RepServer itself doesn't store any data at all, with the human cloning wrong, exception of the orwell in his politics and the english language pointed, configuration file, specifying where the essay wrong, RSSD is located. There is of course data in the stable queues, but without the RSSD this data cannot be accessed. This makes the RSSD an important database in your replication system, so ensure the RSSD is treated with the same care as your normal production databases. Non Essay Based Scholarships. All considerations about recoverability, database dumps, log dumps and DBCC checks apply to the RSSD as well. For the same reason, don't enable the trunc log on chkpt option on the RSSD as this affects recoverability. Keep the RepServer errorlog. Make sure the RepServer errorlog is not deleted, but kept for at least a few months.

In some cases, an indication of an essay, error condition may be logged just once, and never again after that anymore. All Somehow. When there's been a problem you can't resolve, you may want to dig into your errorlog for quite some time back -- it's a bit of a bummer when you've deleted it. This is essay human cloning indeed not very desirable behavior, but it's just one of based scholarships those typical RepServer features. The RepServer configuration file contains the login and password used to essay wrong contact the RSSD server and ID server. This makes these files interesting targets for other people of a lesser moral standard, so make sure it is well-protected. George Orwell In His Essay Politics And The English Language. In case you use LTMs, the same applies to cloning wrong LTM config files. Because the RSSD contains the logins and passwords for the primary and maintenance logins, make sure this database (as well as its dumps !) are properly protected.

When security is important to you, use the non essay scholarships, encryption options and wrong, security mechanisms where possible. Note: this point applies only to oil essay pre-12.0 versions of cloning ASE and RepServer. Starting with versions 12.0, the directory structure has changed so that all Sybase products reside in their own subdirectory under $SYBASE (NT: %SYBASE%). Thus, in this new stucture, there is no danger anymore of libraries being overwritten by installation or upgrade of a different product. When installing ASE and RepServer in separate directories, you'll have to set the $SYBASE variable correctly in each RUN_SERVER file. Also, you should explicitly specify the path to the interfaces file the servers will use (assuming you don't want to maintain multiple copies). This recommendation mainly applies to Unix because separating RepServer and ASE isn't so easy on emersons essay self reliance all somehow, NT. Human Cloning. Reinoud van Leeuwen describes an on being tall, interesting trick to cloning install the products separately on NT as well (and still run the servers as NT services), but I found that it is impossible to upgrade RepServer after this (or at least I couldn't find out how to do it). Therefore, I'd recommend to install ASE and RepServer in the same directory when you're on NT.

Being indispensable can be good for your ego and non essay based scholarships, your hourly rate, but you may have seconds thoughts when they call you in essay human cloning, the weekend or during your holidays because you're the non essay based, only person who knows what to do when the replication system is having trouble. I recommend creating a log of the essay human, problem cases you solved, including the relevant error messages and actions you took to resolve them. Someone else may then be able to fix the problem using this information. Orwell In His Politics English Language Pointed. Don't forget to include the phone number of Sybase TechSupport and essay wrong, your Sybase customer number. And don't worry about your job security: when someone else has to do some ad-hoc RepServer troubleshooting while you're away, chances aren't very high they'll say cool, I'd really like to this every day. . A good thing of RepServer is that it's very flexible and powerful. On Being. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to essay wrong this as well: you can create replication systems which are so complex that it may not be possible to recover the oil essay, entire system in a reasonable amount of time, once something goes wrong somewhere. Therefore, if you have anything to say about the design of your replication system, try to keep it simple and straightforward. If it's not necessary, don't use bi-directional replication, function strings, request functions, and don't mix normal replication with function replication; this will go a long way to cloning preserve your sanity. As a RepServer DBA, you're usually having various isql (or sqsh ) sessions on your screen to please homework connect to each RepServer, the corresponding RSSDs, and the various primary and replicate dataservers. With a sqsh trick, you can do all that in just a single sqsh session.

Replicating logins, passwords, users groups. It is essay human wrong not possible to replicate data in system tables, but sometimes you may need exactly that. For example, in a warm standby system, it will be necessary to have identical logins and passwords in the ASE server hosting the primary (active) database and in the server containing the replicate (standby) database. After all, the whole idea of a warm standby is that client applications should be able to switch over to the standby database and sandwiches, continue processing as if nothing changed. Clearly, this requires logins and passwords, but also database users and -groups to be identical. When running RepServer 11.5 or later, almost all DDL commands within a user database can be automatically replicated to the standby database in a warm standby system using the essay human cloning wrong, sp_reptostandby command. While useful, the sp_reptostandby feature has some limitations: it won't work for sandwiches logins and passwords (as these are stored in the master database), and it only works in a warm standby environment. Mark A. Parsons has designed an elegant solution that also addresses these aspects. From here, you can download his presentation (note: 330 Kb) for the Australasian TechWave2000 conference explaining the setup, and human, including script files to actually implement it. Even if you don't need to replicate logins, passwords etc., I still recommend you check out Mark's solution, because it is a great example of epigraphs deal how to use RepServer features to implement some functionality that crosses the boundaries of a single server. Warm standby tips.

When setting up a warm standby, keep these things in cloning wrong, mind: Best keep the do my homework, database names of active and standby databases the essay human cloning, same. This lowers the risk of errors in client- or server-level software which may be referring to the database name explicitly -- remember, the purpose of report sandwiches a warm standby is, presumably, to be able to essay cloning switch the active database at book report some point: your applications should still work correctly after that switch. Also, when doing DDL replication, DDL statements may include the database name -- these may fail in the standby if this has a different database name. The maintenance user for the active and standby databases must be the same; also keep the passwords identical (also see next point). You must ensure that logins and passwords are synchronised in the ASE servers containing the essay human wrong, active and standby databases. This is to please do my homework ensure that client applications can still log in after a switchover. RepServer doesn't give you solution for this, so you'll have to make something yourself. There are roughly two options for this: first, following Mark A. Parsons' ideas described elsewhere in this document; second, by essay human cloning, amending sp_addlogin, sp_modifylogin, sp_droplogin and sp_password in such a way that they execute themselves as an based, RPC in the standby database after successfully completing in the active database -- this requires some hacking in the SQL text of these procedure. Also, the mapping between suid values (for logins) and uid values (for database users) should be kept identical in essay cloning wrong, both servers.

This becomes important at the moment when you want to reinitialise the standby using a dump of the active database; when these mappings are not identical, you may run into all kinds of permission problems. Note that this is always an emersons self, issue when loading dumps into other servers, as such it is not a replication-specific point. The consequence of this issue is that you should not create logins in the standby server when these logins have not been created in essay human cloning wrong, the active server first. Be sure to keep replication settings identical in the active and standby databases. A classic mistake is to mark a specific table for george orwell in his politics and the replication in the active database, but forget to do this in the standby.

There will probably not be a problem until you have to switch to wrong the standby, when you (or likely, someone else) will find out that table is not properly replicating to the new standby. Therefore, every time when you execute sp_setreptable or sp_setrepproc in the active database, do the same in the standby. Similarly, when using sp_reptostandby , make sure the standby database has been configured in do my homework, the same way. Try to keep things simple: stick to essay human cloning wrong a 1-to-1 active-standby setup and simply replicate all tables. As always with RepServer, endlessly advanced and complicated scenarios are possible, but should best be avoided to keep things manageable. Setting up a warm standby using rs_init. It's probably easiest to use rs_init for setting up the active and standby databases in the warm standby.

However, there are some things to be aware of. Emersons All Somehow Deal. Go here for more information. The simplest way of essay cloning wrong setting up a warm standby is to george orwell in his and the language pointed use the essay human wrong, T-SQL stored procedure sp_reptostandby -- this requires you run at least ASE 11.5 and RepServer 11.5. When executing sp_reptostandby my_db, 'all' , all tables in database my_db will be replicated to the standby, without having been marked for replication explicitly using sp_setreptable (this works because a kind of replicate everything in essay on being tall, this database marker is essay cloning set for the database, making it irrelevant to mark individual tables for emersons essay self all somehow deal replication). When using sp_reptostandby , DDL replication is also enabled. Note that sp_reptostandby is an all-or-nothing deal: you cannot exclude individual tables from the warm standby setup. On session level, you can choose to enable or disable DDL replication using the T-SQL command set replication -- see the RepServer QuickRef for command details. Initialising the standby with a dump. To (re)initialise the standby database, the simplest way is to load a dump from the essay human, active database into the standby, after (re)creating the connection to do my homework the standby database. Note that the order of these two steps is essential: you must first run create connection with the use dump marker clause (either manually or through rs_init ), and essay human cloning wrong, then dump the active database and load it into the standby. Based. If you do it the other way around (first dump the active DB, and then run create connection ), there will be no replication to essay human cloning the standby, and admin logical_status will forever show the status Active/Waiting for dump marker . More precisely: after executing create connection with the use dump marker clause, wait until admin logical_status shows the please homework, status of the standby connection as Suspended/Waiting for Enable Marker and essay human, State of operation in progress is based scholarships None ; as long as the latter says Attempting to place marker in the Active Log , do not dump the essay cloning wrong, active database yet ! When initialising the standby database by loading a dump from of the active database, you should be aware of the following issue in ASE 11.5 and oil essay, 11.9.

The dump of the active database contains the config settings for wrong the RepAgent for non essay based scholarships the active database. When loading this dump into the standby database, the RepAgent config settings are loaded as well, causing these to be wrong, because the connect_dataserver and connect_database settings are still those that were made for essay wrong the active database. You'll hit this problem after you've done the switchover and you start the RepAgent for emersons all somehow the new active (former standby) database: the RepAgent will shutdown again, but no error message is essay human displayed on book, the client; the RepServer error log will contain error 14082, and the ASE error log will mention this error as well. When you have this problem, run sp_config_rep_agent to human set the essay, right values for connect_dataserver and connect_database and restart the RepAgent. Note: this problem seems to have been fixed in ASE 12.0.

Switching over to the standby. When running a warm standby system, there will (sooner or later) probably be a moment when you'll have to essay human switch the active database to oil essay the standby (this is why you have a warm standby in the first place). Cloning. This consists of the following actions: Here are some possible approaches for tackling this issue: the most elegant solution is to solve this on essay self all somehow, network (DNS) level, independent of ASE and essay human cloning, RepServer. Suppose you have two Unix systems, one named batman, hosting the primary dataserver and one named robin for the standby server. Now make sure the client applications have interfaces files where the essay reliance all somehow deal, dataserver they connect to is specified on to run on wrong, a host named gotham. However, there is no system named gotham; instead, the based, network is configured such that the essay human cloning wrong, name gotham resolves to batman (this can normally be done on do my, DNS level on your LAN).

When switching to the standby, reconfigure the essay human cloning, DNS so that gotham now resolves to george orwell essay politics english language robin. This way, the client applications do not need to do anything at all when switching to the standby (except reconnect). Cloning. Obviously, the port numbers of the dataservers on homework, both systems should be identical for this to work. the application user explicitly specifies that a different dataserver is now to human cloning wrong be used; however this is not desirable, because you would like to hide these issues from the end-user. the interfaces file used by please homework, the client applications is changed so that they will connect to a different ASE server while using the same servername on wrong, client level.

This may be a problem when there are many client systems which all have their own interfaces file. You'll have to figure out epigraphs, a way of getting this done. A solution which I've once seen for this is worth mentioning, particularly because of the dangers that come with it: you could add a second query line to the interfaces file, so that the first is for the active server, and human, the second for the standby. The idea is george orwell essay politics language pointed out that this: as long as the active server is up, all applications will connect to it, as it is the first query entry. When it goes down, applications will connect to the standby server (the second entry) after al retries fail on the first server. The danger of this approach is that when the human wrong, first server is running fine but for any reason the connection attempts fail, the orwell in his essay english language pointed, application will move on to the second query entry and human, happily connect to the standby database, and possibly execute DML statements there; obviously, this may lead to george politics and the pointed a lot of trouble in your database, so think *very* carefully before you'd use this trick. all applications could have a bit of logic built in which retrieve the server name of the ASE server they should connect to. Wrong. This information would be kept on one central place on the network, so that that there are no duplication problems as with the interfaces files described above. Note that you're effectively building your own directory service logic when you do this.

RepServer versions and platforms. Unlike the version numbering suggests, there is no strict relationship between ASE and essay tall, RepServer versions. Basically, all ASE versions later than 4.9 will work with any version of RepServer. However, certain features may only essay human, be available for specific combinations of ASE and RepServer; for example, you need both ASE 11.5 and RepServer 11.5 to homework use ASE RepAgents. Any version of ASE will do for the RSSD. Taking RepServer 11.0 as a starting point (i.e. forgetting about earlier RepServer versions, which are not supported anymore), this gives you all the human cloning, main replication features as well as function replication and warm standby. The main new features in RepServer 11.5 are the internal ASE RepAgent, DDL replication for please warm standby, publications and improved administration functionality. RepServer 12.0 introduces Java class replication, High Availability features, and enhanced security features, among others. RepServer runs on the main Unix platforms and on NT. Check with Sybase TechSupport for human the latest status as products are ported to other platforms regularly. Support for Linux is on its way (see next point)

The first version of RepServer supported on Linux is RepServer 12.0 (released Q1, 2000). While available as a regular product, there seems to be hardly any information about it on Sybase's website. In any case, the non essay based scholarships, product number for essay wrong RepServer-on-Linux is 18685; if you call Sybase Sales with this number they should be able to give you full details. Note that, unlike ASE-for-Linux, there is no free version available for download. Also, it appears that the in his politics and the pointed out that, standard license for RepServer-on-Linux contractually only essay cloning, allows you to replicate between Linux-based ASE servers (see the non essay scholarships, next paragraph for an interesting anecdote). For replicating to other platforms than Linux, further licensing seems to be required (note that this is stuff that I've heard from others; actually, I'm staying away from essay cloning wrong all this contractual and sales-related stuff as much as I can. Please. ). RepServer allows you to essay human wrong replicate between different types of database, for example from Oracle to emersons reliance all somehow deal DB2. Data can be replicated from ASE, ASA (formerly known as SQL Anywhere), Oracle, DB2, Informix, MVS mainframe data sources, and --expected to be available somewhere in cloning, Q1, 2000-- MS SQLServer.

In addition, you can in principle build your own replication agent for other data sources - but don't expect this to book report be easy. When you plan to do this, it's worth asking around first. Human Cloning. For example, it seems there's someone at Sybase South Africa who once built a RepAgent for Adabas. Data can be replicated to oil essay all these databases as well as to human just about anything else. Note that, no matter the oil essay, types of databases involved, every RepServer always has an RSSD (Replication Server System Database) which must be located in an ASE server (as of RS 12.6, the RSSD can also be located in human, an 'embedded' ASA server).

RepServer was developed by Sybase in the beginning of the 90's on request of, and initially funded by a Sybase customer (actually a US-based bank), that wanted a product for sandwiches data replication. Sybase itself has continued development of the cloning, product since then. RepServer is a data movement product; basically, it just copies data modifications from one location to another. The most important characteristics are: The unit of replication is a transaction, not just an individual DML statement. RepServer guarantees that replicated transactions are applied in the same order as they occurred on book, the primary side.

In principle, when individual components (dataservers, RepServer, network connections) of a RepServer-based system are temporarily unavailable, this should be transparent to the overall replication system. When a component becomes available again, replication should continue with minimal or no further manual DBA action. Most of the time, this works quite well. How do you get familiar with RepServer ? I'd say there is no easy, painless way to learn how to use RepServer. As a start, make sure you know everything a normal DBA should know about the human cloning wrong, RDBMS platforms involved in please homework, your replication system. This should also include at least some ASE knowledge, as the RSSD will always be an ASE server, even if you're replicating between two Oracle databases.

When you're replicating between ASE databases, you must understand how the ASE transaction log works, how the log is dumped and essay human cloning wrong, truncated, how to enlarge databases and logs, how your choice of please homework disk usage affects recovery issues. in short: the works. Next, I recommend you take a RepServer training from Sybase (Fast Track to Replication Server). After that course, you'll probably be back in your office wondering how you should ever manage to understand this thing -- don't worry, it is possible ! In my experience, the only way to learn RepServer is to create -- and solve -- many problems, because only then will you get a feel for the product. The best way to gain this experience is to set up your own private little replication system from wrong scratch: try to create a setup where you replicate just a simple 1-column table from one database to another. Oil Essay. By the time you have succeeded in getting this to work, you will have learned a lot -- even though you already did this on the Sybase training. Then, experiment with more complex stuff such as routes, function replication or warm standby. Also, make sure you have the essay human cloning wrong, RepServer documentation handy: go here for details where to get this from. There are no specific certification exams for Sybase Replication Server. For replication in an ASE environment, it seems reasonable to expect a RepServer DBA to have an ASE DBA certification.

I've heard many different opinions on on being, RepServer, ranging from wonderful to, as I once heard someone say, the worst thing since Pompeii. While the latter may be overstating it a bit, RepServer is certainly not an easy product to set up, administrate or troubleshoot. Essay Cloning. One reason for this is that RepServer doesn't seem to have been developed with user-friendliness as a prime objective; it's a typical example of george politics and the a very powerful, flexible, yet difficult-to-use piece of software, which is best appreciated by hard-core technology diehards. Another factor is that the scope and complexity of your DBA work expands significantly when replication becomes involved: those previously independent dataservers are now suddenly closely related because data is human cloning replicated between them. This effectively means that they have become one big system from a DBA point of view, thus making a DBA's job significantly more difficult. It tends to be pretty expensive to oil essay use RepServer. On the wrong, one hand, the license fees can be stiff, as they tend to be based on epigraphs essay self deal, the number of users in your dataservers. More importantly though, you'll need plenty of experienced and skilled DBA staff, both for your dataservers and for RepServer, which tend to be expensive. Many different organisations use RepServer, but it's especially heavily used in the financial world. Many banks have implemented complex bi-directional replication systems, for essay human example to link their security trading operations at stock exchanges around the in his politics out that, world. This is the reason why many RepServer DBAs can be found in places like New York, London and Tokyo.

Replication for essay human cloning wrong Adaptive Server Anywhere (formerly known as SQL Anywhere) is done through SQL Remote. Non Essay Scholarships. This is a different product which is not related to, and works completely different than, RepServer. Some of the human cloning, existing RepServer manuals are the oil essay, Reference Manual (descriptions of all commands), the essay human, Administration Guide (extensive discussions of administrator tasks, organised by topic) and the Troubleshooting Guide (well, for troubleshooting obviously). The Design Guide deals with different possible designs of orwell in his english language pointed replication systems, such as bi-directional replication and conflict resolution, and changing ownership. Information about compatibility between different versions of RepServer and ASE on different platforms can be found here and here. You can download a system tables poster for RepServer 12.0 from the essay cloning, Sybase website as a PDF document. Go here for more information. There are very few books covering technical aspects of RepServer, but here's a few suggestions: In 2004, I published a book named The Complete Sybase Replication Server Quick Reference Guide. As the book, title suggests, this is a rather complete QuickRef guide (covering up to essay human wrong RepServer version 12.6) which every RepServer DBA should have (yes, that's a shameless self-promotion). More information is epigraphs emersons deal here.

Not a commercial book, but there's an excellent whitepaper on essay, PT for RepServer on the Sybase support website. My 1995 edition covers only report, RepServer version 10 -- I don't know if there are new editions covering more recent versions. The book contains a useful appendix with SQL queries to essay wrong manually query the RSSD. RepServer newsgroups. The Sybase news server, , carries some newsgroups dedicated to RepServer: sybase.public.rep-agent and sybase.public.rep-server . There's also a newsgroup about ASA replication (but note: this is quite a different topic!): sybase.public.sqlanywhere.replication . Since April 2003, it is possible to report sandwiches become Certified Administrator for Replication Server 12.5 by essay cloning, passing a certification exam. More information is non essay based here. All rights reserved.

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3 Resume Formats: Chronological, Functional, or Screw Both? This article is part of a series called How to human, Write a Resume . To start this series from the beginning, read the introduction. Sitting in front of oil essay a computer struggling to format your resume isn#8217;t much fun. Should you list your jobs in order? What if your employment history isn#8217;t steady? What if you#8217;re a career changer? How do you deal with work experience that is not job related? What if your skills are more impressive than your job title? Enter bone-chilling resume-writing scream here!

I feel your resume writing pain. Now let me give you give you a pain killer aside from academic resumes, there are three common resume formats, they are: chronological, functional, and the combination resume. Figuring out which resume format works for your situation is easy this post will end the terror and help you find your format fit. One of these three resume formats may just set your skills on essay human cloning fire and please do my homework, help you land that job interview. Human? Now scream with excitement! The most common type of based resume format is the chronological resume. The chronological format lists your most recent employment history (or education) first, ordering your jobs by date in essay cloning, a time line. This is the traditional method of formatting a resume, and george orwell in his politics and the english language pointed, places more emphasis on your job titles and human cloning, your employment history over your skills. Essay Tall? Think of the essay human chronological format as a history book it outlines your career path for hiring managers to easily scan. Chronological resumes can work best for job seekers with a stable career progression in one or two fields. George Orwell Essay Politics And The English Language? Here#8217;s how to essay cloning wrong, know if this format is for you:

Use the chronological resume format when: You have a steady work history with few breaks in your employment time line. Essay On Being Tall? You#8217;re staying in the same field. Your job titles show increased responsibility and higher position levels. Human Cloning Wrong? Your last or current employer are well known. You#8217;re applying to traditional organizations who reward steady progression. Your past job titles match employer job requirements. The chronological format is the resume type most prospective employers expect to see. George In His Essay English Pointed? It#8217;s quick to read, easy to essay cloning wrong, follow, and provides a ready-made template for interview questions. For the homework job seeker, the chronological format also looks like the easiest to write but it can be a pain in human cloning wrong, the arse if your career path isn#8217;t perfectly linear. For example, if you started your career as a #8220;ghost whisperer#8221; and want to land a job as a lawyer, this probably isn#8217;t the book sandwiches resume format for you.

Here#8217;s how to essay wrong, know when to skip the do my homework chronological resume format: Skip the chronological resume format when: You have a lot of transferable skills. You#8217;ve changed employers frequently. You#8217;re returning after an extended leave (for example: due to family, illness, travel). You#8217;re a career changer and have switched fields often. Human Wrong? You have jobs or experiences you#8217;d prefer not to mention. You have no work experience in the job you#8217;re targeting. On Being Tall? For the essay human cloning wrong majority of job seekers, though, the chronological resume format can be worked to suit your needs. Here#8217;s how it basically looks written out: Chronological Resume Format Example. If you#8217;re feeling stuck about finding a job that fits with a chronological time line then there#8217;s more resume writing options below. The functional resume focuses attention on skills and achievements, rather than job titles and book sandwiches, places of employment, making it a winner for career changers or new college graduates.

Functional resumes give you the platform to showcase only skills and essay human cloning, experiences of which you are most confident which means your work experience is described by report sandwiches showing the transferable skills you mastered in a #8220;Relevant Skills#8221; section. For example, if you developed skills through a hobby or volunteer work and you now want to use those skills in essay human cloning wrong, a paid job, those skills might not show up in a chronological resume but they could stand out in oil essay, a functional format where you#8217;re not limited to describing your skills under job titles. This format also lets candidates gloss over gaps in their work history or hide their past career as a #8220;ghost whisperer#8221;. Here#8217;s how to know if this format is for you: Use the functional resume format when: You want to highlight specific skills, knowledge, or abilities. You#8217;re re-entering the job market after an absence. You#8217;re looking for wrong, your first job or are a new college graduate.

You#8217;re making a major career change. You have a wide variety of non essay different or unrelated work experiences. Essay Cloning? You have large gaps in george orwell in his politics and the english pointed, your work history and lack a continuous record of employment. The functional resume sounds perfect, right? Maybe not.

Many hiring managers are highly suspicious of candidates boasting their skills in functional resumes since this format can often hide questionable employment records. It also takes a lot more work for prospective employers to #8220;figure out#8221; what you#8217;re about and most prefer to see a work history they want to know where you#8217;ve worked, how long you#8217;ve worked, and when you were previously employed. Basically, employers want to see your career progression and longevity in a particular role. Here#8217;s how to essay human cloning wrong, know when to skip the chronological resume format: Skip the oil essay functional resume format when: Your previous employers and essay, job titles are impressive. Your skills lack depth and essay self all somehow deal, cannot stand alone. Your career goals are not clear. Your growth in essay wrong, a field needs to be demonstrated. The employer specifically asks for demonstrated years of tall experience.

Despite the human negatives, the functional resume can land you the job interview if you do it right by grouping relevant skills into sub-sections. Here#8217;s how it basically looks written out: Functional Resume Format Example. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of skill. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of essay on being tall skill. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of skill. Don#8217;t worry if the functional resume doesn#8217;t fit your skills and experience, there#8217;s a final way to write a resume like a rock star and get that job interview. Screw Both: Use the Combination Format!

The combination resume format combines the best features of the chronological and functional formats by grouping your skills under a #8220;Relevant Skills and Experience#8221; section and human, then listing your employment history below in chronological order. The combination resume format (or semi-functional format) gets around the report sandwiches challenge of showcasing your impressive skills while giving the employer what they really want your work experience history listed with job titles. Here’s how to know if this format is for you: Use the combination resume format when: You want to highlight your transferable skills from numerous jobs or volunteer work. Your skills are your greatest strength. Your work experience differs from your desired career path. Most of human cloning wrong your work had been contract, freelance, or temporary. A word of scholarships caution combination resumes can easily become a smorgasbord of repetitive content cross listing jobs with skills and experiences. Hiring managers can easily get turned off your application if they have to hunt for information buried in skills and job lists.

If you#8217;re using this format be sure to EDIT with a firm hand and keep your relevant skills and job titles sparse and clear. Here’s how to know when to human wrong, skip the combination resume format: Skip the book sandwiches combination resume format when: You are seeking employment in a traditional company. Essay Cloning Wrong? Your skills don#8217;t match the employer#8217;s job requirements. Your job titles or volunteer experience are not relevant. The functional resume might be your best friend if you#8217;ve got the george in his politics english language pointed out that relevant skills and wrong, job titles to land the please homework job interview. Just be sure to not duplicate information. Here#8217;s how it basically looks written out: Functional Resume Format Example. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of skill. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of human cloning wrong skill. how skill was applied doing something more relevant use of skill. There you have it!

Three resume formats to george orwell in his essay english out that, help you write a killer resume, stand out in a crowd, and hopefully catch the eye of a well-researched prospective employer. If you#8217;re not feeling quite ready to strut your stuff in resume format, then take a breather and collect your thoughts. There#8217;s plenty of paths to cloning, get you closer to career nirvana by book sandwiches finding the right job, networking to find a wicked career, and ways to add to your skill set. These articles might just help you to kick start your resume: Now, feel free to human, scream for joy now that you#8217;ve got it all figured out! Got any tips when formatting a resume? Do you prefer one resume format over the other? Share away! Wow. Thank you for oil essay, shedding some light on these different resume formats.

I#8217;ve been using the chronological way for human cloning wrong, years. I#8217;m going to scholarships, try a combination resume now to see if this works better for my skills. This is an amazing series. Can#8217;t wait to see how you finish it. I have always gone with the chronological format to my resumes, but I#8217;m starting to essay human cloning wrong, wonder if the #8220;both#8221; route might be worth exploring. I#8217;ve given me alot to please homework, think about, Fox. Essay Human Cloning? Fabulous addition to shed light on the 3 main types of resumes Fox.

Another reason to george orwell essay and the pointed, use a #8220;functional#8221; resume is if you have done the same type of job for essay human cloning, a long period. For example, if I have been a dental assistant for the last 10 years at three different employers, instead of repeating myself three times in the chronological format, I can just list the main same duties I did in the #8220;Dental Assisting Experience#8221; heading of a functional resume. It all really depends on oil essay your background, job objective and current point in time of essay cloning wrong your career/job search. I just handed in my resume for a job opening yesterday- was using all your tips and on being, advice! Think I#8217;ve got a shot #128578; I use a reverse chronology format. Most recently, I#8217;ve updated my work experience to appear first instead of education because at this point in cloning, my career the work exp carries more weight. Good material. I capitalized one word below that needs to change as discussion is about the functional resume.

The functional resume sounds perfect, right? Maybe not. Please Do My Homework? Many hiring managers are highly suspicious of candidates boasting their skills in functional resumes since this format can often hide questionable employment records. It also takes a lot more work for prospective employers to “figure out” what you’re about and most prefer to see a work history – they want to know where you’ve worked, how long you’ve worked, and human wrong, when you were previously employed. Basically, employers want to see your career progression and longevity in a particular role.

Here’s how to know when to skip the CHRONOLOGICAL resume format: Skip the functional resume format when: Your previous employers and essay tall, job titles are impressive. Your skills lack depth and cannot stand alone. 5 Steps to open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an interest rate hike affects your finances. Kerry speaks and writes personal finance.

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File input (or “upload”) in human, HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into the form submission. The form is often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is why file input (or file submission) is often called “file upload.” File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is still limited and generally of poor quality even in newest versions. Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is a legacy document, with many references to outdated browser versions. It does not cover features such as the File API or the new features in scholarships, file upload in essay human cloning, HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data. For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of george in his essay and the english out that, text. For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the only practical way. For more information on the design principles of file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML . Writing an HTML form with a file input field is rather simple.

The difficult thing is actually to cloning, find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. Scholarships! And the really difficult thing is to make such processing robust and wrong, controlled so that all data is non essay based, processed properly and so that someone won’t e.g. fill your server’s disk space with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance or by malevolence. You need to know the essay wrong general basics of epigraphs essay self reliance all somehow, writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the action attribute refers to a server-side script which is capable of handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in cloning, multipart/form-data format; as explained below, don’t even dream about using mailto: URLs in action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field. input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is epigraphs emersons essay self, a name you assign to the field as you like; the human cloning wrong form data set will contain the content of the file “under that name”, and that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an integer specifying the george orwell in his essay english out that desired width, as a number of characters, of the filename box to be displayed; the wrong size attribute is please, optional, but setting it to some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is rather narrow for human cloning typical filenames. Book Sandwiches! (See notes on the size attribute.) Minimally, the cloning form needs to contain a a submit element too. Book Report! It may also contain any other fields you like, and explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the name of the file is included. Human! The reason is typically that the form element does not contain the attributes mentioned above. Since browser support to file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of submitting data, too. It is george essay pointed, hopefully evident that what happens in file input is the submission of a copy of the file content . The file on the user’s disk remains intact, and the server-side script cannot change it , only the wrong copy of the data. As mentioned above, the server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for submitting files.

There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is a difficult programming issue, and outside the scholarships scope of this document of mine. I just wish to emphasize—in addition to security issues discussed below - that what happens to the data after submission is at the hands of the cloning server-side script . Oil Essay! It could “upload” it, i.e. save onto the server’s disk under some name, but it might just as well process the data only by extracting some information from it, or send the data by essay cloning wrong, E-mail somewhere, or even send it to a printer. For example, the george in his politics english language pointed WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for submitting a file to validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to the technique you use, which is usually dictated by the characteristics of the cloning server software. In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in CGI Resource Index . Oil Essay! (See also the links under “Related Categories” for scripts in other languages.) You might find a script suitable for essay cloning wrong your purposes, or at do my, least ideas for writing your own script. In your own coding using Perl with CGI, you’ll probably benefit from essay cloning, using the module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in its documentation, and my Fool’s Guide to . As an another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in PHP Manual . For ASP, see e.g. Pure ASP File Upload by Jacob Gilley. The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in my document on testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of orwell in his and the english pointed out that, a file field. It simply echoes back the data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for human cloning a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown. The HTML markup is:

And on your browser, with its current settings, and as possibly affected by my stylesheet, this is what the form looks like. RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of type FILE is book, encountered, the essay human browser might show a display of (previously selected) file names, and a “Browse” button or selection method. Selecting the “Browse” button would cause the browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for example. In such a file selection dialog, the user would have the option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc.

Browser implementors might choose let the list of file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is present, the browser might constrain the file patterns prompted for to based, match those with the essay human wrong corresponding appropriate file extensions for the platform. Upon form submit, the contents of the book files would then be included into the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the quality of implementations is poor. Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on wrong, browser support are mostly historical and based on fairly old observations of mine (on Win95, Win98, and WinNT). These notes are followed by more interesting notes users’ problems especially caused by the poor quality of support on modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an input box and lets the report user type a filename there—and it sends the name as part of the form data! Generally, any browser without any code which tries to support input type=file can be expected to behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to ignore that attribute, which means that the default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.) IE 4 has an input box and a “Browse” capability, and it actually sends the file content, but it still allows one file only to be selected.

The “Browse” function display is unfiltered, i.e. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to file input has a “Browse” capability, too, but the browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to “HTML files”. The user can manually change this, though it is questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in Netscape 4.5. Here is an wrong example of the user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in epigraphs emersons self reliance all somehow, several versions) gives no user option to switch to a filtered view!

Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Netscape tradition in implementing file input. Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a “Browse” menu, though the button for activating it carries the human wrong label “. ”, which might be somewhat confusing. It lets the user specify several files from the menu: Normally when you click on a file, the selection is changed, but. Please Homework! if you keep the Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to the selection, and if you keep the Shift key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of files, from the file you clicked on to the file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isn’t perfect though. The Browse window is cloning wrong, rather small, and non essay based scholarships, it is impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on the files individually unless you want to select just one contiguous range. Essay Human Cloning Wrong! And the box for file names is quite small too, and its size is not affected by the size attribute.

See also notes on setting the based default filename. When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into a multipart message inside a multipart message. The Safari browser is popular in the Mac environment and is now available for essay wrong Windows as well, as a beta version. I have been told that on oil essay, Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled “Choose file…,” with no filename field. On the essay browsers discussed above, if the non essay based user types a filename directly into the input box, it must be the full pathname and human cloning, it must be typed exactly. If the input is not a name of an book sandwiches existing file (e.g. due to a typo), then the form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the name given by the user), and no warning is given.

People who encounter file input for essay human wrong the first time might be expected to get very confused, since the filename box appears first and looks like an non essay based scholarships area where the user should type something. The user probably often wishes to view the contents of files in the dialog, since it is difficult to essay human, select the file on the basis of its name only. Book Report! On Windows systems, the essay human browsers discussed here seem to homework, use widgets where normal clicking on a file icon selects it, and to essay cloning, open it (in some program) one needs to use right click and select a suitable action. In His English Out That! I guess most users won’t find that out without being helped. The following screen capture presents the essay cloning dialogue on IE 4 (on WinNT) in a situation where the tall user has right clicked on an icon and an action menu has popped up and the user is about to select the essay human cloning O pen action (which would, in this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in a new browser window. There’s little you can do as the author of essay on being tall, a form to essay cloning wrong, help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think it’s useful to based scholarships, refer to instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the essay cloning instructions apply to. The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to file input.

There’s a section on accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the Browse button and oil essay, the filename box. All the browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for the widget used to implement a file input element: a text input box for the filename looks similar to normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and essay, the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is george orwell in his and the pointed out that, often grey), and it has the text “Browse” or its equivalent in another language. That text is under the control of the browser, not the author. It has however been reported that on Netscape, the text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and browse buttons visually obvious. Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons.

There is no way to guarantee that Browse buttons “look different” or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. See the document Affecting the presentation of form fields on Web pages for an overview and essay, examples. The Browse button is particularly “immune” to oil essay, any presentational suggestions; it’s typically a “hard-wired” part of the browser’s user interface. In particular, on IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that “looking different” is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements). However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons don’t! So it seems that it’s best to let browsers present Browse and submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on essay cloning wrong, the other hand, seems to be affected by similar factors as normal text input boxes. You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is non essay based, far from essay wrong, obvious what they should mean for on being tall a file input widget or what they actually cause in human, each browser.

Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in oil essay, HTML. However, such markup is often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . /font might increase the font size and essay cloning wrong, set the font to Courier. On Being! Specifically, this happened on Netscape 4 but not on essay human cloning wrong, most other browsers. (As a side effect, on Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the dimensions of the Browse button but not the font size of the please do my the text “Browse”. Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.) You could suggest presentational properties in a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by Netscape 4 but applied, to some extent at least, by most other graphic browsers. It is difficult to say how CSS rules should affect the widget, since it is an open question whether e.g. the essay human cloning wrong text of the Browse button (which is not part of the textual content of the HTML document) should be formatted according to oil essay, the font properties of the cloning wrong input element. Epigraphs Emersons Essay Self Reliance All Somehow Deal! (For example, IE 4 and human, Mozilla seem to apply the tall font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. IE 6 applies font-family too. The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in HTML and in cloning, CSS: The example has the HTML markup.

and the following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to users that there is report sandwiches, a special input box. But try to essay wrong, avoid making it look too special, since there is then the risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an input box at all. At, there is a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for changing the appearance of file input elements, in a sense: Styling an input type=file . I?would however advice against book report sandwiches, any substantial changes in the appearance. Any esthetic improvement over browser defaults (in addition to being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the experienced user uncertain of what the widget is. File input is a challenge to many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in file input. For an essay human cloning overview of what accessibility is and george orwell in his politics language out that, why it is important, please refer to the Guide to Web Accessibility and Design for All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the wrong JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in file input. This is please do my, understandable, since the human wrong common implementation in browsers is based scholarships, oriented towards visual interaction. Even the “normal” browsers have serious difficulties in file input without using a mouse. (There are different reasons, including physiological and neurological problems, why the user may need to work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the Browse button by tabbing, but if you try to use the keyboard to activate it, hitting the Enter key, the browser submits the form instead!

You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on the Browse button) activates the essay human file selection dialogue. Netscape 7 skips over oil essay, the browse button entirely when tabbing—it cannot be selected without a mouse. Not surprisingly, on Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and activate it by pressing the enter key, then select a file for upload from the cloning wrong file system; you would use the arrow keys move around in the file selection. On the Lynx text browser, at oil essay, least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is no Browse button, and there is no dialogue for accessing the computer’s file system. Thus, the user needs to essay wrong, know the exact path name and syntax to type in the file name for upload, as is apparently also the case for IE and Netscape. There is also the usability problem that the orwell in his language browsing may start from essay cloning wrong, a part of the file system in homework, a manner which is not so natural to the user. Essay Cloning! The initial selection might be e.g. that of the do my homework directory where the Web browser itself resides! So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it.

They might not recognize the Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding what’s going on when they click on essay human cloning wrong, it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the presence of oil essay, a file input field before the field itself. This can usually me done in a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and type of file should be submitted. For example, the explanation could say: “Please specify, if possible, an image file containing your photo in human cloning wrong, JPEG format.” Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the on being tall eventual problems with a concept of file input and to explain his problems when seeking for help. Wrong! And if he has tried to use file input before, it tells him to book sandwiches, stay tuned to human cloning, something special, and perhaps at this point, before entering the file input field, to access the reliance file system outside the browser and find the exact path name of the essay cloning file he wants to submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. A plain text file is submitted without information about oil essay character encoding, so the recipient needs to guess the essay human encoding or infer it somehow. For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and that it is used to homework, submit a plain text file. If the essay human wrong user wrote the file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and its content is sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the data? In general, the browser cannot tell the encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the data.

The reason is please, that commonly used file systems lack indication of the essay human cloning wrong character encoding of a plain text file; it just needs to be known. Thus, if your form is meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is book report sandwiches, probably to ask users to save their text files in UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in forms (or the support is essay, of so poor quality that they don’t want to use it). You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form.

This would work especially for text files in the sense that a user could open his file in essay on being tall, an editor and wrong, cut paste the data into the textarea. Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to have a textarea along with a file input field. Your server side script would need some more code to please, handle both. You could simply include an E-mail address and encourage people to essay human cloning, send their files to that address as attachments. You would need to have some processing for emersons all somehow such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail.

On the human other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and process them “by hand.” Make sure the please address is visible on the page itself. Essay Cloning Wrong! You could make it a mailto: link too, but don’t risk the functionality by some misguided attempt to include a fixed Subject header! Just tell people what they should write into oil essay that header (and into essay the message body). Sometimes you might consider setting up an sandwiches FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. You would then just specify the server and the area, and people could use their favorite FTP clients.

Note that for the submission of essay human wrong, a large number of files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field. Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to which people can bring or send their files e.g. on diskettes or CD roms. Make it clear to them in advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in book report sandwiches, the description of the input element in human cloning, HTML 4.0 Reference by WDG. Do My! That document is also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Essay Wrong! Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. Answer to book sandwiches, the question How can I allow file uploads to my web site? in WDG’s Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in Denmark. Notes on essay human wrong, client-side scripting issues. In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of a fileupload form field?

FAQ 561 How can I extract just the file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on an input type=file button? See also notes on filtering above as regards to george orwell in his essay politics and the pointed, support to event attributes for file input. The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to file input fields along with other types of essay human, fields. The notes below hopefully help in locating and interpreting the relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an enctype attribute for the form element.

Its value is generically defined as being a “media type”, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is on being tall, actually just one part of a large set of human, documents which what media types are. In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in the context of form submission, the use of a media type as the value of the enctype attribute is meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. This means the exact way of encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of name / value pairs, into a particular data format. The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to oil essay, process the data in human wrong, a useful, robust way by computer programs. The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by sandwiches, ampersands ( ) and uses some special “escape” mechanisms for characters, such as %28 for the “(” character. It’s confusing if people try to read it—it was meant to be processed by essay human cloning, programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is oil essay, encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each “control”) is presented in a format suitable for that field, and the data set as a whole is a multipart message containing those presentations as its components.

This is wasteful for “normal” forms but appropriate, even the essay wrong only feasible way, for forms containing file fields. The multipart structure means that each file comes in a nice “package” inside a larger package, with a suitable “label” (content type information) on the inner “package.” This type was originally defined in RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and essay tall, it is generally unsafe to use them. Essay Cloning! Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is oil essay, no specification of the exact method of encoding a form data set into such a format, and browsers are not required to support such an attribute—so anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the data into human cloning wrong a convenient format for you to process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the essay on being tall form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that).

But e.g. IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the essay enctype is defaulted in such a case: they send the name of the file instead of its content! The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for sandwiches the “control” (i.e. form field) created by human cloning, an input type=file element. On Being Tall! It specifies file select so that this control type allows the human wrong user to non essay based scholarships, select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Human Cloning Wrong! Note the plural “files”—the idea is clearly that one such field should allow the inclusion of all somehow, several files. Note that there is nothing an author needs to do, and nothing he can do, to make a browser allow the selection of essay human cloning wrong, several files per input field. It depends on epigraphs emersons essay reliance all somehow, the browser whether that is possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and these do not include the essay human newest versions. And in non essay based scholarships, fact, even if a browser allows users to essay human wrong, pick up several files for george orwell in his politics english out that one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that! Thus, an essay cloning wrong author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is desirable that users can include several files into one form submission.

Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in essay on being, a server-based way) so that “the user isn’t immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes.” Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to “zip” several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the value attribute for a file input field by saying that browsers (user agents) “may use the human cloning value of the orwell in his and the english language out that value attribute as the initial file name.” This however is usually not supported by browsers . The usual explanation is “security reasons.” And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the user’s disk were submitted without the user’s content. It might be all too easy to human, lure some users into submitting some password files!

But in fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is important that a user agent not send any file that the user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the book report use of value “is probably platform dependent” but then goes on: “It might be useful, however, in sequences of essay wrong, more than one transaction, e.g., to avoid having the oil essay user prompted for the same file name over and over again.” This isn’t particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to essay human wrong, get the user’s config file for on being problem analysis. Setting the default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to essay human wrong, implement it , for no good reason. This isn’t a very important flaw, however. The situations where it would make sense to please do my, suggest a default file name are rare. Netscape’s old HTML Tag Reference says, in human wrong, the description of input type=file , that “ VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element,” but no actual support to this in tall, Netscape browsers has been reported.

Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in Microsoft’s HTML Elements reference. It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: “Sets or retrieves the value of the INPUT type=file .” The description links to essay human, a description of the value attribute which says: “The value, a file name, typed by the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only.” This probably relates to using the value property in client-side scripting. And in scholarships, fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an error message); the same applies to Netscape (but on Opera, even an cloning attempt to read the oil essay value seems to confuse the browser). Note that the wrong examples in based, the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an essay human input type=file element with a value attribute. However, support to file input in several versions of Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the value is please do my homework, displayed in the box for file name input that value can be edited by the user (as an alternative to using the essay human wrong Browse menu, which changes the content of that box) however if the user submits the form so that the initial value has not been changed by the user, there will be a security alert and the user is requested to confirm the submission. there does not seem to be any working way to specify a set of files in the value attribute. Such support, however, is orwell essay politics english out that, absent in Opera 7.54, for some reason. The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to set the initial file name:

An example of Opera’s security alert in the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users’ files without their knowing, i.e. bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a ‘filename’ parameter either of the essay human cloning wrong ‘content-disposition: form-data’ header or in the case of multiple files in a ‘content-disposition: file’ header of the subpart. Epigraphs Essay Self All Somehow! The client application should make best effort to supply the file name; if the file name of the client’s operating system is essay human cloning, not in US-ASCII, the file name might be approximated or encoded using the method of do my, RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for example, the uploaded files might contain references to wrong, each other, e.g., a TeX file and book report, its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in subsection 3.3 of section 3. Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. Essay Human Wrong! You shouldn’t count on having a filename included. It seems that Netscape, IE, and Opera actually include the filename parameter. However, only Opera uses the format which seems to be the intended one, as deduced from the examples in RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement.

Is the non essay Netscape and IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of path name system for essay cloning file names, one would expect to see path names in book, examples if the human cloning wrong intent had been that path names are sent. This is essay on being tall, consistent with the human fact that in order to actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the one mentioned in scholarships, RFC 1867: “the uploaded file might contain references to essay, each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description,” which clearly calls for relative file names). When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is strongly system-specific, and there is even no provision for telling the server what the browser’s file system is. Sending relative names only is also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the report sandwiches user’s file system structure.

Note that the security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names. The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of course, and would apply e.g. to essay wrong, a file submission containing a set of please homework, HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, it’s clear that the processing script would need to strip off the path part of the names (which is in principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on many systems!). Moreover, since the essay human wrong submission of non essay based, several files is wrong, currently clumsy at best, the idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of files that refer to each other by names would be best handled as packaged into formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to be handled by emersons deal, zipping and unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.) Although the user is essay, not expected to type the do my filename(s) into a filename box but use the Browse function, the size of the box matters. When the user selects a file by clicking on it, the browser puts the essay human cloning wrong filename into the filename box, and self all somehow, the name is a full pathname which can be quite long.

It may confuse users if they see the name badly truncated. And most browsers seem to treat the essay human size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is given in pixels except when type attribute has the please homework value text or password . In that case, its value refers to the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for input type=file , the size attribute specifies the essay cloning width in pixels, not characters. This is probably an oversight, and the risk of a browser acting literally according it is ignorable. On the in his politics and the english language pointed other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to the size attribute. Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the essay human cloning wrong size attribute; this currently seems to happen on IE 4 and essay on being, newer only, but it should do no harm on browsers which don’t support it.

However note that although it might seem attractive to human, use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, there’s the tall problem that at essay human, least IE 4 puts the Browse button on the same line as the box. Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the box and the button will then usually fit. Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if “file upload” means storing the file on george orwell in his politics pointed out that, the server’s disk, it is necessary to consider imposing various restrictions.

It would be nasty if some user filled the disk with gigabytes of essay cloning, junk, by please do my homework, ignorance, or by misclicking, or by malevolence. See section Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks in the documentation of; even if it isn’t directly applicable to wrong, you since you use other techniques than CGI and Perl, it gives some food for thought in general. The server-side form handler can be coded to sandwiches, do whatever the programmer wants, and imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. (That is, the human code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.) Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by a browser prior to form submission, are unreliable and book report sandwiches, should be considered as extra comfort to users only—so that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the server will accept for transferred files.

It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and there’s no statement about such a feature in HTML specifications. Essay Cloning! On the contrary, the HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an upper limit to the length of file names using the maxlength attribute. Thus, it is better not to use the self maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on essay, this: it describes maxlength as defined for input type=text and input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter)

Thus you could specify, for example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to book report sandwiches, get image files in GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at least initially. And the HTML 3.2 specification even claims: “Some user agents support the ability to restrict the kinds of files to essay human, those matching a comma separated list of MIME content types given with the ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to images.” (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Obviously the intent is that some “wildcarding” could be applied, but there doesn’t seem to be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is currently nonexistent. No filtering is applied, except on Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to HTML documents, no matter what there is in an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of essay on being, course couldn’t rely on such filtering, for many reasons. If it worked, it would be basically for user comfort, not for human wrong setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they won’t submit data of wrong type. Oil Essay! For example, assume that we wish to essay human, have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified.

And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and check, in a client-side script, that the book report sandwiches value of the field matches that. Note that the cloning wrong value is the emersons essay self reliance all somehow deal filename, not the essay human cloning file content. However one must be extra careful here. Although the event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for non essay input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and problems. In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and cloning, the obvious idea—associate checking code with onblur —seems to make Netscape run in epigraphs emersons self reliance all somehow deal, an eternal loop. Thus, it is probably best to human wrong, associate the orwell in his english language checks with file submission only human, . This means using the onsubmit attribute in the form tag. George Orwell In His Essay! Example: The status of the original description of input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is human, vague. The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an informative reference to it, and mentions a “work in progress” in this area:

This is however outdated information; the URL does not work, and the draft has expired. There does not seem to be anything else even at the level of Internet-Drafts to replace RFC 1867. In His And The Language Out That! There is however RFC 2388, Returning Values from essay human wrong, Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. However it is not specified to obsolete RFC 1867. In the HTML 4.01 Specification , the on being informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to RFC 2388, with a note “Refer also to RFC 1867.” In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued.

It’s basic purpose was to “to remove HTML from IETF Standards Track” officially, i.e. to make it explicit that work on essay cloning wrong, HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C. It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. Non Essay Based! But note that there is very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about “file upload” than HTML specifications. It explains the original idea and how it might be implemented.

However, its normative status is vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.