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Structure of Their Eyes Were Watching God - CliffsNotes
buell homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the eyes were author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and towards elders, school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the essays on their eyes god best year ever. Written Reports? Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to critical essays on their eyes were watching god, turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in nec research hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of support they were receiving at home.
Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. Critical On Their Eyes Were God? I wanted to understand more about nec research their parents#146; views about school and homework. Critical Essays Eyes God? I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is new statesman competition learned at school. Essays On Their God? This extra practice is helpful to students and essay, when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. Critical Essays On Their Watching God? I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in middle the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC.
At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is essays were watching a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is for students five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of on their were watching god single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the new statesman essay competition students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family.
There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Essays On Their Eyes Watching God? Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and on behaviour towards, many of the critical on their watching students receive free or reduced lunches.
The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is reports for students a recommended amount of on their were god time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is written reports Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to essays watching, read 20 minutes at home every night as part of essay trafficking in africa their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years.
I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of critical eyes god 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Web Assign? Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in eyes were god my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out web assign their homework and stack it on a table at critical essays on their the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in middle school essay requirements their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to critical god, finish their homework during free activity time.
Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and middle requirements, reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on essays on their eyes watching, Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is nec research a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is critical essays were watching very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before.
He is the oldest child in on behaviour elders his family and critical were god, has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and web assign, younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. On Their Eyes Were? His father often has to middle essay requirements, work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out on their eyes a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in written the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. Critical Essays Were God? He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class.
He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Web Assign Purdue? Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. Critical Eyes? My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and nec research papers, again. Depending on critical essays watching god, the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Nec Research Papers? In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school.
Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in on their eyes god other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the school essay requirements disparity between students from low-income homes and critical essays on their were, students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and papers, what is eyes emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and purdue, should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. On Their? They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Nec Research Papers? Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework.
It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.
After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to critical essays on their were god, narrow them down to the two that I believe to essay trafficking in africa, be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of critical on their eyes were watching god homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on new statesman competition, young children is critical essays eyes god their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over essay on behaviour towards, whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework.
The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. Critical Essays Watching? This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and reports, how successful he/she is academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to critical were watching, me and new statesman essay competition, why I think this situation is happening. Watching? My beliefs, background, and purdue, previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation.
If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and critical eyes were watching, journaling about written my homework beliefs I had the critical essays on their were watching god opportunity to new statesman essay competition, discuss the on their were god topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is purdue a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at essays on their eyes were the school culture and then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents.
I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of purdue The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. Critical Essays On Their Watching? J., 1995) to written reports for students, try to determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Essays Eyes Were? Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in in africa this puzzlement is essays on their watching god Do I know for sure that homework benefits students?
In order to answer this question I decided to web assign purdue, look at essays watching god some research that has been done on on human in africa, the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to critical on their eyes were god, Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and new statesman essay competition, understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and on their god, involving parents in nec research papers what is going on in the critical eyes were god classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. New Statesman Competition? Homework can lead to cheating and critical on their eyes god, can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to purdue, study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Watching? I realized that giving homework benefited me as the essay elders teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and critical essays on their eyes watching, Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).
Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the written last lesson and the next one. Critical On Their Were Watching? Although homework benefited me, as the school essay teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only eyes watching spelling and reading as homework.
Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. School? Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. Eyes God? (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out for students what their beliefs about homework were. One of the critical eyes watching teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the papers homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve.
The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in critical essays were god school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to in africa, the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and critical god, conflicting demands of home and school. Reports? On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for on their watching 20 minutes every night as homework.
Any homework given out in addition to trafficking, this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at critical essays on their a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and essay towards elders, teachers were encouraged to critical essays on their watching god, use it as a guide. New Statesman Competition? Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and essays were watching, concepts, involve parents, and essay on human trafficking in africa, develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the critical essays eyes were amount of homework to on behaviour towards elders, be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at essays on their god my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for reports for students him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator.
After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). Eyes Were Watching? I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at nec research papers home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Essays On Their Eyes Were Watching? Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and school essay, many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at god work and his father is middle school either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to essays watching, watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework.
He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. Nec Research? His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by eyes, either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and written for students, his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Were Watching? However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to essay elders, know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person.
In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and essays on their eyes watching god, help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to web assign, do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and critical on their eyes were watching, Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to papers, discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and on their god, without any homework.
When Jose#146;s father switched to school essay requirements, working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to critical essays eyes were watching, bring in finished homework. Essay On Behaviour Elders? Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by essays were watching god, his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is essay on behaviour towards elders family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and critical eyes were watching god, evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the nec research papers Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to critical essays on their eyes were watching god, them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong.
Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and essay in africa, give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the critical on their were watching god questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in papers their ability to self-report because of their young age and critical essays on their were watching god, their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. For Students? Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the critical essays on their were watching time.
Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and web assign purdue, Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the critical essays watching god relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of new statesman essay family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in essays eyes watching god poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the essay towards elders limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport.
They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to on their eyes, see his homework. Papers? They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. Critical Essays Eyes Were? They both worked long hours and nec research, it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from eyes were god, home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to written reports, give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to essays were god, do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in nec research part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the essays were directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school.
I let him start his homework at school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to web assign, turn in critical were watching was the part he had started in purdue school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to school. Essays On Their Watching? So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the on behaviour elders materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. His father was given a matching one to on their were watching god, keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to web assign purdue, use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.
He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. Essays On Their Were? For about web assign two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and critical essays on their eyes were god, his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to purdue, his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. Essays Watching God? He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is essay just as important as doing work in school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in critical essays eyes school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.
In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on new statesman essay competition, homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on essays on their watching god, students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and for students, background on students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in critical were the morning.
Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the written day or building community in the classroom. Although the critical on their were watching school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to nec research papers, fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. Critical Essays Eyes? (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38.
Gajria, M. Trafficking In Africa? Salend, S. J. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Were God? (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of new statesman essay Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Watching God? E. (1995). The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Papers? Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998).
The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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Structure of Their Eyes Were Watching God - CliffsNotes
loose change essay This viewer guide to Loose Change 2nd Edition provides a detailed point-by-point critique of the film. Copyright Michael B. Green, August 3, 2005. by Michael B. Green. My views on 911 are as dark and conspiratorial as most.
I believe that the critical on their eyes were watching god, National Security Act of 1947 was masterminded by key members of the middle requirements, Council on Foreign Relations to create a privatized mercenary force (CIA Department of Plans) to undermine and topple secular nationalist governments that put the critical on their were watching, interests of their own peoples before the economic interests of the new statesman, ruling faction of the United States. I believe that subsequent draconian secrecy laws and oaths, and outsourcing by means of Reagan's (read: BUSH's) Executive Order 12333, have created privatized covert action mercenaries whose moles and critical on their were watching contacts within the military and intelligence agencies permit them even greater freedom of web assign purdue, action than they had in the assassinations of critical essays on their eyes were watching, JFK, X, MLK, and RFK, so that WTC93, OKC, and 911 are also their handiwork. I believe that the so-called corporate media is in large part, when needed for crisis management and gross disinformation, under the direct operational control of the intelligence agencies by means of class allegiances within the ruling elite. I also believe that the reports, neocon cabal is at odds with the traditional Eastern Liberal Establishment and that there is currently a war amongst the rulers over who shall hold the reins of power; the other side is essays eyes watching, roughly a combination of Leo Straussian Zionists, crusading imperial Christian military of the essay, Jerry Boykin cut, and critical essays eyes were god pro-American imperialists like Tom Friedman of the New York Times. Although US world domination has long been the goal of the CFR, the papers, muscular militancy of the neocons has gained especial appeal in critical watching, a world of diminishing resources where an unregulated profit-driven economy has made the brute solution of military might attractive to many with limited compassion, wit, and middle imagination. I have great respect for the courage of all the legitimate 911 researchers who try to find the truth and tell it to others, but they often forget a simple essential point. Because 911 (JFK, etc.) are not ordinary crimes, but crimes of state, they cannot be proven by critical on their eyes god simple forensic means.
The proof of any such crimes requires rethinking our picture of the means of government from the ground up. People naturally do not wish to do this, and are propagandized to believe the contrary, so any effort to get their attention should be with evidence that is simple, clear, and convincing, not abstract, obscure, dubious or debatable. I do not pretend that this is enough. Orwellian stop think provides that protective stupidity that allows us to function in comfort and it is both difficult and painful to abandon. My best friend of nearly 40 years, and former co-author, now ensconced at reports, Harvard, has trouble taking me seriously when I discuss 911. Within the past months he admitted not knowing that a 47 story steel building (WTC7) not hit by anything, and with only a few small fires, had collapsed as a perfect implosion would, nor did he know that the 911 Commission had refused even to critical essays eyes watching, mention WTC7 in its report, nor did he think much of these facts nor of his ignorance of them. This is a very smart man, open-minded in many respects, but giving up the world-view he inhabits is simply too hard, especially when there is middle requirements, nothing coherent with which to replace it. If a film-maker or live lecturer has the good fortune of critical essays on their were, having the attention of someone like this, or good solid middle-Americans, for on behaviour, an hour-long DVD, or for a 2-3 hour live presentation, he had better use clear hard facts for persuasion, and critical on their were watching god not iffy, vaguely or ambiguously supported possibilities. Web Assign? The intelligence agencies that do the crimes try to control the counter-community's response by infiltrating moles that infect it with large falsehoods and critical on their god impossible-to-prove technical questions (micro-analysis). The large falsehoods are designed to prove the community wrong and nuts if the essay, need arises. Critical On Their Eyes Watching God? The microanalysis into web assign, pointless or unanswerable questions, or into just plain dumb ones, is to critical essays eyes were god, divert its energies from using the clear hard facts to tell the story simply and clearly.
The DVD Loose Change by rising media artist Dylan Avery has been touted by some members of the 911-truth community as the essay requirements, best presentation yet, as the eyes were god, best evidence (a reference to David Lifton’s book, Best Evidence on essay requirements the JFK assassination). Critical Essays On Their Eyes God? This review will show that the DVD is anything but that; if it is not naive, foolish, uninformed and ignorant, then it is the work of a calculating mole or at best a naf who has been used by such. “Loose Change” uses footage and essay analysis from the DVD “In Plane Site,” by Dave vonKleist who has praised “Loose Change” as the best overall DVD on 911, so “ In Plane Site ” too will come under scrutiny. Critical Essays?  What, then, is amiss with “ Loose Change ” ? Let me take umbrage from the start at the distracting and offensive musical soundtrack that overlays “Loose Change.” It makes interviews hard to written, hear, substitutes the good feeling that goes with the beat for clear thinking, and generally supports the impoverished notion that effective political action comes from a good concert. The video begins with a direct eyewitness report from FOX reporter Mark Burnback [ sic ] who observed UA 175 that hit WTC2. It definitely didn’t look like a commercial plane. Essays On Their Eyes Watching? I didn’t see any windows on essay trafficking in africa the side. Again it was not a normal flight that I’d ever seen at an airport. It had a blue logo on the front and it did not look like it belonged in the area. This statement is taken as gospel both by Mr. Avery and on their eyes god his admirers, an nec research amusing fact given the deserved reputation FOX enjoys as a propaganda station for the Cheney/Bush administration.
Mr. Avery has lifted parts of the eyes god, quote from Dave vonKleist’s “ In Plane Site ” , but has not mentioned that in the fuller version witness Birnbach states that he was at a subway stop in Brooklyn, hence at essay, least a mile from the critical on their eyes watching, plane that was silhouetted against new statesman the sky, so that Birnbach would not be not able to see any windows because of both the distance and critical essays on their eyes were watching god the lighting. Eyewitness reports for brief shocking events are notoriously unreliable; and other photos of the plane definitively show it had standard United Airlines markings; airplane wreckage with windows was found amongst the rubble at WTC5. Thus, Mr. Avery makes selective use of unreliable eyewitnesses ill placed to make the relevant observations, and essay on human trafficking in africa he ignores other available evidence that this witness is mistaken. That’s just for starters. Both Messrs Avery and vonKleist also ignore the obvious. 911 was not a low budget operation.
If a switch of planes were necessitated for some reason, the substitute plane would look exactly like the plane it replaced.  The covert operators cannot control all the people taking photos and would not risk having a good clear picture of a plane that did not look exactly like AA11 or UA175. So they would not use a commercial plane without windows with an essays on their were watching god aberrant blue logo (“circular” per Birnbach’s full statement), and would not attach a huge pod or missile to the underside of the plane. In fact, the historical precedent for 911 was Operation Northwoods, a top-secret project to provide a pretext to invade Cuba that was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1962 but vetoed by President Kennedy. One Northwoods project involved hijacking a Cuban or American airliner, and if an American airline, switching it with a remote controlled drone that would be crashed over Cuba to blame the Cubans. Northwoods states in pertinent part: …8. It is possible to create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner enroute from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, or Venezuela.
The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to purdue, cross Cuba. Critical Eyes God? The passengers could be a group of purdue, college students off on critical on their were god a holiday or any grouping of persons with a common interest to support chartering a non-scheduled flight. a. An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At a designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and new statesman essay competition would be loaded with the selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone. (Emphasis added) To put matters plainly: any substitute plane would be an exact duplicate of AA11 or UA175. To do anything else would be inviting disaster. The point may be made another way. One of the major problems facing the JFK plotters was the control or destruction of the photographic record. The car carrying the photographic press corps that usually travels immediately behind the critical on their eyes were god, presidential limousine was moved to the back of the motorcade by Secret Service agent Winston Lawson as part of the assassination. School? Some cameras were seized and some photos were bought or grabbed, but the Zapruder film that shows the assassination in its entirety presented a special problem because it showed JFK’s head blown back and to the left by a shot from the front instead of being thrown forward by on their eyes watching god a shot from the new statesman essay competition, rear.
The CIA and critical essays watching god its assets were forced to on human, mount an entire separate complicated operation to purchase, sequester, and lie about the critical essays, contents of that film until its impact could be minimized. Nec Research Papers? They also had to fiddle the Warren Commission so that the Zapruder film was viewed by only its operatives (Allen Dulles, John McCloy, Gerald Ford).  This was a lot of work and critical essays on their eyes watching god a lot of risk. The perpetrators of 911 knew they would have a much-photographed event, but they intended to succeed by spectacular shock caused by their boldness and essay competition supplemented by critical essays on their were manufactured “expert opinion” to explain such complex events as the collapse of the Twin Towers. What they did not want and would not risk having is some nice clear crisp video or still photo of a non-Boeing 767 flying into the Towers. That would not be part of the spectacle, but hard cold evidence. Mr. Middle School Essay? vonKleist and Mr. Avery claim that photos show that the on their were watching god, plane that hit WTC2 had a pod or bulge; both correctly note flashes of light when AA11 and UA175 impact their respective targets (WTC1, North Tower; WTC2, South Tower). Mr. Avery declares that the flash is from a missile launched from the planes hitting the towers.
Again, Mr. Web Assign Purdue? Avery’s refusal to think while listening to the beat of his music has served him ill. If the covert action operators were concerned that jet fuel needed some help to ignite because a 500 mph crash into a steel building were not incendiary enough, there are any number of means of planting the necessary explosives without creating a huge bulge in the profile of the plane. I will be brief. The “pod” or “missile” is an artifact of critical essays watching, light and shadow reflecting from the fairings of the UA175. The fairings are the elongated ovular pods under each wing of a Boeing 767 into which the landing gear retract. They extend from roughly the point where the middle requirements, front of the wings join the plane to several feet behind where the back of the wings join the plane. It is a scandal of both “ In Plane Site ” and of “ Loose Change ” that neither mentions the existence of wing fairings. Mr. vonKleist is an especially tricky fellow.
His original DVD slides invisibly from proving that the “pod” is real to showing that “there is no illusion” that a “flash” occurred by showing four videos that each displays a flash when UA175 goes into WTC2. This proves that the “flash” is not an illusion, but does not address the pod. I used my home DVD to freeze-frame and enlarge the four videos. To make a long story short, there is no “pod” because there is no constancy of critical on their watching, size and shape of the supposed attachment. Middle School? In the best of the visual artifacts the imaginary “object” is huge and much larger than the engines, but there is nothing like this in other views of the underside of the plane in the four videos that show the flash. Of his new and improved version of “In Plane Site” Mr. vonKleist states that he had the video analyzed by an independent lab that found that there was “a three dimensional object.” Well, Mr. vonKleist, who enjoys a military background, knows how to ask the wrong question to get his preferred answer. Of course the critical essays on their eyes watching, fairing is essay towards elders, a three-dimensional object. But I am not aware of Mr. vonKleist asking that lab whether there is any evidence of a three dimensional object other than the fairings. The argument that both Mr.
Avery and critical essays eyes god his mentor Mr. vonKleist use to “prove” that the flash is new statesman essay competition, a missile, or in vonKleist’s case a separate event from the on their eyes, plane striking the building, deserves close attention. Only the Naudet brothers captured the school requirements, impact of AA11 into WTC1 on film. The clincher used by Mr. Avery and essays on their eyes were watching god his mentor is that the flash, the supposed missile explosion, occurs before the shadow of the plane meets the plane when it hits the tower, hence that the flash is a separate and prior event caused by the missile impact. Unfortunately, my critique applies not only to Mr. Purdue? Avery but the any audience that has seen his film. There is a thin cylindrical shadow of the plane’s fuselage that advances toward the tower as the plane does, and that meets the tower when the plane does, at which point the flash occurs, corresponding to the front of the fuselage impacting the tower. Were? There is a second larger shadow of the wings that arrives later, but only this “late shadow” from the wings “proves” the missile theory. Thus, the analysis of both films is such a gross distortion of their content that I am inclined to think it is deliberate misinformation; that it works is a sad commentary on audience gullibility. Indeed, both films play the crash in reverse to middle essay, prove their point with narratives that state that the critical essays on their were, flash occurs “before” the shadow meets the essay, building because you can see the flash yet see that the shadow has not yet touched the building. The trouble is that it is only the shadow of the wings that have not yet touched the essays god, building.
The shadow from the front of the fuselage meets WTC1 just when the flash occurs. It is one thing to let this error slip by you in a theater, quite another to for students, see it scores of times as both these film makers have and keep peddling it to your audience. A final illustration of Mr. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Watching God? vonKleist’s artistry is reports, his proof that the flash is not caused by the fuselage impacting the South Tower. Obviously, it not surprising that a fuselage and engines of aluminum-titanium hitting an irregular surface of concrete, steel and cosmetic siding would be expected to generate friction and critical on their eyes watching intense heat producing a flash like the sparks from a giant grinding wheel as metal is forced against it at some 500 mph., but vonKleist denies this innocent explanation. By using the third of his four video clips, vonKleist rebuts skeptics who claim that the flash is caused by the fuselage impact. Let’s take another look at this one clip and you’ll notice that the flash is essay in africa, a separate event than the essays eyes were, contact of the fuselage as it hits the building. New Statesman? Some folks have stated that the critical on their were god, flash was the result of the fuselage making contact with the trade center building. But as you can see the flash is indeed to the right of the fuselage and in on behaviour towards elders, fact as the fuselage makes contact with the world trade tower you can see a reflection of the essays watching, flash in middle, the fuselage which further supports the contention that these are two separate events.
This interpretation is patently false, since the first of the critical on their eyes were watching, video clips – the essay on behaviour towards, CNN footage that gives the best, longest, fullest and clearest picture of this impact from an essays eyes were angle almost directly behind the plane just to the right side of the web assign, fuselage – shows there is no such separate event, but only a flashpoint where the fuselage hits the tower, but not to the right of it. My point is not simply that vonKleist is wrong; but that his error is critical essays eyes were god, likely a deliberate hoax from someone who is pretending to in africa, be so careful to check all known videos to make sure that the flash (not the pod!) is not an illusion. Mr. Critical On Their Eyes Were? Avery’s video is especially offensive because it displays frames from the “flash” side-by-side between 3:25 and 3:32. As any reader can see by essay freeze-framing the movie at 3:29, the illusory missile present in one (or with vonKleist the flash to the right of the critical on their were watching god, fuselage as a separate event) is not present in the main CNN footage. On Human Trafficking? This should make any reasonable person appreciate that grainy footage of fast moving objects vary greatly depending on critical essays eyes were watching such factors as whether one has a digital or analogue camera, how steady one holds it, the quality of the camera, and whether or not one captures a reflective burst of light from the plane exterior or a building window pane. In fact, those four side-by-side small screens show multiple flashes consistent with friction heat as the plane impacts and penetrates concrete and steel, as well as numerous reflections. The fact that Messrs. Avery and vonKleist prefer imaginary incendiaries or missiles fired from an immensely implausible non-existent “pod” suggests that they are hoaxers. The best full rebuttal of their nonsense is by essay trafficking in africa Brian Salter, “ Analysis of Flight 175 ‘Pod’ and related claims, ” from essays were, which the reports, photos in this article were copied. Why it is unlikely that Mr. Critical On Their Eyes Were Watching God? vonKleist has made an essay on human trafficking in africa innocent mistake.
The USG intelligence community is for the most part smarter and better educated than the people it fools, and critical on their eyes were watching it is certainly better organized, funded, and equipped for its tasks than its audience is to resist or expose them. Many of the operatives who write the dialogue come from the best universities and are inclined to requirements, amuse themselves by mocking the rubes that they fool. This mockery is essays on their watching, typically done by announcing what they are doing in disguised form, and then doing it with verve and bravado. In Mr. vonKleist’s video, he states: Let’s take another look at this clip [of plane hitting south tower, CNN, #1] in slow motion but before we do, keep in mind that sometimes the essay trafficking, best place to hide something is in critical essays eyes god, plain site. We’ve all seen this video clip, and there have been many publications that have taken frames from written reports for students, this video and published them in critical essays on their watching, hundreds of magazines. Here’s an web assign example, on page 3 a full size blow up of this picture. Critical Essays On Their Eyes God? And in new statesman essay competition, this magazine, it was published on page 4. And on the back of critical on their eyes were watching, this book that we discussed earlier, it’s on the back cover. I suggest you all take a copy of your magazines and books and if you have the video footage, take a good hard look.
We’ve all got this. Now let’s take a look at this in middle school requirements, slow motion. As the plane approaches the south tower, notice carefully, the belly of the plane, there appears to be something attached, and just as it hits the building there’s a flash. Let’s take another look in super slow motion. Now let’s take another good hard look at this video footage. As the plane approaches, it is irrefutable that there is essays eyes watching, something attached to essay, the bottom of this plane, and a distinct flash as it makes contact. Now there are some that would say this is a trick of light, a reflection. [COMMENT: Which “this” does vonKleist mean, the pod or the flash?] Well let’s keep in mind that if you hold a mirror in your hand and reflect the suns rays, that reflection only goes where you aim that reflection. So a reflection should only be seen from one particular angle. Let’s take a look at this event, from another angle. [COMMENT: Each “angle” is a separate video.] The big boast is that the best place to critical god, hide things is essay, “in plain site.” This suckers the audience into thinking that they are not going to be conned by the government because they are too smart. Essays? This is essay on behaviour towards, how Dave vonKleist cons them.
The CNN footage has an artifact of shadow and lighting off the fairing that looks like a huge object. The problem is critical essays eyes god, that the other three videos – even though grainy -- do not show this same shaped huge object. New Statesman? So how to hide such in critical essays watching, plain sight? Well, Dave tells us truly that it is irrefutable that there is something attached to the plane (it’s the fairing) and that there is a flash when the plane hits the building. So what anyone who is reports for students, interested in the truth would want to know is essays on their eyes were watching, whether that huge something attached to the plane is in the other three videos. Papers? But instead, Dave switches the topic smoothly and essays watching god invisibly – sheer distraction, sheer fallacy of equivocation – to show that sure enough, there really is a flash!
But he does so in a sleight-of-hand fashion that now makes it seem as though he has shown irrefutably that there is some “pod” or attachment besides the fairing. And once he has done that, Dave can play all four of new statesman competition, those videos side by side and god no one tries to essay on behaviour towards, see whether the on their eyes, “pod” is in the other three. Better still, Dave makes a sly false inference from the genuine certainty that there is a flash to the specious claim of certainty that it “ was a flash caused by an explosion, a detonation, a missile, something happened that was not. Web Assign Purdue? a terrorist with a box cutter. “ Of course, a plane hitting a building and essays eyes were watching causing a flash is not a terrorist with a box cutter. Best, however, moments later at 42:52 Dave can add to the deception by showing video footage of the impact taken from an web assign purdue angle that shows the critical eyes watching god, entire right side of the plane as it hits WTC2, and middle essay requirements angled from just a little behind the point of impact. Let’s take another look at this one clip [video #3, Spiegel TV] and you’ll notice that the critical on their eyes god, flash is a separate event then the contact of the fuselage as it hits the building. Some folks have stated that the flash was the result of the fuselage making contact with the trade center building. Papers? But as you can see the flash is indeed to essays on their eyes were watching, the right of the fuselage and in fact as the fuselage makes contact with the world trade tower you can see a reflection of the flash in the fuselage which further supports the web assign, contention that these are two separate events. Mr. vonKleist is referring to the Spiegel TV image in the upper right corner. Well, dear reader, a part of the flash is to essays watching, the right of the fuselage in that image, but that flash is some sort of reflection from the essay requirements, building to the camera; it is clearly not the same flash that occurs where the on their were watching god, fuselage impacts the nec research, building. This “flash to the right” is Mr. Avery’s missile.
But the CNN footage [video #1], which tracks the essays eyes, plane from behind (and to the right and competition below perspective) as it hits WTC2, shows that there is no separate event, full stop. The moving CNN video in DVK’s video gives a crisper image of the fuselage than the above CNN still and on their watching shows the flash hugging the point of impact, not the least bit to the right of it. I don’t pretend to know what caused this separate flash, and reports do not care; anyone with a slow motion function on their DVD can find many such flashes at essays were watching, many points of impact (friction flares) and points of new statesman competition, non-impact (sheer reflection) in the four side-by-side videos. Many of critical eyes were watching god, them are in some videos but not the towards, others. So Dave vonKleist has succeeded in eyes watching god, typical intelligence community fashion. New Statesman? The disinformation branch of the intelligence community mocks the rubes by telling them what they are going to do – hide the truth in plain sight -- then they do it, and they do it so deftly that they can show side-by-side photos where one disproves what Dave claims about the other, and the audience buys it without a thought. Do you think I am kidding you? Dave vonKleist has even spelled out his rigorous scientific methodology for determining whether a flash is a genuine event as opposed to an imaginary one caused by a reflection. From above: Now there are some that would say this is critical essays eyes god, a trick of light, a reflection.
Well let’s keep in mind that if you hold a mirror in your hand and reflect the suns rays, that reflection only essay elders, goes where you aim that reflection . Essays On Their Eyes Were Watching? So a reflection should only be seen from one particular angle. So Dave states his investigative method, then flouts it, and the gullible, obedient, trusting audience laps it up. Written For Students? If there were a separate event it would be in the CNN video, but it is not. I am put in mind of the complaint of the critical essays on their eyes watching, great anti-imperialist English political economist J.A. Hobson who in 1903 rued the fact that the English populace could be so easily deceived by politicians who told them one story from school, one side of their mouth and another story from the other.
That politician faced no fear that he would be discovered a fraud by the voters. …for he will be aware that the people whose votes he craves cannot hold two arguments in their heads at the same time for purposes of comparison. ( Imperialism: A Study 1938 ed., p. 104) Well, the Americans have them beat. Critical Essays On Their? The Americans have got the two photographs in front of them at the same time yet cannot realize that one rebuts what Dave is telling them about the other. God Love them, KPFK was duped by “ In Plane Site ” last year and web assign is now hyping “Loose Change” as the critical essays eyes watching god, second coming.
As for Mr. vonKleist, the question is how he could make this error in the first place. Clearly if one is web assign, putting together a video as he did, it would be impossible not to notice that the “separate event flash” is in just one of his four flash videos. Both videos contain much good evidence and valuable material of explosions in essays on their eyes god, the WTC that brought down WTC1, 2, 7 that cannot be suppressed. I suggest that the purpose in including both junk and substantive evidence is to discredit the school requirements, latter. If rotten fish is wrapped in the same package as delicious truffles, few people with good judgment or good taste will attempt to eyes were watching, retrieve and salvage the truffles. It is also to scant good evidence and thorough analysis in favor of cheap shots and new statesman essay competition one-liners that have no evidentiary value whatsoever. Critical Were Watching God? vonKleist wraps the good meat of the WTC blowing up between two pieces of rotten bread: the no-plane-hit-the-Pentagon, and school requirements the Pod Flash fraud.
If Mr. vonKleist is not a paid intelligence disinformation asset, then he is the critical essays on their eyes were, dream of the intelligence community: someone who dissembles as artfully as they do, and with all their wit, but who doesn’t draw a salary. Middle School Essay Requirements?  I do not know what hit the critical on their eyes watching, Pentagon, but the evidence strongly indicates it was a Boeing 757. The same general arguments that any substitute plane that hit WTC1 and WTC2 would be an school exact duplicate would apply to the Pentagon strike. I have nothing against critical essays eyes watching a missile, two planes, or other theory, but there is essay, little to essays on their were god, support them except junk forensics and uninformed intuitions. From its start the “no-Boeing” fight was a miserable tar baby facilitated by the release of five still frames allegedly from a Pentagon parking kiosk video absent the Boeing; such stills should make anyone suspicious of USG complicity realize that they have just been served a red herring. Let me make this point about web assign, rotten wrappings concrete.
Last year I bought In Plane Site and saw it twice before going to the KPFK screening on critical on their eyes August 7, 2004. Web Assign Purdue? I was so moved by the power of the film, by vonKleist’s constrained moral gravity about the critical were god, pod, that I sent an email to about 25 people with the subject “911 was a US military operation.” I spent the reports for students, next morning replaying all four impact videos in slow motion, with magnification, and realized there is no pod. Critical Essays On Their Were Watching? I wrote those 25 people an apology. They all now have reason to regard me as impulsive, a bit oddly drawn to and easily taken in by conspiracy theories, and to dismiss the idea that 911 was even in part a US military operation. Mr. vonKleist made me cry wolf, and even though it was (approximately) the right wolf, I had the school essay, wrong evidence.
When I now try to urge these people to examine the evidence that the Twin Towers were blown up, they dismiss my enthusiasm as an expression of my quirks, and are more than happy to defer to knowledgeable charlatans like Professor Thomas W. Critical Essays Watching God? Eagar of Journal of Metallurgy and NOVA. The situation is especially embarrassing for me because my scientific training has shown many situations where the correct explanation is at odds with even sophisticated common sense, but here I am urging the latter against the cool quantified experts and essay on behaviour elders their lies. Last August I thought that Dave vonKleist was acting in essays on their god, good faith, and I thought so in part because I had liked and admired the work of his wife Joyce Riley, who has exposed so many of the military’s lies. But after recently seeing “ Loose Change ” and hearing it hyped by vonKleist, I went to The Power Hour website to see how Mr. vonKleist’s education had progressed since August 2004. There he was asking classic nonsensical disinformation questions, of which the following is typical: Why did a FOX News employee, who witnessed the essay towards elders, second tower attack, report seeing no windows on “Flight 175” a commercial United Airlines jetliner? Why did another eyewitness report that United Airlines Flight 175 was not a commercial airliner? What kind of plane hit the second tower?
ANSWER: As FOX employee Marc Birnbach states in DVK's original IPS, he saw the plane from on their eyes god, a subway station in Brooklyn, and written reports it turns out critical eyes watching that this subway stop was about purdue, two miles from the crash, which he did not see. Critical Essays On Their Eyes? Birnbach’s distance from the plane would make it impossible to see the windows of web assign purdue, a plane silhouetted against the morning sky. Essays On Their Eyes Watching God? I suspect that the other eyewitness is the hysterical woman separated from Manhattan by a very long bridge screaming, That is not an new statesman essay competition American airline! You don't have to be a genius to know that other closer eyewitnesses saw a commercial airline, and that other photos show the plane with UA markings, and that debris found in the WTC wreckage is of a commercial airliner with windows. But Dave's job is to on their were, keep those nonsensical questions in the mix. Such nonsense prompted me to take a closer look at both DVDs and to nec research papers, write this review. Back to critical eyes were watching god, Mr. Avery’s Contribution.
Let me then be very brief with the rest of essay, Mr. Avery’s film, omitting mention of many erroneous or misleading points that would require endless background or debate. 1) The film shows two still photographs of the critical watching god, underside of two airplanes. The one on the right is of the plane that crashed into the WTC2; the essay trafficking, one on the left “is what the underside of a Boeing 767 should look like,” Avery intones gravely, intending us to see that the plane that hit the Tower could not be UA175. (2:17) COMMENT: I can see no relevant difference except for the angle of the photos and the fact that the photo on the left is in color, the one on the right in black-and-white. If there is a relevant difference, Mr. Avery fails to mention it. 2) Mr. Avery makes much of eyes watching god, Donald Rumsfeld’s slip of the tongue on 10/12/01 referring to the “missile that damaged this building.” COMMENT: Worth a snigger, no evidentiary value. 3) A valuable interview with Air Flight School instructor Marcel Bernard showing that alleged Pentagon pilot Hani Hanjour could not fly well is obscured by the musical sound track and omits such questions as whether Hanjour could have acquired the necessary skills in on human in africa, the month or two between when he was shown deficient and 911. 4) Mr.
Avery makes much effort to prove that UA77 did not bounce off the Pentagon lawn. He even shows photos of other plane crashes that bounced off the critical essays on their were god, ground and what they look like. The film gives no idea why this is relevant to anyone except, perhaps, the new statesman competition, Pentagon gardener. 5) Mr. Avery states that “the downed light poles were thrown away from the Pentagon, not towards it, and the bases are ripped out completely.
There is no indicated that these were bent or damaged by critical eyes god a Boeing 757 traveling at nec research papers, 535 mph. Critical Were Watching God? Instead, they seem to have just popped out of the ground.” (11:20-11:35) COMMENT: First, The direction of the light poles doesn’t much matter given that their final direction depends on the torquing forces to which they were subjected and the fact that they might bounce around on towards the ground once toppled. Hence, it is largely irrelevant. Second, the essays on their eyes watching, spatial relationship of the toppled poles to the Pentagon is nowhere apparent in most of the on behaviour towards, photos. Nonetheless, where it is apparent the photos in were watching, the film show the toppled light poles falling in the direction of the Pentagon, away from the highway, and roughly pointing in the Pentagon’s direction. Middle? Furthermore, every one shows significant structural damage at critical essays on their eyes watching god, its top as though it had been clipped by a plane and popped from the ground. 6) Mr. Avery claims that the damage to the Pentagon is “completely inconsistent” with a being hit by a Boeing. He shows a video of a test crash of a small jet fighter smashing into a reinforced concrete barrier and advises that if a Boeing hit the Pentagon flying at full speed, “the wings would rip off outside.” Yet the crash video does not show the essay, wings being ripped off outside, but of being smashed to smithereens just as the reinforced exterior wall of the Pentagon might be expected to critical essays god, smash or shred the Boeing’s wings. (11:55) He then asks why there are “absolutely no traces of the aircraft at new statesman, all” even while showing a FOX News Alert that shows the entire area littered with what look like small pieces of aircraft debris.
Mr. Avery even asks why there is critical essays on their eyes watching, “not one seat cushion,” on essay on behaviour the outside, apparently having forgotten his own statement of critical essays on their eyes were watching, moments before that the fuselage penetrated the Pentagon. 7) Mr. Avery shows a photo of Pentagon employees carrying away a large box shrouded in on behaviour towards, a blue plastic tarp and asks, “What was in that box? Why weren’t we allowed to critical eyes god, see it?” COMMENT: Why should removal of materials from a sensitive site like the Pentagon and the fact that it is not made public be of any evidentiary value whatsoever, as opposed to written for students, idle speculation? 8) Mr. Avery states that the “official” account of the Pentagon crash claims that the intense heat vaporized the entire plane, and then he proves that titanium would not have been vaporized.
COMMENT: I have no idea what “official” account he means and believe he has invented a straw man. 9) Mr. Avery offers extended discussion of the difficulty of identifying residue in the Pentagon proper that might be plane parts. Critical Essays On Their Watching? Since the time, source, and subjects of most of the Pentagon photos are unknown – and purdue since we do not know what photographs have been withheld – it is difficult to know what to make of the ones he addresses. Critical Essays Were Watching God? I cannot follow his technical talk and we have seen that there is web assign purdue, no reason to trust it. But Mr.
Avery is clear in his rebuttal that a large diffuser case from the debris cannot come from a 757. (He seems to have forgotten what he said was the official version that everything was vaporized.) Mr. Avery then argues that the damaged diffuser case has circular bezels but both a diagram and an actual diffuser case from a 757 have triangular bezels. On Their Were Watching? COMMENT: This observation might be of interest if Mr. Middle School? Avery made use of the fact that at least two companies have made engines for the 757 (Rolls Royce, Payne-Whitney); that they almost certainly do not make them the critical essays eyes were god, same way, and that each company in essay trafficking in africa, turn may have made them differently at on their were watching, different times since the shape of the bezel is web assign, not an essential specification of performance, and it is the performance specifications that must be met, not the essays, bezel shape. This is like arguing that the 1.6 liter engine found in written reports for students, the fiery crash of a 1983 Nissan Sentra could not be from a 1983 Sentra because, LOOK. Here is a photo and a diagram of a 1.5 liter 1983 Nissan Sentra engine. Well, Nissan makes both size engines for the 1983 Sentra. 10) Mr. Avery then says to “forget the essays on their eyes were, debris. The 767’s that hit the WTC left a very distinct outline of a commercial airliner.
Therefore we should expect something similar at the Pentagon.” The film then flashes to the famous photo of the smoky Pentagon that shows the entry hole before the outer wall collapsed. Avery remarks, “The only damage to the outer wall of the Pentagon is requirements, a single hole approximately 16’ in diameter.” COMMENT: First, Avery advances a bad argument because whether or not the Pentagon should show the eyes watching god, outline of an airliner in essay on behaviour towards, the same way depends on whether it is constructed of the same material as the WTC, and if not, upon the structural differences. Since the outer wall of the Pentagon reportedly was 18” of steel reinforced concrete and reportedly had many of its windows replaced with bomb-resistant 2,500-pound windows in watching, the renovation process that was not yet completed, there is no reason to expect the same pattern. Nec Research Papers?  Indeed Mr. Avery’s short attention span shows when he asks the relevant question at 21:35 “And is critical on their eyes were god, it merely a coincidence that the Pentagon was hit in the only section that was renovated to withstand that kind of attack? ” Second, the area of damage caused by the wings to essay on human in africa, the Pentagon does in fact fit its outlines well. The photo that Avery mistakenly says shows just a small hole in critical god, fact shows massive damage to the faade where the right wing hit; the left side is new statesman, totally obscured by black smoke. Other photos of the left area show a very close correlation to the angled wingspan of on their god, a 767.
See “Revelations 911,” http://home.planet.nl/ reijd050/pentahole_dimensions_est.htm . For those who were awake during “ In Plane Site ” , the video contains a photo (9:38) showing massive damage from the left wing to the Pentagon faade even while Mr. vonKleist is acting like some fraud must have been committed because the purdue, ever-tapering ever-thinner 757 wings did not collapse every part of the Pentagon they impacted. Mr. Avery succeeds by simply ignoring massive damage in his own data and denying that it is there. Indeed, he continues “Why are the windows next to the hole completely intact?” while showing windows that are smashed open and have flames licking through them. As noted, the 2” 2,500-pound bomb-resistant windows may have done quite well while other windows not yet replaced were broken. 11) At 20:00 Mr. Avery plays a video that shows a car being swept from a highway and says, “This is what happens when a car gets too close to the wake of a commercial airline.” He implies that cars on the highway should have been blown off, but since they were not, no 767 passed overhead.
COMMENT: Mr. Avery’s demo video does not show what happens to a car in the wake of a commercial airline. Eyes Were God? It shows a stationary airliner whose jet engine blast sweeps a car off the highway when it comes too close. The likely case at the Pentagon is that the cars on the highway were not that close and that the Pentagon jet was in the air with its jet engines slightly tilted upward away from traffic, and new statesman competition neither close enough to, nor pointed directly at, the cars near the Pentagon. 12) The Avery video then spews confusion by quoting many contradictory eyewitness statements to on their watching god, no good end, and without taking account of all the eyewitness statements and what they support as a whole: A 767 into the Pentagon. Again, see “Revelations 911” at http://home.planet.nl/ reijd050/home.html and also “Analysis of Eyewitness Statements on written 9/11 American Airlines Flight 77 Crash into the Pentagon” by essays on their watching god Penny Schoner at http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/F77pentaToC.html . 13) At 30:00 Mr. Avery describes an explosion in the lobby of the North Tower just after AA11 crashed into it.
He notes an official explanation that this was caused by a fireball, but then says, “However there was no soot, no fire, no fuel residue.” Within a minute, Mr. Avery quotes approvingly of first-person testimony from essay competition, “We Will Note Forget,” published in The Chief Engineer , in 9/2002 which quotes hero Mike Pecoraro describing how the WTC1 looked just after the critical essays on their were, blast, When I walked out into the lobby, it was incredible, he recalled. The whole lobby was soot and middle school requirements black , elevator doors were missing. …” This actual text is in Mr. Avery’s film, and Mr. Avery reads it aloud, but he ignores it. Earlier, a part of the article not in the film, states: We smelled kerosene, Mike recalled, I was thinking maybe a car fire was upstairs, referring to the parking garage located below grade in the tower but above the deep space where they were working. … The jet fuel actually came down the elevator shaft, blew off all the (elevator) doors and flames rolled through the lobby. That explained all the burnt people and why everything was sooted in the lobby. The smell of kerosene would be from aviation fuel, not an internal explosion. Mr.
Avery apparently does not read, nor remember what he said a moment before. (I believe that Mike Pecoraro is mistaken in holding that the explosions were caused by a fireball, but the evidence is complex and ambiguous and simply cannot be assessed in a video. The fact that Mr. Avery just tells his side of the essays god, evidence reduced his video to propaganda. I believe that WTC1 suffered an school explosion in the sub-basement just prior to critical on their eyes were watching god, the impact of reports for students, AA11, but this conclusion is from other evidence that Mr. On Their Were? Avery does not use. Mike Pecoraro may be reporting a secondary fuel spillage down the elevator shafts in the core, and may have been persuaded by the “official account” that a fireball caused the explosions.) Let me conclude with two more points, one of which shows what is missing in purdue, Mr. Critical Essays Were Watching? Avery’s account, the middle school essay, other of essays eyes watching god, which shows his lack of thought. First, WTC 1, 2, and 7 were brought down by web assign explosive charges.
WTC1-2 literally exploded in critical eyes, mid-air before hitting the ground while WTC7 was demolished by web assign a classic lower energy implosion. Critical Eyes Watching? I recommend Jim Hoffman’s excellent site, www.911review.com , as well as the photos on the back of his co-authored book, Waking Up From Our Nightmare . One key to understanding the official hoax of WTC1 and 2 is to towards elders, juxtapose official accounts of its flimsy or non-existent core with photos of the core 47 massive steel box columns held together by massive interlocking grid work, and critical essays on their eyes were watching god connected to the peripheral columns by massive beams and girders as well as the lighter-duty trusses that supported the flooring. This is what gives the on behaviour elders, lie to essays on their watching god, the pancake theory –- even if the floors collapsed the core would still stand, or demonstrate terrific resistance to collapse instead of essay, nearly free-fall descent. Again, though not definitive, the core being demolished first then makes sense of a video mounted on a tripod, focused on one of the towers, shaking several seconds before the building’s collapse (when the base is detonated); and again though not definitive, makes sense of critical essays on their god, a video taken from a helicopter photographing a WTC collapse that is rocked by propagating shock waves that would not occur from a simple collapse. Some of these facts are better presented in a print and still medium, but any video of the subject that wants to be effective should use them. Second, the telephone calls from the airplanes are a difficult subject, and web assign I have no firm idea whether any, some, or none were genuine. Essays Eyes Watching God? But Mr. Avery makes two claims that are pragmatic contradictions, and essay argues very badly for god, each of them. Mr. Avery argues that all the calls are bogus based on research by Professor of Physics A.K. Dewdney trying to make call phone calls from a chartered airplane over Canada.
I don’t think that Dewdney’s self-funded research in Canada is definitive about how the web assign purdue, entire lot of commercial cell phones in airlines at unknown heights may have behaved in critical essays on their were watching, the United States. Additionally, some reports of cell-phone calls may be paid air-phone calls. Mr. Avery’s tack is then to scoff at the alleged implausibility of reported dialogue, which we shall show momentarily he does crudely and wrong-headedly. Perhaps the worst part is that as part of his debunking all the calls, Mr. Avery makes such comments as the following. Papers? Referring to Flight Attendant Madeline Sweeney’s 25 minute call with her ground manager Michael Woodward, Mr. Avery mimics and essays mocks her statement “near the end [when] she says, ‘I see water and buildings! Oh my god!
Oh, my god!’ as though she had never seen the Manhattan skyline before in her life. Papers? ” (53:00) COMMENT: Mr. Avery seems to have little capacity for on their eyes were god, understanding how people feel. If this is genuine dialogue, its obvious interpretation is that Madeline Sweeney has just realized that the hijacked plane is not going to be landed, but to be crashed into lower Manhattan. Mr. Avery also narrates: A man claiming to be Todd Beamer got through to a Verizon supervisor telling of three men with knives, one claiming to have a bomb. Thirteen minutes later he recites the 23rd psalm of the bible and drops the phone, turning to utter his rallying cry, “Let’s roll!” Why would Beamer spend the on human trafficking in africa, last minutes of his life talking to a complete stranger as opposed to a member of his own family? The boldfaced, supposedly deep question unmasking the perpetrators’ charade, is designed to show that Mr. Beamer’s behavior made no sense, and to set up Mr. Avery’s own opinion that based on Dewdney’s research, “The cell phone call were faked.
No ifs, ands, or buts.” It would take too much time to show in detail why this does not follow from Dewdney’s research, not least of which is that the altitudes from which the essays on their eyes were god, calls were made remain unknown, and essay the low probability given by Dewdney of getting through on any given call is offset in a hard-to-calculate way by automatic redial, not to mention that these calls may have been air-phone calls. But given Mr. Avery’s cry that the calls were faked, I don’t see anything but intelligence community irony in ending his film with a rallying cry to all Americans that we should follow Todd Beamer’s example and, “Let’s roll!” Why should we follow as an essays on their eyes were watching example what Mr. Avery has just told us is sheer fiction manufactured by the 911 perpetrators through voice morphing technology? And as for on human trafficking in africa, Mr. Avery’s distinct incapacity to imagine the obvious, let alone see it in front of his face, here are several good reasons why Todd Beamer would spend the last few minutes of watching, his life talking to a complete stranger rather than a family member: a) Mr. Beamer may have been able to reach a Verizon supervisor but not able to reach a family member to whom he wanted to talk at a time like that. b) Mr. Avery’s video displays a 9/22/01 article from the Post Gazette that states that the Verizon supervisor notified the FBI and Todd Beamer was apprising her, and presumably the FBI, of the status of the airplane in papers, preparation to making a counter-attack. Mr.
Beamer may have felt that speaking to her and the FBI would be more useful at critical watching, that moment than speaking to a family member. c) Mr. Written? Beamer clearly did not know that he would die, and clearly hoped that he might survive. A passenger on that flight was a licensed commercial pilot and might have been able to land the plane. Todd Beamer asks the Verizon supervisor to call his wife and tell the wife how much he loved her in case he dies. Since he hoped to live, and since he needed to steel himself for eyes god, the task immediately ahead, he may well have not wanted to burden his wife at such a moment as he then faced. Mr.
Avery did not ask penetrating questions, but asked shallow, immature, insensitive, callow and uninformed questions consistent with his performance through his video. Michael B. Green, Ph.D. Qualified Medical Examiner.  References are to new statesman competition, the original version of “In Plane Site” unless otherwise stated.  It is hard to see why there would need for a plane switch, a risky complication, instead of simply taking over the planes by remote control. But, perhaps the perpetrators did not wish to lower morale amongst their pool of patsies –- cronies of the essays on their watching, “hijackers” who were aboard – by killing them. Nec Research Papers? So perhaps a landing was made to remove the “hijackers” (if there were any) and load the unusually small number of commuters onto a single “rescue” plane for their final demise.  David R. Wrone, The Zapruder Film, University of Kansas Press, 2003, p.54.
 As I wrote in an August 8, 2004 email debunking KPFK’s August 6, 2004 screening of “In Plane Site” : As Dave vonKleist himself declared in essays eyes, person at Friday's screening, the most critical single claim made in In Plane Site is that the plane that crashed into middle school requirements, WT2 had a huge pod attached to its right underbelly beneath the right wing. Hence it could not be United Airlines Flight 175; hence it was a military plane; hence 911 was a US military operation; hence we must start rethinking 911 from scratch.  The specifications of the reinforced windows are from Esther Schrader, “Pentagon, a Vulnerable Building, Was Hit in Least Vulnerable Spot” Los Angeles Times , September 16, 2001. Due to extensive official disinformation it is impossible to know whether to critical eyes god, credit this report, since it almost certainly came from Pentagon public relations.
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Their Eyes Were Watching God Critical Evaluation - Essay - eNotes com
7 Simple Fixes for the Writing Mistakes that Brand You an critical were watching Amateur. Often, writers ask me if I can recommend a course for improving your writing. Most of the ones I#8217;ve seen are pretty pricey. It seems like few writers want to use the method I employed to improve my writing #8212; writing at least three articles a week on deadline for 12 years. Middle School Essay Requirements. Fortunately, I#8217;ve found a shortcut.
Recently, I had a chance to chat with writing professor Ben Yagoda, who#8217;s put out a new book, How to Not Write Bad: The Most Common Writing Problems and the Best Ways to Avoid Them . In decades of teaching writing students, Yagoda finds the same writing errors occur over and over. What are we doing wrong? Here#8217;s a look at his #8216;hit list#8217; of critical essays eyes watching common writing errors: Word repetition. Yagoda says this is the new statesman competition comment he writes most often on school papers. On Their Watching. We all have little words we tend to overuse #8212; mine#8217;s #8220;really#8221; #8212; so be on essay towards the lookout and cut them out. Cut that out. Hunt and kill filler words such as #8220;that.#8221; If the sentence still makes sense without it, that#8217;s a sign the essays eyes were watching god word should go. Extra prepositions. Nec Research Papers. If your writing feels choppy, count the number of prepositions you#8217;ve got in a sentence, and then try to cut the number nearly in half, Yagoda advises. Prepositions are a weak part of speech, and the more they clutter up the critical essays eyes god sentence, the duller it is to read. Word use.
There are a long list of these, such as affect/effect, like/such as, your/you#8217;re, and whether it#8217;s hearty or hardy, baby#8217;s or babies. If you aren#8217;t sure which it is, find out. These small gaffes tip off an editor that you#8217;re not a pro. Fake quotes. Quote marks have a way of popping up around phrases where they don#8217;t belong, as in: Then it got #8220;hot and heavy.#8221; Remember, quotes belong around things people said. Semicolons and parentheses. Particularly online, these punctuation marks don#8217;t work very well. Sentences should be short, not strung together with semicolons, which many writers don#8217;t even know how to on behaviour towards use properly. #8220;If you feel like using a semicolon,#8221; Yagoda says, #8220;lie down until the critical essays eyes were urge goes away.#8221; And if you open a parenthetical phrase, be kind enough to on human remember to give us a closing parenthesis, too. Comma confusion . You#8217;d think we could master this simple piece of essays eyes watching punctuation, but many writers will splice two sentences together with one, or insert commas where they don#8217;t belong, sometimes changing the sentence#8217;s meaning. Others omit commas where they#8217;re needed.
Apparently, relying on our gut instinct of when it feels right to use a comma isn#8217;t working. Learn the rules #8212; and when in doubt, ask an editor what their publication#8217;s style demands. Nec Research. Starting and ending sentences with prepositions. This is more acceptable than it used to be, particularly ending with a preposition, but don#8217;t overuse. Eyes Were. And if you start a sentence with a preposition like this one does, don#8217;t put a comma after the initial preposition. Written Reports. That#8217;s just silly. Subject/verb disagreement. Remember, a singular noun needs a singular verb. Don#8217;t let modifying clauses confuse you.
You can#8217;t say, #8220;A bucket of worms were on top of the bench.#8221; Identity crisis. If you#8217;re using a pronoun such as #8220;he,#8221; make sure there aren#8217;t two men in the sentence and a confusion about which one you mean. Misplaced modifiers. Critical Essays On Their Eyes Were Watching. A favorite of mine from high school English is, #8220;Running down the reports hall, my jacket caught on a locker.#8221; Your jacket didn#8217;t run down the critical watching god hall by school essay, itself, so don#8217;t do this. Watching. Random capitalization. This is a particular plague in business writing, where marketers tend to start writing that they are Director of the Logistics Division. Of course, random all-caps words online denote yelling, though not everyone seems to nec research papers know it. Bold/underline/italics. These are overused by writers too lazy to build the emphasis into their prose.
Yagoda#8217;s rule is not to essays were watching god use bold unless it#8217;s a heading. When you write online, be particularly aware that underline usually denotes a clickable link. Don#8217;t use it for anything else #8212; you#8217;ll just confuse your readers. New Statesman Competition. How can you correct your bad writing habits? These writing gaffes are preventable if you follow these simple steps: Read. The more we read magazines, books, and newspapers, the more we intuitively soak up nuances of the eyes watching god language. You can iron out new statesman essay, a lot of your writing errors fairly painlessly this way. Read it aloud. So many problems come to light when you read your own work out loud.
Do you have to were take a breath in the middle of a sentence? It#8217;s probably too long. Look it up. If you aren#8217;t sure whether you should be using affect or effect in a sentence, look up the middle essay requirements definitions. Eyes God. Don#8217;t be lazy. On Human Trafficking. Clean it up. Read back through your writing to prune out critical essays were watching god, excess verbiage and root out punctuation and word-usage problems. Do not rely on trafficking in africa spell-check. Auto-correcting programs will insert errors or leave wrong words. Don#8217;t be vague or wordy. Root out unclear verbiage and replace it with short, clear sentences.
Use a style guide. Not sure if you should be writing the critical essays eyes were god state name out or using an papers abbreviation, or whether to spell out #8216;percent#8217;? The Associated Press Stylebook is the most common for newspapers and magazines, while Chicago Manual of Style is the critical watching god go-to for books. What#8217;s your pet peeve in writing? Leave a comment and add to competition this list.
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Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay | Bartleby
essay art nouveau Art Nouveau, as a style, is eyes were watching, customarily thought of as having been consigned to one of history’s tightly locked boxes. In the case of Art Nouveau, it will undoubtedly be a beautiful, finely crafted, gilded box—but a box nevertheless. Art Nouveau architecture is not short of admirers, and people trek from requirements far and wide to see its masterpieces. But they stare at the works, feeling them to be detached in time and history.
We expect never to see their like fashioned again. However, the assessment of Art Nouveau, like that of any movement, is never static. We may have finally moved on from Nikolaus Pevsner’s judgment in essays eyes, 1936 that it was “a short but very significant fashion in decoration,” 1 but still the feeling lingers that the demise of Art Nouveau was attributable to some fundamental internal flaw. Art Nouveau was an international style. It had regional variations but contained a unity of purpose that is unmistakable from country to country. In architecture, it blossomed first in Brussels and then Paris, and its achievements in those cities probably established its most definitive form. From there, it appeared in Spain, Scotland, Italy, Hungary and web assign purdue other countries in the heart of Europe; it also reached the periphery: Finland, Latvia, Russia. Art Nouveau eventually came to the United States in the decorative work of Louis Comfort Tiffany and the architecture of Louis Sullivan. To truly understand any architectural style (and I am going to confine this essay to architecture), you have to see it in its context and, if you do this thoroughly with Art Nouveau, it shakes off the accusation of god lack of robustness. It was born into the febrile atmosphere of the middle school requirements late nineteenth century, when the new confidence in science and rationalism fought with doubt and pessimism about the direction of civilization.
Interjected into on their that was a powerful movement in essay on human trafficking, much painting, poetry, literature and philosophy toward anti-rationalism of one sort or another. At the same time, a particularly dangerous jingoism was on the rise, with accompanying demands for austerity and conformity. Critical Were Watching. A radical new style—especially a flamboyant one with a clearly subversive stance—had to middle have solid underpinnings to emerge at all. Within its contemporary milieu, Art Nouveau sided with the anti-rationalists and did so to critical essays on their were watching the extent that Pevsner, in a fuller assessment in 1973, titled a book he edited on the subject The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists . 2 Identification with anti-rationalism left Art Nouveau open to school requirements attack from both the supporters of the new, determinist scientific outlook and the prophets of degenerate doom. The great intellectual event of the last half of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly the critical essays on their watching arrival of web assign Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. This taught that life was propelled by accidental “mutations” that are then sifted for survival through competition. This big idea resulted in, for one thing, a division between those who embraced the mechanistic view of life it proposed and others who saw in it an insecurity of direction whereby things could go badly as easily as they could go well.
On the one side, T.H. Huxley said confidently in 1867 that “zoological physiology … regards animal bodies as machines impelled by … forces …which can be expressed in terms of the ordinary [i.e., analyzable] forces of on their eyes were god nature.” 3 On the essay on human trafficking other, the prevalent fears of degeneracy were vividly expressed in Max Nordau’s book Degeneration (1892). Unsettled by Darwin’s view of undirected evolution, he recognized “a morbid deviation from original type.” 4 Among such deviants he singled out the “fin de siecle art movements” and notes that “the diagnosis ‘degeneration’ is applicable to critical eyes the originators of the new aesthetic tendencies.” He sees that a “mental stigma of reports [such] degenerates” is critical essays on their, their emotionalism. “They feel the reports for students bliss of the Beautiful possessing them to the tips of their fingers. …” 5 Nordau’s views were widely read and no doubt contributed to the popularity of the strident nationalism, found almost everywhere in Europe then, that promised certainty of critical essays on their eyes direction. Against these currents, a number of artistic movements and theories in the 1880s developed in a more optimistic direction, all of which consciously sought the creation of trafficking a modern world. All these movements fed into the emergence of Art Nouveau in the 1890s and formed most of its formal sources, helping to generate the style or the on their “look” of Art Nouveau. Against these I will put what can be termed the intellectual or theoretical sources. The appreciation of both formal and intellectual sources is crucial to the understanding of the real meaning of Art Nouveau. Practically all the literature on Art Nouveau concentrates on what I term the formal sources. 6 The effect of this limitation is to encourage the view of Art Nouveau as purely a style or even, to use Pevsner’s word, a “fashion.” It thereby becomes a mere collection of motifs, but it never was to its progenitors. By dwelling only on its superficial form, we ensure that Art Nouveau remains trapped in essay on behaviour towards, its historical box.
As a consequence, we deny it the possibility of having any bearing on architecture and design today. Critical On Their Were Watching. However, by releasing the profound ideas that lay behind Art Nouveau, we can return it to on human trafficking in africa today’s debate about how we might build. I will briefly describe the formal sources of Art Nouveau—the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and critical essays eyes Crafts Movement, Symbolist art, the structural theories of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and contemporary neo-Baroque architecture—before considering the intellectual sources. Although England never developed an Art Nouveau movement, it was universally recognized by the early exponents of Art Nouveau on the continent as a primary place of influence. The Aesthetic Movement was primarily responsible. That movement can be located roughly in the decade preceding that of Art Nouveau, that is, the 1880s. Towards. Aestheticism was above all a consciously modern movement in three ways. On Their Eyes Were Watching God. First, it built upon essay in africa the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris on were god how to create a style that was free from the numerous historical styles encompassed by contemporary eclecticism. Second, it favored a simplicity of design, and in that took much from Japanese prints.
It was the latter’s asymmetry, striking pattern-making and middle school requirements balance between detailed figuration and blank areas that impressed the makers of the critical essays on their eyes watching Aesthetic Movement. Third, Aestheticism rejected the written reports for students standard messages, such as patriotism, glory or piety, that conventional art and architecture were expected to convey. Its slogan of critical god arts for art’s sake proclaimed a dismissal of such values and written for students said that the work of art contained its own message. Only beauty itself mattered. Art for eyes were watching, art’s sake immediately got the movement into trouble, for if beauty were the only thing that mattered, where were God and morality? Oscar Wilde was one of its foremost advocates on either side of the Atlantic. He may not have served the movement well, as his bald statements failed to account in advance for the inevitable reaction. In one of his lectures he said “… nor in essay on behaviour towards, its primary aspect has painting any more spiritual message for us than a blue tile. … It is watching god, a beautifully colored surface, nothing more, and affects us by no suggestion stolen from philosophy, no pathos pilfered from nec research literature, no feeling filched from a poet, but by its own incommunicable artistic essence.” 7 Art Nouveau inherited the fresh, radical vision of the essays on their eyes were watching Aesthetic Movement, but with that came its sense of amorality and decadence. One of the movement’s best architects, E.W. Godwin, built a series of written for students houses in Chelsea, London, that were very close to being Art Nouveau.
The second formal influence on Art Nouveau was the eyes were watching Arts and Crafts movement, which again sprang from England. Art Nouveau took from it the ideas of truth to middle school materials and the abandonment of historically-based designs. Arts and Crafts was, of course, related to the Aesthetic Movement but substituted the latter’s somewhat foppish style for a seriousness of purpose associated with a genuine desire for social improvement and reform along the lines that Ruskin laid down. Morris was the immediate inspiration for Arts and Crafts, and certain visual elements had a direct influence on Art Nouveau. Eyes Watching. In particular, his wallpaper and school essay fabric patterns fed into its way of representing nature, as his designs suggested a freedom from stylization together with the strong feeling of the live, growing organisms that Art Nouveau would seek. We have to cross the Channel for critical essays were god, the remaining formal influences on Art Nouveau. Symbolism, like Art Nouveau after it, started in the Paris/Brussels axis. Web Assign Purdue. It stands out as a direct reaction to Huxley’s kind of philosophy of mechanism, for on their, it seeks to investigate a reality behind that of papers appearance and scientific analysis.
In this, it is surely otherworldly, but it rarely aligned with any of the critical many religious and mystical cults generating adherents then. It preferred to express this reality wholly within the middle essay requirements artistic realm. Michelle Facos writes: “For a work to be considered Symbolist, its purpose must be to suggest something other than what is actually represented. … A Symbolist work of art may not … include conventional illustration or allegory.” 8 As with Aestheticism, the Symbolists exposed themselves to critical on their were god accusations of elders amorality, sickness and decadence, prompting a contemporary writer to observe that “… their vision has always been somewhat feverish, with the diseased sharpness of over-excited nerves. …” 9. Formally, Symbolism contributed to Art Nouveau its swirling motifs, eroticism and essays on their were god lack of middle school requirements conventional representation, as we see in Jan Toorop’s O Grave, Where is Thy Victory? (1892). Perhaps more important, the intellectual concepts of critical watching god Symbolism laid the foundation for an anti-mechanistic approach that let architects imagine buildings as more than utilitarian vessels for human activity or embodiments of received morality. Architecture could become charged with anti-rationalism and moral freedom, and hold up a broader conception of human values than the reports for students prevailing materialism could offer. Fourth, the influence of the ideas of essays on their were watching god Viollet-le-Duc should not be underestimated, for it is their integration into nec research papers the realization of Art Nouveau buildings that allowed the style to move beyond mere artifice and decoration. Viollet-le-Duc advanced the highly original idea that nature could provide a model for manmade structures. In this sense, he claimed to be a functionalist. Critical Watching. His published designs show how plant forms can lend themselves to buildings.
10 Crucial to this narrative was the use of iron, because it could achieve the tensile strength and rigidity of fibrous plant tissue. Victor Horta, a pioneer of Art Nouveau architecture, demonstrated that structural iron could be fashioned into plant forms with no sense of forcing the new statesman essay argument, and in the process created a fluidity and eyes watching harmony between vegetative forms and buildings. The last formal source of Art Nouveau was the nec research papers style in which its architects were primarily trained and that was practiced extensively in the new boulevards of the major cities of Europe, the neo-Baroque. The style had come a long way since its invention by Bernini in critical essays were, Rome in the 1620s. I would define Baroque architecture as the exaggeration and manipulation of the elders elements of essays eyes were classical architecture for the sake of total theatrical effect. The original purpose may have been religious, but the style was readily adaptable for any building requiring ostentation. It is relevant to school essay Art Nouveau because it achieved its drama by merging classical forms with natural and human forms. For instance, voluptuous human figures were placed in putative structural roles as atlantes, terms and critical essays eyes masks, while rampant foliage and flowers invaded the details.
This compromising of form with organic elements became an essential component of Art Nouveau. These formal sources were all in place before the essay trafficking first Art Nouveau building, Victor Horta’s Tassel House, in Brussels (1893). Others followed so quickly and spontaneously over essays on their eyes watching, such a large geographical area that there must have been a like-minded artistic and intellectual environment already in place. To appreciate how and why this happened, we need to add to the formal sources the new statesman essay competition intellectual sources of the time. The anti-rationalism of the late nineteenth century was partly a reaction against the austere positivist philosophy, exemplified by Huxley, who regarded “animal bodies [and plants] as machines.” So the means by which, for critical essays on their were, instance, an essay on behaviour elders, acorn becomes an oak tree, would someday no longer be an unfathomable miracle of critical essays eyes watching god nature but a series of mechanical, analyzable processes. One aspect of this reaction was artistic, poetic expression, such as in Symbolism, but philosophers and scientists also confronted mechanism on its own terms. Notable among these was Hans Driesch, a genetic biologist, who, having made important discoveries in cell research, turned to philosophy, where he became a strong anti-mechanist.
The creation of new cells by division was already known, and Driesch asked: “How could a machine be divided innumerable times and yet remain what it was?” Refuting Huxley, he objected that “ … because a few things were really understood on account of the delicate structures having been recognized, it was thought that everything must be comprehensible on the same grounds.” 11. Driesch accepted that he had nothing definitive with which to replace mechanism but could only identify a lacuna in our comprehension—but not in our observation—of nature. We can see that organisms grow from within, and so we may put a name to the cause driving this process: “vital force,” hence, the doctrine of “vitalism.” Driesch explained that “by vitalism we mean the middle essay requirements possibility, merely negative at first, that there may be processes in the organism which are not of the machine-like or ‘mechanistic’ type.” 12. Let us put the sources of Art Nouveau, formal and intellectual, to one side and try to essays eyes define what we mean by Art Nouveau as a style. Let us do this on the basis of observation, looking at an Art Nouveau building and nec research attempting to say what marks it as different from a building in any other style. What strikes us about the Casa Battlo, in Barcelona, by Antonio Gaudi y Cosset is that the whole building seems to be taken over and subsumed by plant forms, suggesting a transformation of inert into organic material. What is depicted is metaphormosis—of building elements becoming plant-like, of human-made geometric form becoming natural form. On Their Eyes Were God. We see the vital impulse in nature taking command. I would define the resulting style this way: Art Nouveau invents a new modern architectural style, the reports for students elements of which suggest a metaphormosis of essays inert, architectural form into living, growing plant form. This definition is a statement of what Art Nouveau does, but not why or how it achieves its deeper meaning. Until that time, building styles had invariably exploited the relationship between the manmade and the natural to achieve rhetorical power.
For instance, many have pointed out that the array of columns and vaulting in towards, a Gothic cathedral suggests a stylized forest. But the forest is one thing, the on their eyes watching god building another. We read the forest into the building as metaphor, and so the relation between the two exists only via the on behaviour towards mental bridge that the metaphor creates. Critical Essays On Their God. With metaphormosis, the building becomes nature before our eyes. We look to the details before us; we do not need to access our own imaginations. Art Nouveau’s originality was to written for students shift the relationship between the natural and the human from metaphor to metaphormosis. An essential characteristic of any metaphormosis is that the eyes were watching force that impels it comes from within.
Things do not metaphormose because of external forces. Growth is one type of new statesman metaphormosis, and on their eyes were god so metaphormosis is allied with the vitalist principle. Art Nouveau famously employs the “whiplash” curve, which graphically conveys growth and life. Essay On Human Trafficking In Africa. To preserve the purity and force of this idea, Art Nouveau plants are never species-specific. They are never so literal. Metaphormosis implies a surrender to nature, an abandonment of cultural norms, which is why it could seem so dangerous. Not only that, but its vitalism could easily slide into other contemporary ideas like paganism and eroticism. Art Nouveau allowed humans to bathe in their sense of beauty, and it still does this.
For all the on their eyes were style’s sidelining, Art Nouveau buildings are surely some of the most beautiful ever designed. Not necessarily the nec research best, but the most beautiful. Architecture and art are currently dominated by a mechanistic ethos, and a denial of human sensitivities to beauty is often part of that. Contemporary philosopher Roger Scruton refers to this as an act of “desecration,” and points out that “… our contemporary culture … is … in flight from beauty. Critical Essays On Their. There is a desire to spoil beauty. Essay Competition. …” 13 It is an irony that Nordau’s prognosis of essays god degeneration may have been proved right after all. Appreciating the underlying meaning of Art Nouveau, we can create an alternative source of architectural rhetoric by appealing to the vitalist principle, with its innate recognition of the web assign genius in critical on their were god, nature. Essay. The appearance of the resulting buildings will no doubt be different from the original Art Nouveau, but then we are drawing on the deeper meaning of the critical essays eyes style, not its superficial “look.” Art Nouveau will at last be taken out of its gilded box and allowed to again inform our imaginations. 1. Written. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin), 1966, p. 96. 2. Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and essays eyes were watching the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 3. T.H. Huxley, Science Gossip (London, 1867), p. 74.
4. Max Nordau (1895), in Sally Ledger and on human trafficking Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 15. 6. See Paul Greenhalgh, ed., Art Nouveau: 1890–1914 (London: V A Publications, 2000); Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, Sources of Art Nouveau (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press Inc., 1956); Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 7. Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement (London: Ferndale, 1969), p. 111. 8. Michelle Facos, Symbolist Art in Context (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), p. 4. 9. Arthur Symons (1893), in critical essays were god, Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. Trafficking In Africa. 107. 10. Essays On Their Watching God. E.E. Viollet le Duc, Entretiens sur l’Architecture , Vol. II (Paris, 1872), p. 130.
11. Essay On Behaviour Elders. Hans Driesch, The History and Theory of Vitalism (London: MacMillan, 1913, reprinted by Forgotten Books), p. 210. 12. Hans Driesch, The Problem of Individuality (London: MacMillan, 1914, reprinted by Bibliolife), p. 5. 13.
Roger Scruton, Beauty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 172. Copyright 2006-2017 Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Center.