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Poverty and Education: A Critical Analysis of the Ruby Payne Phenomenon. Research indicates that poverty rates among American children have reached as high as 22 percent in for a research paper recent years, and essay on what is from this historically elevated figure, perhaps a third can be described as experiencing #147;persistent#148; or #147;long-term#148; poverty (Hernandez, 1997; Mayer, 1997; Brady, 2003). It is widely believed that these children pose a major challenge to schools. Many reside in central-city neighborhoods or relatively isolated rural areas, compounding existing obstacles to equal educational opportunities and academic success. What Goes Research! (Books, 2004) Yet, studies consistently document that most educators themselves come from middle-class backgrounds, making it difficult for them to relate personally with students who live in poverty (Zeichner, 2003). As a result, the capacity of teachers to work with poor children is essay test, shaped by teacher educators, school district administrators, educational researchers, and other experts.

It is not clear, however, just what lessons about the poor are being transmitted to teachers and other educators, and on notecards for a research paper how they are being prepared to work with them more effectively. In the plate watermelon, absence of a well-defined research base on what goes for a research, educating children affected by poverty and corresponding programs of training and professional development, a wide range of perspectives and approaches can flourish. Arguably, one of today#146;s most conspicuous speakers on issues of wrong poverty and education is Dr. Ruby Payne, president of a company called #147;Aha Process, Inc.#148; and author of a self-published book titled A Framework for Understanding Poverty , currently in its fourth revised edition (2005). Payne has sold more than half a million copies of her book since 1996 as well as related workbook materials, and her organization conducts workshops and training sessions for tens of thousands of educators, administrators, and other human-service professionals across the country and abroad. A principal thrust of these activities is teaching people about poverty and working with poor children in school settings. Payne#146;s remarkable popularity reflects growing concern about poverty and its effects on children#146;s educational experiences. As educators grapple with the challenge of meeting performance standards for all groups of students, districts have been actively seeking answers to the problem of working with children in poverty. Payne and her organization have been actively involved in these developments, providing professional development designed to research paper explicitly address these issues. Essay Human Cloning Wrong! In this article, we examine the conceptual and empirical foundations of her work and conduct a critical analysis of descriptive case scenarios included in an accompanying workbook for teacher practice.

What viewpoints do Payne#146;s ideas about poverty represent? And what recommendations are conveyed in these training sessions? Situating Payne#146;s argument within decades of scholarship about poverty, we assess the extent to which it accurately reflects a contemporary, research-based comprehension of the issue. The fact that her characterization of for a paper poverty mirrors earlier #147;culture of student poverty#148; theses and lacks recognition of goes on notecards for a paper social structural dynamics contributing to inequality could have significant implications for writing by james d. lester, how educators ultimately come to view poverty and what on notecards research the children who experience it. Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty. In the introduction of her book, Payne explains that her expertise on poverty resulted primarily from being married for over 30 years to her husband, Frank, who grew up in #147;situational#148; (or temporary) poverty, but lived for several years with others who were in #147;generational#148; (or long-term) poverty. As she spent time with his family and got to paper know #147;the many other players in [their] neighborhood,#148; her personal observations led her to what paper conclude that there were major differences between those in generational poverty and those in the middle class#151;the most important of which were not about money (2005, p. 1). These insights were confirmed in her mind after Payne spent six years as a principal in essay human cloning wrong an affluent, Illinois elementary school and was able to further contrast the differences she witnessed between children in poverty, the goes on notecards research, middle class, and essay human wrong wealth.

Payne recalls several informal conversations she had with concerned colleagues about the growing disciplinary problems they were experiencing as more and more of their students came from low-income families. She offered them her explanation of why these behaviors were occurring, and then word-of-mouth referrals from teachers, principals, district, and state officials launched her into a series of speaking engagements where she could more formally share her insights with other educational practitioners. Central to Payne#146;s analysis of what goes for a poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; which distinguish the thinking, values, and essay for act test behaviors of people in poverty from those who are middle class or wealthy. And because most schools operate from an implicitly middle-class perspective foreign to poor children, educators must first understand the class culture from which their students come and then teach them explicitly the rules of the middle class needed to what on notecards for a function more successfully in schools and society. According to written reports for students Payne, poverty is characterized not only by lack of financial resources, but also the what research, extent to writing research papers d. lester which individuals possess other resources such as emotional stability, mental skills, spiritual guidance, physical health and mobility, support systems, role models, and knowledge of a group#146;s hidden rules (2005, p. 7).

These varied resources are essential to consider because, as Payne states, . . . the reality is that financial resources, while extremely important, do not explain the differences in the success with which individuals leave poverty nor the reasons that many stay in poverty. The ability to leave poverty is more dependent upon goes research paper, other resources than it is upon financial resources. (p. 8) Payne argues the cultivation of emotional resources is of utmost importance, defined as #147;being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices#148; (2005, p. 7).

The involvement of role models is critical, then, because #147;it is largely from role models that [a] person learns how to live life emotionally#148; (2005, p. 9). Although all individuals have role models, Payne cautions, #147;The question is the extent to which the role model is nurturing or appropriate#148; (2005, p. 9). Good role models and support systems should be able to offer advice about and demonstrate a more desirable alternative than living in written poverty. Being a teacher allows one quite naturally to serve as a role model or support to children in poverty. Payne explains, Even with the financial resources, not every individual who received those finances would choose to live differently . . . But it is the responsibility of educators and goes for a others who work with the poor to teach the differences and on what sociology skills/rules that will allow the individual to research make the choice. (2005, p. 113) A teacher#146;s involvement is essential since #147;many individuals stay in poverty because they don#146;t know there is a choice#151;and if they do know that, have no one to teach them hidden rules or provide resources#148; (2005, p. 62).

Payne identifies education as: . . . the key to written reports for students getting out of, and staying out of, generational poverty. Individuals leave poverty for one of four reasons: a goal or vision of something they want to be or have; a situation that is so painful that anything would be better; someone who #147;sponsors#148; them (i.e., an for a paper, educator or spouse or mentor or role model who shows them a different way or convinces them that they could live differently); or a specific talent or ability that provides an opportunity for them. (p. 61) Given the #147;tremendous opportunities to influence some of the watermelon, non-financial resources that make such a difference in students#146; lives#148; (2005, p. 25), Payne recommends that educators first learn to analyze the resources poor students and goes on notecards research their families have before offering advice to improve their situation. To this end, the workbook that accompanies Payne#146;s main text presents fourteen different scenarios of poor children and their current situations for educators to practice evaluating. Payne does not offer any definite, correct answers for the exercises, but they do convey a fairly consistent view of the attitudes and behaviors presumably shared amongst those who are poor. It is useful, for papers by james d. lester, this reason, to carefully examine the descriptive case scenarios Payne provides in her effort to help educators better understand poverty, its effects on children, and its implications in school settings. What characteristics and circumstances constitute poverty?

As indicated earlier, money is on notecards, one of several resources included in student dissertation Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, but she argues that it is of only slight to moderate importance compared to other factors. The logic of what goes for a research a position that seemingly disassociates one#146;s financial resources with one#146;s class status may initially seem perplexing. However, a closer examination of essay Payne#146;s descriptive scenarios depicting poor people#146;s lives helps to illuminate her overall view about how different resources function to maintain poverty, as well as her resulting recommendations. For example, in her main text, Payne differentiates between situational poverty , a temporary state caused by circumstances such as death, illness, divorce, and generational poverty , a state which endures for two generations or more (2005, p. 3). Goes On Notecards! The importance of written reports this distinction is linked to the prevailing attitudes she associates with each group#151; people in what goes situational poverty are often too proud to essay test accept charity, whereas people in generational poverty believe society owes them a living (2005, p. 47). Representing the mentality of situational poverty in Payne#146;s accompanying workbook meant for teacher evaluation is Opie, a 12-year-old African American girl, and her mother, Oprah, a 32-year-old widow supporting a senile grandmother and unemployed uncle. Oprah works long hours as a domestic for a doctor, and although she is not paid very much, she takes public transportation and seems able to make ends meet. There is no mention of the family needing public aid, and in fact, Oprah is hoping to be able to what on notecards paper save some money for future emergencies that might arise (1998, p. Written Reports! 16). What Goes For A! Another example of situational poverty is Steve, a 17 year-old White male who was put out onto on what sociology is the streets by his alcoholic, abusive father.

At 16 he found a full-time job earning minimum wage to secure an apartment for what on notecards research, himself and, later, to take care of his brother as well. Steve works hard and #147;all [he] has time to for students do is go to work, go to school, and sleep#148; (1998, p. 23). In both scenarios, the individuals strive to be self-sufficient through legitimate forms of employment and persist in what goes on notecards an effort to improve their life circumstances. In contrast, though, the sense of entitlement supposedly fostered in generational poverty more commonly leads to illegitimate means of securing financial resources. For example, Juan is a six-year-old Hispanic boy who lives with his grandmother who cannot speak English, and reports a 25-year-old uncle, Ramon. Juan#146;s father was killed in a gang-related shooting and on notecards for a paper his mother is in jail, so Ramon looks after Juan. In order to essay on what support the family, Ramon sells drugs with his gang and makes an average of $1,000 a week. Goes On Notecards! Ramon does not expect to live past his thirtieth birthday because of his dangerous lifestyle, but he continues leading his gang and plans to kill a rival gang member and then flee to Mexico for a while (1998, p. 18). Human Cloning Wrong! A similar situation is what goes on notecards, discussed in the scenario about student workshop, Geraldo, a 13-year-old Hispanic male who is a prominent gang member in his neighborhood. Geraldo remains involved with his gang as a #147;matter of pride,#148; and makes $4,000 in a week selling drugs, sharing it with 10 other members. Like Ramon, Geraldo anticipates he will be dead before he turns 25 and therefore believes, #147;You might as well enjoy life and girls.#148; Ultimately, Geraldo admits, #147;. . . faithful is not in my vocabulary.

I#146;m only faithful to them streets#148; (1998, p. 22). The fatalistic views assumed by Ramon and Geraldo are just the opposite of what Payne describes as the what goes research, essential emotional, mental, and spiritual resources required to escape poverty. Because Payne generally conceives of poverty#151;and staying in for students poverty#151;as at least partly a matter of choice, an individual must have the what goes research paper, ability to identify and reason through various courses of action, particularly those necessitating deferred gratification and personal restraint. The scenario of Magnolia, a 16-year-old White girl in writing papers tenth grade who single-handedly takes care of her eight siblings because her mother is neglectful and irresponsible, exemplifies a person who possesses these critical resources. What For A Research Paper! Magnolia demonstrates her emotional resources by refusing to steal from others, even though her mother instructs her to do it so they can have food to eat and #147;[she] can#146;t remember a time when [she wasn#146;t] hungry sometime during the week#148; (1998, p. 24). However, Magnolia#146;s commitment to caring for her siblings is paper plate watermelon, clear as she sneaks the what on notecards for a paper, welfare check out of the mailbox to buy food for the family before her mother can waste it gratuitously on herself.

Magnolia gets Bs and workshop Cs in school but aspires to be a teacher. Payne tells us that she could earn As if only goes on notecards research there was time to written do her homework and maximize her mental resources. Magnolia, however, is an exceptional case in what paper Payne#146;s workbook. Most of the scenarios depict people who lack emotional, mental, and spiritual resources. For example, Habib is a #147;likeable and easily persuaded#148; 18-year-old, African-American male whose one great attribute is that he is #147;one heck of paper plate watermelon a fighter#148; (1998, p. What! 21). One day when he was sixteen, he returned home to workshop find that his mother had been beaten by her latest boyfriend. After calling an ambulance for her, Habib went looking for her boyfriend but decided it might be a good idea to break into and rob a pawnshop instead. Goes! Payne suggests that this course of action represented Habib trying to essay cloning wrong resolve his anger, and when he was caught, he also had a gun in his pocket. Another scenario portrays the lives of Tahiti, a 14-year-old girl of mixed African-American and Mexican parentage, and her best friend Theresa, a 14-year-old Hispanic girl. Neither of the girls does well in what on notecards for a school, and Tahiti#146;s family life is fraught with drinking and abuse.

In order to student dissertation workshop give their lives meaning, these girls actively try to get pregnant so they can #147;have something of [their] own#148; (1998, p. 25). All of the people in Payne#146;s scenarios have physical resources, although they function differently for men and women. While men gain advantage from their ability to fight and willingness to utilize violence (as seen in the scenarios of Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib), Payne indicates that women can use their bodies and sex to elicit favors. The scenario of for a paper John and Adele best illustrates the significance of a woman#146;s physical resources. Adele, a 29-year-old White, single mother of two children, was left by her unfaithful but educated and wealthy husband. Her ex-husband pays minimal child support and Adele works part-time despite being an alcoholic. When Adele#146;s car breaks down, she is financially unable to have it fixed and for act test may get fired if she cannot report to work the next day. Adele assesses the goes on notecards for a research, available choices and determines that one way to writing by james d. lester solve her problem is to invite the mechanic over for dinner. The mechanic later calls and what goes on notecards invites her out to dinner instead, mentioning that they might be able to work something out in terms of payment. Adele thinks, #147;It has been a long time since [I] have been out, and he is good-looking and seems like a nice man#148; (1998, p. 15). Payne suggests that Adele would likely benefit from having a support system for times of need, and that Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib could use role models to teach them appropriate, less destructive behaviors.

The scenario of cloning Wisteria and Eileen attests to the importance that Payne attributes to support from what on notecards for a research extended family. In this case, Wisteria, a 70-year-old woman on Social Security, provides a home for Eileen, her 10-year-old granddaughter who was abandoned by her drug-addicted, prostitute, and currently incarcerated mother. Wisteria only receives about $150 a week and is in declining health, but her willingness to take care of Eileen means that the child will not be placed in a foster home. Furthermore, Wisteria has accumulated modest financial resources and enlists support from the church where she has been a member for 40 years (1998, p. 17). The church is a critical institution in Payne#146;s view, but it is student, unable to what goes paper address the problems of poverty by itself. A church serves as a social support in the scenario about Maria and Noemi, a Hispanic mother-and-daughter pair from a devout Catholic family that receives food stamps but is otherwise quite loving and intact.

What Payne suggests 10-year-old Maria learns from Noemi#146;s role-modeling, however, is writing research papers by james, that she should get married, have children, and stay home like her mother (1998, p. 19). Similar patterns of early pregnancy are also perpetuated by the maternal example in goes on notecards for a research the scenario of Tijuana Checosovakia, a 14-year-old African-American girl who had her first child when she was 11 (1998, p. 20); Sally#146;s 15-year-old sister in the scenario of Sally and paper plate Sueann (1998, p. 10); and Vangie, an African-American woman who conceived her first child at 13 (1998, p. 12). Again, for Payne it is goes for a research, emotional and moral resources that count more than financial support. Even if the essay cloning wrong, individuals and families in her various scenarios have adequate material means of subsistence, it is their values and behavior that most critically determine their prospects for escaping poverty. Interestingly, the what on notecards research paper, primary positive role models mentioned in Payne#146;s scenarios are educators. D. Lester! This is hardly surprising, given her involvement in professional development activities for teachers. Goes For A Research! For instance, Magnolia#146;s aspiration to become a teacher (discussed earlier) was inspired by the kindness of her own fifth-grade teacher who provided a Thanksgiving meal for her hungry family. As a result, Magnolia believes that she could help kids too if she was a teacher. In the scenario about Steve (also discussed earlier), it is a school counselor who persuades him to stay in school and graduate even though he is exhausted trying to balance a full-time job and classes. Written Reports! The counselor expresses faith in goes for a research Steve#146;s ability to learn, and personally meets him at 7:00 in the morning to provide algebra tutorials. Through these interactions with teachers and other school officials, Magnolia and Steve have role models who can serve as their #147;sponsors#148; out of poverty.

They can, in other words, finally be provided an opportunity to learn the hidden rules of the middle class to do well in school and become financially self-supporting, successful members of our society. Of course, these also are examples of educators who are going beyond the general call of duty, working with students outside of the normal workday and using their own resources rather than those of the school or district. What these individuals draw upon are emotional and moral resources as well, and their examples in Payne#146;s scenarios reinforce the emphasis that she places upon these attributes. In framing the social problem of poverty in such basic human terms, Payne adds considerable force to her arguments about essay test, its origins and the possibilities for its resolution. On the other hand, the reality of working with such students is often considerably more complicated than her scenarios may suggest, and poverty may not be as closely tied to for a morality and associated #147;hidden rules#148; as she seems to believe. A critique of on what sociology is Payne#146;s framework. Without doubt, the conceptual clarity and apparent applicability of what goes on notecards Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty are among its primary assets. Papers By James! Yet, given the goes research paper, heated scholarly debates regarding poverty over dissertation the last several decades, her authoritative-sounding pronouncements about children#146;s socioeconomic status and on notecards for a paper their educational and behavioral outcomes are rather remarkable.

This apparent certainty appeals to many people#146;s common-sense notions of how poverty functions and how it can be eliminated. It is important to note, however, that the underlying logic of Payne#146;s conception of poverty is not well-supported by contemporary social science research, and essay on what her straightforward explanations and conclusions may hold problematic implications for poor children and those educators who serve them. In the discussion that follows, we consider a number of potential criticisms of Payne#146;s work, including her selective use of social science research to support her arguments about the goes, impact of poverty on writing research d. lester, education and other outcomes for children in society. One problem in research Payne#146;s framework of poverty is the extent to which she essentializes the values, behaviors, and orientations of those who are poor. Although Payne distinguishes between different circumstances of student dissertation poverty, she routinely describes the poor in research sweeping fashion as individuals who differ markedly from others in plate watermelon the middle and wealthy classes. For example, Payne explains that poor people lack the ability to govern their own behavior which is necessary for functioning in the middle class (2005, p. Goes For A! 77). Essay For Act! As a result, the scenarios discussed earlier in this article are intended to illustrate how #147;the line between what is legal and illegal is thin and what goes often crossed#148; so that the poor #147;simply see jail as a part of for students life and not necessarily always bad#148; (2005, p. 22). Also, she maintains that the poor assume their life circumstances are inevitable, so money is what research paper, either shared or spent immediately.

Disciplinary action is seen as being about penance and forgiveness rather than really changing negative behaviors; men value hard labor and identify as #147;a lover#148; and #147;a fighter#148; with bars and writing research papers by james d. lester work as their main social outlets; and women learn that #147;sex will bring in money and favors. Values are important, but they don#146;t put food on the table#151;or bring relief from intense pressure#148; (2005, p. 23#150;24). Payne paints provocative pictures, but they are usually variations on a single theme. Goes Research! Life in poor families is characterized by constant chatter and background noise from the TV which is almost always on; disorganization and sociology clutter; matriarchal and extended family structures; and multiple internal feuds #147;with nearly everyone having multiple relationships, some legal and some not#148; (2005, p. 51#150;56). Such scenarios convey powerful images, and goes on notecards paper all but a couple of them depict poor people as engaging in student workshop behavior of questionable moral character. Even if the main character in a story is a largely innocent student, she or he is usually presented as contending with adults who have proven to be morally weak. Whether it is an out-of-work uncle or a father in what goes research paper jail, an unwed pregnant sister or a drunken mother, the children in these stories are victims of the adults who have failed them.

While Payne presents the stories in a straightforward fashion to encourage analysis, they are ultimately morality tales inviting judgment from an audience of largely middle-class professionals. A second concern is that Payne#146;s essentialized portrayal of the poor and problems related to poverty can lead to misconceptions or contribute to popular stereotypes about people in poverty. As noted earlier, central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the essay on what sociology, idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; or #147;mental models#148; which distinguish the thinking and behavior of people who are poor from those who are middle class and wealthy. In identifying these characteristics, Payne appears to rely heavily on the work of Oscar Lewis (1968), Michael Harrington (1962), Richard Sennett (Sennett Cobb, 1973), and other writers from the 1960s and early 1970s who, to one degree or another, endorsed a #147;culture of poverty#148; thesis about behavioral differences between the poor and others. Payne herself uses this term sparingly, but throughout the book she argues that individuals in generational poverty exhibit characteristics consistent with the culture of poverty thesis. As evident in the descriptive scenarios, the what goes on notecards for a paper, poor are generally depicted as having a weak work ethic, little sense of internal discipline or future orientation, and leading lives characterized to one extent or another by disorder and violence. In making these characterizations, Payne seems to be unaware of the many studies dating from the late 1960s that challenged the culture of poverty thesis, in many instances directly testing the extent to which traits such as these were more prevalent among the poor than other groups. By and large, these studies found that such characteristics were not more likely to be evident in student poor individuals or households. Indeed, people in poverty valued work, saving money, behaving properly, maintaining stable families, and a number of for a paper other #147;middle-class#148; attributes as much as their counterparts in higher social and economic strata. These results, moreover, held across groups with experiences of differing duration in poverty and across racial and ethnic lines (Roach Gursslin, 1967; Irelan, Moles, O#146;Shea, 1969; Coward, Feagin, Williams, 1974; Davidson Gaitz, 1974; Abell Lyon, 1979; Carmon, 1985; Jones Luo, 1999).

To put the matter another way, this body of research suggests that many of the attitudes that Payne attributes to paper plate the poor are also evident to varying degrees among the non-poor, groups that Payne would describe as the #147;middle class#148; and the #147;wealthy.#148; After all, there is considerable evidence that individuals in these groups have characteristics of the sort that Payne attributes only to the poor: a variable work ethic, inability to save money, and uncertainty in interpersonal relationships. Recent studies indicate that traditional middle-class values on what goes research, a range of issues have shifted in the past several decades. Divorce, for instance, is now widely seen as acceptable, a broad range of personal behavior is tolerated or accepted, and work judged to be demeaning is often spurned, even in the face of unemployment. (Thornton Young-DeMarco, 2001; Jaynes, 2000) Mainstream values of the sort Payne holds up as exemplary appear to be considerably less prevalent today than in the past, throughout all segments of the essay human, population. Much of the behavior Payne describes, consequently, is not exclusively a problem of the poor and may therefore reflect values that she incorrectly attributes to what on notecards research paper poverty. Middle-class or upper-class individuals, of course, are less likely to suffer as a result of such behaviors because, as Payne notes, having monetary resources makes the consequences of such attitudinal or behavioral characteristics considerably less dire.

However, a major problem in her interpretation is suggesting that there may be a causal force to these attributes. While they may make it difficult for some to escape poverty under current social and paper plate watermelon economic conditions, there is little evidence that such traits are especially prevalent among the poor, and they do not explain why some people fall into poverty and others do not. Studies challenging the culture of what goes on notecards for a paper poverty thesis have cast serious doubt on workshop, the proposition that a clearly distinguishable #147;culture of poverty#148; in for a research fact exists. By and watermelon large, it is a term that has fallen out of use in the social science literature today. The studies that Payne does reference offer little support for her formulation of #147;mental models#148; that distinguish the behavior of the poor. One study she cites a great deal is Susan Mayer#146;s (1997) book, What Money Can#146;t Buy . Mayer argues that #147;. . . activities, possessions and housing environments that are important to children#146;s outcomes are only moderately related to parental income#148; (p.

113). In other words, the poor do not lack in resources necessary for children to succeed, and middle-class status is hardly a guarantee of a child#146;s success. What matters are the #147;values#148; of parents, and Mayer (like many other researchers) offers scant evidence that the poor have different values than other groups. Goes On Notecards For A Paper! On the cloning, surface, of course, this point would appear to support Payne#146;s argument, and it is no doubt for this reason that she cites Mayer#146;s work. But Mayer#146;s position is more complicated than this, and directly addresses the question of whether income is related to parenting practices, an issue at what on notecards for a research paper, the core of Payne#146;s argument. In examining this matter, Mayer reports that there is negligible difference between the poor and essay for act other families. After reviewing the evidence from survey data, she concludes, #147;These results provide little evidence that parents#146; income has a large influence on parenting practices. Nor do the results in this chapter suggest that parental income has a large effect on what on notecards for a research paper, parents#146; psychological attributes other than their feelings of efficacy. And parental efficacy has only a moderate effect on written, children#146;s outcomes#148; (1997, p. 124). By and large, according to Mayer, parenting practices and the values that inform them are generally unrelated to income. This is hardly a finding that provides support for Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, despite her use of Mayer#146;s book for confirmation of her theories.

Mayer does indicate that #147;some persistently poor parents are shiftless and neglectful,#148; adding that their households exhibit #147;neither the moral nor the material standards that most Americans believe children require#148; (1997, p. 151). But she also makes it clear that families falling into this category are only a part of the what on notecards for a research, persistently poor, who also suffer from illness, depression, and cloning other limitations quite separate from goes on notecards research paper their moral predilections. This suggests that poor families of the sort that Payne describes as reflecting #147;generational poverty#148; represent a modest proportion of the poor, perhaps less than a quarter and probably lower. Given these figures, it stands to reason that the children in such families would be a rather small fraction of all children, possibly just 3 or 4 percent. As Mayer concludes, #147;poverty alone is not synonymous with incompetence,#148; and as the number of families living in poverty rises, #147;the average poor person becomes more like the average middle-class person#148; (1997, p. 152). This too is an argument in sharp distinction from Payne#146;s, which suggests that the numbers of attitudinally deviant poor families are increasing (Payne, 2005, p. 61). Another book Payne cites a number of times is a collection of studies edited by Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1997) titled, Consequences of Growing Up Poor . Again, Payne appears to have been rather selective in choosing quotes from on what sociology is this source, as the various studies provide little support for what for a, her analysis. In the chapter examining the link between income levels and parenting practices, for written reports for students, instance, Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson (1997) echo Mayer#146;s points described above, #147;We found that household income and debt are only weakly related to effective parenting. Consequently, differences in the levels of parenting do not account for much of the association between economic resources and on notecards for a research children#146;s well being#148; (p. 219). While the researchers did find evidence that various approaches to parenting had different effects in poor and non-poor households (with control and essay for act supervision being less important in the latter), this did not materially affect the relationship between income and children#146;s outcomes.

In another study, Canadian researchers found little evidence of a relationship between poverty and behavioral problems in the schools (Pagani, Boulerice, Tremblay, 1997). These and on notecards for a research paper similar conclusions throughout the essay for act, book indicate that the relationship between poverty, the goes on notecards paper, values and behavior of essay parents, and the welfare of children are a good deal more complicated than Payne suggests. What is perhaps most problematic about Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty is its underlying logic that suggests poor people have choices about whether to remain in#151;or escape from#151;poverty. Goes On Notecards Paper! As illustrated in the scenarios described earlier, Payne argues that the poor may not realize they have a choice to live differently, and even if they do recognize their own agency, they may be reluctant to exercise it without the aid of a sponsor who can model the written for students, appropriate use of emotional resources. Payne explains that in poverty,

There is a freedom of verbal expression, an appreciation of individual personality, a heightened and goes for a research intense emotional experience, and a sensual, kinesthetic approach to life usually not found in the middle class or among the educated. These patterns are so intertwined in the daily life of the poor that to have those cut off would be to lose a limb. Many choose not to live a different life. And for some, alcoholism, laziness, lack of motivation, drug addiction, etc., in effect make the essay human, choices for the individual. For A Research! (2005, p. 113) As a result, Payne indicates that helping poor children develop self control requires both structure and choice so that they can recognize what behaviors are expected of reports them, identify the consequences accompanying particular actions, and ultimately #147;emphasize that the individual always has a choice#151;to follow or not to follow the expected behaviors#148; (2005, p. 78).

Emphasizing that emotional resources are the most important factor in the perpetuation of goes on notecards research poverty implies it is the poor themselves who bear the dissertation, greatest responsibility for their condition, despite the on notecards for a, extensive research literature suggesting otherwise. For example, Payne overlooks the predominant social and economic causes of poverty highlighted in social science literature such as deindustrialization, discrimination, unequal educational resources, and socioeconomic segregation (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). These studies dispel prevalent beliefs that changing individuals#146; values and plate behavior can affect their social mobility, or that children in poor and goes on notecards for a research paper lower-class households have the sociology is, same objective opportunities for inter-generational social mobility as children from more affluent families. Recent research on the state of the very poor in for a research American society suggests that their social environment is considerably more influential than Payne#146;s book indicates. The Gatreaux project in Chicago, for instance, has demonstrated that moving families out of inner-city communities with highly concentrated poverty can have a significant effect on the life chances of children and adults alike. Once relocated to middle-class neighborhoods, children performed better in school, adults found employment, and written for students family prospects improved. (Kaufman Rosenbaum, 1992) This research casts considerable doubt on the #147;mental models#148; theory that Payne postulates in her book. What For A Research Paper! The failure to consider this perspective is a major shortcoming of her analysis. Furthermore, although Payne#146;s reference to individuals in reports for students situational and generational poverty does not correspond to goes paper data categories on the census and are thus difficult to written quantify exactly, the research literature on poverty indicates that the largest group of these children are racial/ethnic minorities (mostly African-American) living in what on notecards research paper central-city neighborhoods where local employment opportunities are severely restricted.

Payne, however, suggests that race is largely unrelated to poverty. In doing so, she sidesteps the critical issue of systematic, historical patterns of discrimination and exploitation that have contributed to the persistence of widespread poverty in essay human cloning wrong the United States. On Notecards Paper! Here, too, she ignores the very research upon which her book purportedly relies. A study cited by Payne reports that African-American families in 1980 were more than seven times more likely to experience #147;persistent#148; poverty (more than six years) than Whites. African-Americans also were more likely to live in a neighborhood where more than a fifth of the residents were persistently poor by about the same margin (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Maritato, 1997). Dissertation! Children in these families often live in environments where the effects of #147;concentrated poverty#148; are evident, a term employed by William Julius Wilson to describe to describe the impact of goes on notecards research paper deindustrialization and long-term unemployment on inner-city communities (Wilson, 1987, 1996). Essay Sociology! These statistics tell a different story about the what goes on notecards for a paper, relationship between poverty and race than Payne describes, particularly with respect to the #147;persistent#148; poor. Meaningful efforts to educate poor children and work towards the elimination of poverty in society at large necessitate a commitment to understanding and reforming the existing structure of socioeconomic stratification. This entails a critical analysis of contemporary economic shifts and needs (Books, 2004; Kantor, 1999; Ranney, 1999; Wilson, 1987), as well as attention to the advantageous functioning of the system to particular groups of is privileged people (Gans, 1995; Jencks, 1972). For example, although there is greater parity in amount of education received by Blacks and Whites in the United States, this has not translated into more equal occupational success or earnings (Conley, 1999, p. On Notecards Research Paper! 86). Even larger economic disparities can be captured when considering wealth rather than income between groups, as some social scientists have suggested.

Oliver and Shapiro (1997) explain, Wealth is money that is not typically used to purchase milk, shoes, or other necessities. Sometimes it bails families out of research d. lester financial and personal crises, but more often it is used to create opportunities, secure a desired stature and for a paper standard of living, or pass along a class status already obtained to a new generation. (p. 171) The measure of one#146;s wealth#151;including things such as inheritance, investments, and property#151;has the #147;particular attribute of quantifying the social value of ideas or objects#148; (Conley, 1999, p. Human Cloning! 144). Payne concludes that in what goes on notecards for a research conceptualizing poverty,

Naming the essay human cloning, problem is the first step toward a solution, and the most important step, for if the problem is not named accurately the course of action based on that faulty assumption will only lead further and further from what goes on notecards for a a solution. So naming problems accurately#151;making the correct diagnosis#151;is crucial because it is on those definitions that the theories of reports change and program activities are based. (2005, p. 169) Yet, Payne#146;s own viewpoint is largely unsubstantiated in current research literature. Through a detailed analysis of the descriptive scenarios Payne provides to accompany her framework for what research, understanding poverty, it is clear that the poor are portrayed rather monolithically in their values and behaviors, which generally correspond to the culture of poverty thesis of the late 1960s and early 1970s. In like fashion, then, Payne recommends that educators serve to inspire and model change so the poor know there is research papers by james, a more desirable way of living. If only the what goes for a paper, problem of cloning wrong poverty could be so simply diagnosed, then the remedy would be fairly straightforward. Yet Payne#146;s work may misinform well-intentioned efforts to educate poor children by locating the problem of poverty within the individual without regard to on notecards for a the larger social context in essay on what sociology is which they live and are expected to succeed.

The Payne phenomenon in paper perspective. Given the issues identified above, the influence of Dr. Ruby Payne presents something of a puzzle. If her viewpoint is so heavily tilted toward a certain perspective and the research base for her work is so questionable, what explains the popularity of her book and the apparent success of paper her workshops? As suggested above, the clarity of her explanation for what research, poverty and related issues, along with the confident tone of her narratives and recommendations, may explain part of the research papers by james, appeal. The fact that she purports to draw upon decades of academic research no doubt lends credibility to her enterprise and its publications. But it is also possible that a good deal of the interest her perspective draws from educators is what goes for a research, rooted in their own middle-class conceptions about the test, poor and the causes of poverty. What Research! Most educators, after all, are unfamiliar with the extensive research literature on poverty and research papers by james its effects on children, and if Payne#146;s citations seem to support their own views about the what on notecards research, poor, they would hardly be in a position to writing by james d. lester challenge the interpretation of research that Payne offers. If they are predisposed to believing that the poor are lazy and impulsive as well as unreliable and temperamental, they are more likely to agree with Payne#146;s analysis than to what goes on notecards paper question it. In short, Payne may be popular simply because she echoes commonplace assumptions about why some individuals appear to succeed in American society while others do not.

As historian Michael Katz has noted, traditional views toward the poor have existed in the country for at paper plate watermelon, least two-hundred years (Katz, 1986). In the past, observers of the poor distinguished between those considered #147;worthy#148; and #147;unworthy.#148; The difference was typically linked to personal rectitude, much like the distinctions that Payne notes in separating #147;situational#148; from on notecards research #147;generational#148; poverty. Her #147;mental models#148; conceptual framework and the scenarios she describes echo the ideas of plate watermelon middle-class welfare reformers from the past, for whom poverty was more a moral condition than a matter of economic status. Now, as then, children are depicted as victims of the problematic attitudes and behaviors their parents exhibit and deemed highly susceptible to what goes on notecards research paper inheriting the same dysfunctional worldviews. Plate! While this may elicit sympathy and concern for students who live in poverty, and perhaps cause teachers to devote more time and attention to their needs, it is unlikely to what on notecards for a research create a sound, research-based comprehension of the essay on what sociology, problems presented by poverty and the best ways to address them. Because of this, it seems unlikely that Payne#146;s framework will lead to what on notecards paper meaningful, long-term change in the circumstances of poor children#146;s lives and the ability of schools to work with them. Ultimately, it is written for students, necessary to consider whether the goes for a paper, apparent success of Ruby Payne and her organization represents a failure on the part of teacher educators and reports the many social science researchers who have addressed the goes for a research, connections between poverty and schooling over the past several decades. After all, if thousands of professional educators have been misinformed to one extent or another by essay for act test Payne#146;s analytical framework, it is at least partly because the training they received in what goes for a research colleges and universities did not prepare them to critically assess its problems.

If teachers and on what sociology is principals lack an what research paper, understanding about how poverty and social class affect children#146;s education, it may be because their own professional education provided little information or theory for them to cloning wrong draw upon for this purpose. At the same time, researchers focusing on these issues have not contributed to the development of successful in-service education programs that acknowledge the realities and needs of teachers and other education professionals in the classroom. Ruby Payne has thus filled a critical vacuum in the field. This, too, explains some of what for a research her success. Where others have been uninterested or perhaps unable to help teachers understand just how poverty and student dissertation education are related, Payne and her collaborators have been quite willing to step into the breach. Perhaps it is time for the research and teacher education community to take up the challenge of poverty and on notecards begin to essay engage the questions that Ruby Payne has addressed so actively for the past decade or so. What Research! This is not an easy undertaking since the reports, links between poverty and schooling are far from fully understood. What Goes On Notecards For A! As a number of studies have noted, the particular mechanisms that account for why some individuals and families end up in poverty and remain there for written reports for students, any length of time are still poorly comprehended (Sawhill, 1988).

Quantitative studies using large national or even local databases, despite their many important contributions, are unlikely to provide definitive answers. As the authors of a chapter on #147;intergenerational transmission of poverty#148; in what on notecards research the Duncan and Brooks-Gunn volume note, #147;While we know that growing up poor reduces children#146;s economic mobility, these analyses tell us little about why#148; (Corcoran Adams, 1997, p. 514). Reports For Students! In their concluding chapter, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn refer to the absence of strong relationships between parental income and school performance in quantitative studies as an goes on notecards for a paper, #147;enigma#148; (Duncan Brooks-Gunn, 1997, p. 603). More fine-grained analyses of the effect of schooling and writing papers development of children living in poverty are needed before answers to these questions can be generated. While teachers and goes for a schools do have an important role in addressing issues of educational opportunity and equity for poor children, much additional research will be necessary before effective programs of test professional assistance for them can or should be undertaken. Ruby Payne#146;s program, while doubtless well intentioned, is not based on a sound or thorough understanding of poverty and its causes.

However, if her efforts to address the difficulties educators face in working with poor children generates increased research attention and a resolution to better connect researchers#146; findings with educators#146; instructional concerns, then perhaps her work will turn out to have been significant indeed. Abell, T., Lyon, L. On Notecards Research Paper! (1979). Essay Human Wrong! Do the differences make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the culture of poverty in the United States. Goes For A Research Paper! American Ethnologist, 6 (3), 602#150;621. Books, S. Paper! (2004) Poverty and schooling in the U.S.: Contexts and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Brady, D. (2003). Rethinking the sociological measurement of goes on notecards for a paper poverty. Social Forces , 81 (3), 715­#150;752.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Maritato, N. (1997) Poor families, poor outcomes: The well being of children and youth. Essay On What! In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of paper growing up poor (pp. 1#150;17). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Carmon, N. (1985). Poverty and essay human wrong culture: Empirical evidence and implications for public policy. Sociological Perspectives, 28 (4), 403#150;417. Conley, D. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America . Berkeley, CA: University of research California Press.

Corcoran, M. Adams, T. Essay Cloning! (1997). Race, sex and the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In G. J. On Notecards! Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. Essay! 461#150;517). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Coward, B. E., Feagin, J. R., Williams, Jr., J. Goes On Notecards Paper! A. (1974). Essay Human! The culture of poverty debate: Some additional data. Social Problems , 21 (5), 621#150;634.

Davidson, C. Gaitz, C. M. (1974). Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and goes on notecards paper attitudes among the urban poor and nonpoor. Social Problems , 22 (2), 229#150;245. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Income effects across the life span: Integration and interpretation. In G. Essay Test! J. What Goes On Notecards For A! Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 596#150;610). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Gans, H. J. (1995).

The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy . New York, NY: Basic Books. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., Thomson, E. (1997). Economic resources, parental practices, and children#146;s well-being. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 190#150;238). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Harrington, M. (1962).

The other America: Poverty in the United States . New York, NY: Macmillan. Hernandez, D. J. (1997). Poverty trends. In G. J. Human Cloning! Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp.18#150;34). New York, NY: Russell Sage.

Irelan, L. M., Moles, O. C., O'Shea, R. M. (1969). Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: A test of the #147;culture of poverty#148; hypothesis. Social Forces, 47 (4), 405#150;413. Jaynes, G. D. (2000). Identity and economic performance. The Annals of the American Academy of what goes on notecards for a research paper Political and Social Science , 568 (3), 128#150;139. Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America . Essay For Act Test! New York, NY: Basic Books. Jones, R. K., Luo, Y. (1999). The culture of poverty and African-American culture: An empirical assessment. Sociological Perspectives , 42 (3), 439#150;458.

Kantor, H. (1999). Race, education, and joblessness in the inner city, 1970­#150;1990. The Urban Review , 31 (3), 225#150;242. Katz, M. Goes! B. (1986). In the shadow of the poorhouse: A social history of essay welfare in America. New York, NY: Basic Books. Lewis, O. (1968). A study of what on notecards research paper slum culture: Backgrounds for La Vida . New York, NY: Random House. Massey, D. S., Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mayer, S. (1997). Writing Papers By James D. Lester! What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Oliver, M. Goes Research! L., Shapiro, T. M. (1997). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality . Essay For Act! New York, NY: Routledge. Pagani, L., Boulerice, B. Tremblay, R. (1997). The influence of poverty on children#146;s classroom placement and behavior problems. What On Notecards Research! In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 311#150;339).

New York, NY: Russell Sage. Payne, Ruby K. (1996). A framework for on what sociology is, understanding poverty: Modules 1#150;7 workbook . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Payne, Ruby K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Ranney, D. C. (1999). Class, race, gender, and goes paper poverty: A critique of some contemporary theories.

In L. Kushnick J. Jennings (Eds.), A new introduction to poverty: The role of paper plate watermelon race, power, and politics (pp. 39#150;56). New York, NY: New York University Press. Roach, J. What On Notecards For A! L., Gursslin, O. R. Workshop! (1967). An evaluation of the concept #148;culture of goes research poverty#148;. Social Forces , 45 (3), 383#150;392. Sawhill, I. V. (1988). Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073#150;1119.

Sennett, R., Cobb, J. (1973). The hidden injuries of writing by james d. lester class. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Thornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. (2001). Four decades of trends in goes research attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the paper plate, 1990s. What On Notecards Research! Journal of Marriage and the Family , 63 (4), 1009#150;1037. Wilson, W. Written Reports For Students! J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. What For A Research Paper! (1996). Reports! When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor . New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Zeichner, K. M. (2003).

The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the what research, best teachers for all students. Teachers College Record , 105 (3), 490#150;519. http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12596, Date Accessed: 10/4/2017 7:07:00 AM. University of Kansas. JENNIFER C. NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at the University of Kansas. Her primary research interests include the socialization of beginning teachers in urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and essay is gender. What On Notecards Research Paper! Her recent publications have appeared in Educational Studies and on what is Education and Urban Society. University of Kansas.

JOHN L. RURY is a professor of education at the University of Kansas. His area of specialization is the history of American education, with special reference to problems of inequality and discrimination in schooling.

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Lyon - Lens (1-2): le resume, Coupe de France - 8es de finale. match Temps Forts FEUILLE DE MATCH Resultats. Lens, au bout du suspense, se qualifie pour les quarts de finale de la Coupe de France ! Valeureux, les Artésiens y ont cru jusqu'au bout pour décrocher une prolongation victorieuse ! Lyon y a sans doute cru trop vite. Goes Research! Le RCL rejoint Monaco ! Sur une déviation de Koné aux 20 mètres, Lacazette peut armer une frappe de demi-volée compliquée ! Gêné par Areola, le Lyonnais tire au-dessus du but ! Temps additionnel : 2 minutes. Bedimo sauve son équipe sur une contre-attaque lensoise ! Bourigeaud peut se présenter seul face à Vercoutre mais le défenseur tacle in for act, extremis le ballon en corner ! Les minutes défilent et Areola n'a absolument pas été inquiété depuis le début de la prolongation. What Goes Paper! Les Lyonnais n'y sont plus du tout.

Du coup, Lens va devoir uniquement se contenter de défendre, Coulibaly étant complètement esseulé lorsqu'il tente de lancer une contre-attaque. Cyprien reste au sol après s'être fait une entorse dans un duel face à Lacazette. Essay Cloning Wrong! Le Lensois va sortir sur civière et laisser ses partenaires en infériorité numérique jusqu'à la fin du match. Zeffane tente de se rattraper sur un centre enroulé sur son côté droit. What On Notecards For A Paper! Seul souci, Yahia est idéalement placé au niveau du point de penalty et dégage le ballon de la tête, au loin. Côté gauche, Boulenger adresse un centre fuyant que Koné repousse dans l'axe. Reports! Valdivia, dans la surface, s'essaie à un tir instinctif des 18 mètres qui passe juste au-dessus du but de Vercoutre ! Lyon tente immédiatement de faire le siège de la moitié de terrain adverse.

Les joueurs de Rémi Garde n'ont désormais plus le choix. Monsieur Turpin siffle le début de la seconde période de cette prolongation. C'est la fin de la première période de la prolongation. What On Notecards For A Paper! Lens a pris l'avantage grâce à une volonté plus grand que celles des Rhodaniens d'aller rejoindre Monaco en quarts. L'entrée en jeu de Coulibaly a clairement fait du bien au RCL. Student Dissertation! Transparent, Ljuboja n'a rien apporté à sa formation tandis que l'ancien joueur de Poissy a immédiatement su faire la différence. Le jeu est arrêté, Valdivia est victime de crampes. Research! Il n'y a plus de changements possibles de chaque côté du terrain. La fraîcheur lensoise fait clairement la différence depuis le début de cette prolongation. Writing Research Papers By James! Les Lyonnais n'arrivent clairement plus à jouer rapidement vers l'avant. Depuis son entrée en jeu, Zeffane n'est clairement pas à son avantage.

Coupable sur le penalty, le défenseur n'était clairement pas au marquage sur le deuxième but lensois. Quel retour de Lens ! Le RCL prend l'avantage au score ! Le corner avait d'ailleurs été obtenu sur une frappe puissante de Valdivia aux 30 mètres, repoussée en corner par une belle parade de Vercoutre. But de Gbamin ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Vercoutre rate sa sortie et tergiverse un peu trop devant sa ligne de but. What Research Paper! Au niveau du point de penalty, Gbamin place une puissante déviation de la tête qui file dans la lucarne lyonnaise ! Une prolongation n'est évidemment pas une bonne chose pour l'OL, qui s'attend à un très gros calendrier dans les semaines qui viennent. C'est parti pour cette prolongation entre Lyon et Lens. Lens égalise à la dernière seconde sur penalty et parvient à s'offrir une prolongation. For Act! Lyon semblait pourtant serein avant de se faire surprendre sur l'ultime offensive artésienne.

But de Valdivia ! Le Lensois se présente face à Vercoutre et frappe sur la droite du portier, parti du mauvais côté ! Le RCL égalise dans le temps additionnel ! Penalty pour Lens suite à une faute de Zeffane sur Coulibaly ! Le Lensois avait déjà résisté à un premier tacle avant d'être fauché sur son pied d'appui ! Temps additionnel : 4 minutes. Grenier est remplacé par Danic pour l'OL. Double occasion pour Lens ! Sur un premier corner, Yahia rate de peu sa déviation croisée de la tête. Goes Research! Sur le suivant, c'est N'Diaye qui limite d'une tête qui passe à côté du but ! Bien servi aux 25 mètres par Briand, Lacazette temporise. Essay! Le Lyonnais a Bedimo sur sa gauche mais ne peut pas le voir et opte finalement pour une frappe puissante du pied droit qui passe bien au-dessus du but adverse. Côté lyonnais, Miguel Lopes a réalisé une belle prestation avant d'être remplacé.

Le duo Gomis - Briand a bien fonctionné, approvisionné en bons ballons par Grenier. Kombouaré a d'ailleurs effectué trois changements offensifs pour essayer de faire la différence. What Goes On Notecards For A Research! Ljuboja n'a pas montré grand chose, seul Chavarria s'est illustré dans cette rencontre. Nomenjanahary est remplacé par Cyprien pour Lens. Lens n'a plus que 10 minutes pour tenter d'égaliser. Research Papers By James D. Lester! Lyon va sans doute assurer le coup en défense pour ne pas se faire rejoindre au score. Carton jaune pour Landre suite à une faute sur Briand. Sur un centre de Nomenjanahary mal repoussé par Koné, le ballon revient sur Boulenger aux 20 mètres. What Research! Le Lensois s'essaie à une reprise de volée compliquée qui s'envole au-dessus de la cage de Vercoutre ! Spécialiste en la matière, Grenier se charge d'un coup franc aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Student Workshop! Le Lyonnais enroule une frappe flottante du pied droit qui retombe derrière le but d'Areola, pas vraiment inquiété. M. For A! Lopes est remplacé par Zeffane pour l'OL.

Finalement, Umtiti va mieux après quelques soins prodigués par les kinés du club lyonnais. Watermelon! Le prometteur défenseur reprend sa place en charnière centrale. Suite à un duel aérien face à N'Diaye, Umtiti retombe très lourdement sur le dos. Goes! Le défenseur rhodanien tarde à se relever et semble réellement souffrir. Gomis est remplacé par Lacazette pour l'OL. Chavarria est remplacé par N'Diaye du côté artésien.

Ljuboja est remplacé par Coulibaly pour Lens. Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Yahia devance Vercoutre au premier poteau pour prolonger le ballon. For Act! Landre et Chavarria semblent le dévier en même temps mais Mvuemba repousse sur sa ligne de but ! Nomenjanahary fait parler sa vitesse de pointe sur son côté gauche. What Goes For A Research Paper! Le Lensois s'apprête à centrer mais pousse un peu trop loin son ballon. Cloning! Lopes intervient proprement pour tacler le ballon en corner. La défense lensoise est d'ailleurs bien mieux en place qu'en première période. For A! Malgré tout, Gomis est encore trop souvent trouvé dans le dos de Gbamin.

Trouvé aux 30 mètres, plein axe, Gonalons n'est pas attaqué. Essay Human Cloning! Le capitaine rhodanien s'essaie du coup à une frappe croisée à ras de terre qu'Areola capte sans souci devant sa ligne de but. Sevré de ballons en pointe, Ljuboja est du coup obligé de souvent venir aider ses partenaires à la récupération du ballon. What For A Research Paper! Chavarria prend provisoirement sa place en attaque. La rencontre a de nouveau trouvé son rythme de croisère. Reports For Students! Lens se montre enfin incisif et Lyon ne cherche pas pour autant à reculer dans cette seconde période. Gomis est trouvé dans la surface lensoise, côté gauche. On Notecards Research Paper! L'attaquant voit Briand au niveau du point de penalty mais son centre à ras de terre est repoussé au loin par Areola ! Sur un corner frappé côté droit, Chavarria est trouvé au second poteau et place une puissante tête piquée que Vercoutre repousse d'une parade instinctive sur sa ligne de but ! La rencontre est repartie sur un rythme peu élevé. For Act! Les Lensois exercent malgré tout un gros pressing dans l'entrejeu pour essayer de faire le siège de la moitié de terrain adverse. Lens va devoir montrer un tout autre visage en seconde période. What On Notecards Research Paper! Les Artésiens n'ont jamais vraiment réussi à inquiéter Vercoutre durant les 45 premières minutes.

Il n'y a pas eu de changement à la pause, de chaque côté du terrain. C'est reparti entre Lyon et Lens. Lyon s'est rapidement mis à l'abri dans une première période qui a parfaitement débuté avant de rapidement s'essouffler. Student Workshop! Les Lensois sont plus que fébriles en défense et ne sont pas parvenus à mettre en danger l'arrière-garde rhodanienne. Temps additionnel : 1 minute. Carton jaune pour Boulenger suite à un très vilain tacle sur Malbranque. Côté lyonnais, Ferri est parti s'échauffer. Goes For A Paper! Gonalons s'est finalement relevé sans trop de souci.

Valdivia vient lourdement tacler le ballon face à Gonalons mais n'attrape que la cheville du Lyonnais, qui reste au sol. Les Lensois sont volontaires mais ne sont toujours pas vraiment parvenus à inquiéter la défense lyonnaise depuis le début de la rencontre. Énorme double occasion pour l'OL ! Lancé dans la surface, côté droit, Gomis prend sa chance d'un tir croisé des 20 mètres. Paper! Areola repousse d'une très belle parade. Goes Paper! sur Grenier, dont le tir à mi-hauteur est dévié par la tête de Yahia ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Yahia est trouvé au niveau du point de penalty et place une puissante déviation de la tête qui passe juste au-dessus de la transversale de Vercoutre. Student! Il y avait faute finalement de Yahia sur Koné sur son duel aérien. D'ailleurs, la rencontre a nettement perdu de son intensité depuis un gros quart d'heure.

Les formations se neutralisent sans réelle envie dans l'entrejeu. Sur son banc de touche, Rémi Garde se plaint du faux rythme donné par ses joueurs à cette rencontre. What Goes On Notecards For A! L'entraîneur rhodanien souhaite très rapidement que sa formation double la mise. La rencontre s'équilibre quelque peu. Plate! Lens tente enfin de poser le pied sur le ballon tandis que le pressing lyonnais se fait moins insistant. Umtiti grimace après avoir pris une grosse semelle sur le pied. What Goes On Notecards Research! Le Lyonnais se relève finalement sans trop de souci et reprend sa place en charnière centrale. Lyon continue de presser très haut pour gêner la relance adverse. Paper! Les Nordistes éprouvent de grosses difficultés à sortir de leur propre moitié de terrain. A noter que Briand en est à 5 buts et 4 passes décisives en 21 matches joués cette saison, toutes compétitions confondues. Du coup, Lens essaie à nouveau d'afficher une certaine sérénité en défense.

C'est l'attaque artésienne qui en pâlit. La défense lensoise montre de gros signes de fébrilité depuis le début de la rencontre. Goes For A Research Paper! Gbamin se fait dévorer sur son côté droit, Landre est souvent mal placé. Gomis est trouvé totalement esseulé dans le dos de la défense lensoise. Reports! L'ancien Stéphanois se présente seul face à Areola et s'essaie finalement à un centre-tir pour Briand complètement raté ! Sur une très belle ouverture plein axe de Grenier, Gomis est lancé dans la profondeur dans la surface. What For A Research Paper! L'attaquant s'essaie à un tir de l'extérieur du pied, à ras de terre, qu'Areola capte en deux temps ! Boulenger s'infiltre sur son côté gauche et adresse un centre au niveau du point de penalty. Human Cloning! Chavarria place une tête piquée que Vercoutre capte sans souci devant sa ligne de but.

Lyon a réussi à convertir son bon début de match en but. On Notecards For A Paper! Auteur d'un bel arrêt sur le tir de Grenier, Areola était bien mal placé sur la tête de Briand. Chavarria s'enfonce sur son côté gauche et s'introduit dans la surface de réparation adverse. Human Cloning Wrong! Le Lensois s'essaie à un centre en retrait, à ras de terre, que Vercoutre repousse du poing devant Ljuboja, tout proche de marquer à bout portant ! But de Briand ! Miguel Lopes s'infiltre sur son côté droit, sans être attaqué. Goes On Notecards For A Paper! Le Portugais adresse un centre enroulé au second poteau où Briand profite de la mauvaise sortie d'Areola pour ouvrir le score d'une tête piquée ! Sur la gauche de la surface adverse, Grenier réalise un petit festival et parvient finalement à repiquer dans l'axe pour armer un tir croisé qu'Areola repousse sur sa ligne d'une magnifique parade ! La pluie a cessé depuis quelques instants et les conditions de jeu devraient permettre aux joueurs d'évoluer plus sereinement sur la pelouse si cette météo perdure. Rapidement, les Rhodaniens ont posé le pied sur le ballon. Paper Plate! Lens reste sur la défensive et ne veut surtout pas prendre de risque en défense. Chaque formation évolue sous ses traditionnelles couleurs : tout de blanc vêtu pour l'OL, sang et or pour le RCL.

Gerland est loin d'afficher complet pour la venue de Lens. Goes On Notecards! Les conditions de jeu sont compliquées, il fait froid et il pleut sur Lyon ce soir. Student Dissertation Workshop! La pelouse risque de rapidement se dégrader. Monsieur Turpin siffle le coup d'envoi de la rencontre ! Ce match s'annonce donc particulièrement disputé et engagé. For A Paper! Lens voudra créer la surprise tandis que l'OL rêve de rejoindre Monaco en quarts de finale. Lens est à la lutte pour la montée en Ligue 1 cette saison. Essay Human Cloning Wrong! Les Artésiens voient évidemment cette Coupe de France comme un énorme bonus à décrocher, même si cela s'annonce compliqué sur la pelouse rhodanienne.

Très en forme depuis le début de l'année, la formation lyonnaise poursuit sa bonne série en Championnat et peut encore rêver de faire le doublé Coupe de la Ligue - Coupe de France. Bienvenue à Gerland pour ce dernier 8e de finale de la Coupe de France opposant Lyon à Lens.

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analsis essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. What On Notecards Research Paper? Argument : Writing an essay on what analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about what on notecards for a paper a piece of literature. For Act? This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it.

It is a claim that must be supported by research, specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Student? Is your proposition both arguable and what goes paper, reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of for act your argument would be.

A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by on notecards for a, one of your classmates) is essay is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the goes paper Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by research papers d. lester, her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about goes on notecards for a this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Essay Sociology Is? Your job in the paper is to goes research paper, convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to paper watermelon, use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. What Goes Paper? how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the writing research by james author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the what goes research author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument?

How do they appeal to paper plate watermelon, emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. For A Research? Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the on what sociology is parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end?

What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of what goes research paper ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of plate watermelon meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other?

Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of what goes literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to written, support your argument. This means that you must quote and what goes, interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Essay Wrong? Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Goes? Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an watermelon essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an what goes for a autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc.

Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an reports essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is what for a research not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is research papers by james non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Goes On Notecards Paper? Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in plate watermelon length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in what goes paper the air at once. Essay Cloning? Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis.

Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in what goes for a the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and student, then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to what goes paper, prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of student dissertation workshop what is being said and what goes on notecards, how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Paper Plate? Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text?

Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an goes on notecards for a research paper idea of what the paragraph is going to written reports for students, say and what for a research, how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to student dissertation, say about the materials than what the what goes on notecards research paper author him or herself has said. Research? Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of what goes paper all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of student dissertation structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an what on notecards paper argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas.

The order of essay on what is your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is what goes research always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of cloning wrong what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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Columbia Business School 2018-20 MBA Admissions Essays – Questions behind the Questions. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. Vince messy notes. Columbia Business School 2016 MBA (Class of 2018) Essays.

Instructions: In addition to learning about your professional aspirations, the Admissions Committee hopes to gain an understanding of your interests, values and motivations through these essays. What Goes On Notecards! There are no right or wrong answers and we encourage you to answer each question thoughtfully. The “What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal?” question, Essay. Goal short answer (50 chars) Essay 1 (500 words), Essay 2 (250 words) and Essay 3 (250 words) are all required. Please watch these videos, and then read the reports for students tips below. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters or less)

Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (500 words or less) Columbia Business School’s location enables us to bridge theory and practice in what on notecards for a research multiple ways: through Master Classes, internships, the essay on what sociology is New York Immersion Seminars and, most importantly, through a combination of distinguished research faculty and accomplished practitioners. How will you take advantage of being “at the for a paper very center of business”? (250 words) CBS Matters, a key element of the School’s culture, allows the people in your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about you?” (250 words or less) For reference: What Matters to You Most? | Columbia Business School Video ? http://www7.gsb.columbia.edu/video/v/node/4407/video. Is there any further information that you wish to provide the written for students Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. (500 words or less) Information is subject to change.

Please verify all data with the for a research schools. Essay Questions behind the Questions. Goal short answer. What is written for students, your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters or less) QUESTIONS behind the QUESTION. What job do you hope to have in June / July 2018? This is your short-term goal (STG) Most goals fit into one or more of these three categories: vertical move (CEO), horizontal move (career changer), start-up (entrepreneur) 1. Are you trying to what on notecards, move up in your current industry? (vertical move) Move towards a C-suite office (CEO, CFO, COO, CTO, CIO, etc.)

2. Are you trying to change your career? (horizontal move) Go into paper plate, financial services Go into on notecards for a research paper, consulting Go into consumer goods / marketing Go into technology Go into media / entertainment Go into non-profit / social ventures. 3. Are you trying to join or launch a start-up? (entrepreneur) Are you thinking of joining a start-up? Are you thinking of creating a new business by yourself or with others? Which of essay sociology, these three are you pursuing? Are you ambitious yet realistic?

If you are seen as a triple jumper, you might be too ambitious A triple jumper expects to change country, industry and function Meanwhile, if you are writing that you plan to return to your current job, then you are probably too realistic. Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (500 words or less) QUESTIONS behind the QUESTION. What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? This question asks for a gap analysis. Without MBA, why can’t you pursue the immediate post-MBA professional goal you explained (in 50 characters or less)? A good long-term goal represents the next logical step after you achieve your short-term goals. Goes For A Research! For instance, if you plan to spend a few years in management consulting, then it might make sense to move into a management role at a leading company in your coverage area.

Doing so would allow you to utilize the expert knowledge and skills, as well as the professional relationships that you established during your consulting career. Most long-term goals can be simplified to fit one of two paths. Lead an existing organization as a C-level executive role such as CEO, CFO, COO, CTO, CIO, etc. 2. The Entrepreneur Path. Join or create a new organization as an entrepreneur. How does an MBA best prepare you to paper plate, transition from your short-term goal to your C-level executive role? A future CEO might be trying to use an for a research paper MBA to help transition. from specialist to reports for students, generalist. from tactician to strategist.

from problem solver to problem finder. If you plan to lead a large organization, you need to know how to. scale a business. hire the right people. drive growth to match market conditions.

2. The Entrepreneur Path. How does an MBA best prepare you to start a company? If you plan to create a company, you should know how to. identify and capture opportunities. create products and services that reflect market conditions and on notecards for a research, excite customers. Bottom line: Perhaps you could reach a C-suite office or create a company without business school. Still, earning your Columbia MBA accelerates your progress and maximizes your potential. NOTE: Columbia does not specifically ask why you want an MBA, but I encourage you to think about it. First, why are you NOT pursuing a specialized masters (Masters in essay sociology Finance, Master in Technology) or a Ph.D.? Most importantly, how does an MBA best prepare you to build the skills you need?

For example, you might need: technical knowledge of finance and accounting. analytical skills, including corporate strategy, strategic planning (long-term thinking) interpersonal skills to motivate experts in goes research finance, accounting, sales, marketing, engineering, and for act test, operations. Clients sometimes ask me to explain the difference between technical skills and analytical skills. Here is my answer: Technical knowledge and skills is the type of knowledge you need to what goes on notecards for a research paper, understand a task. For instance, the accounting knowledge you need to essay, understand what auditors do.

According to NYTimes columnist David Brooks, Technical knowledge is like the recipes in a cookbook. It is formulas telling you roughly what is to be done. It is reducible to rules and directions. It's the sort of knowledge that can be captured in lectures and bullet points and memorized by what goes on notecards, rote. (found at http://mobile.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/opinion/Brooks-The-Practical-University.xml?f=76; accessed 2013/04) Analytical skills sometimes involve technical knowledge (finance and and accounting knowledge) but they are often more complex and more sophisticated than technical skills. On What Is! Sometimes, they require creativity and intuition. What Goes For A Paper! For example, strategy consultants display analytical skills when they form (and test) a business hypothesis. Business schools teach technical skills like finance and accounting so that students can apply these skills when analyzing business cases. What professors or programs best prepare you to research papers by james d. lester, achieve your short and long term goals? Can you define Columbia's unique student culture in your own words?

Can you mention the names of students and alumni? Who do you know? What did you discuss with them? How did those discussions confirm and deepen your insights into the Columbia MBA experience? How do the people you know embody Columbia MBA? Can you find something in what on notecards for a research their personality that matches yours? Perhaps it is essay human cloning wrong, something about their sense of humor. Or their way of solving problems. Or their way of communicating and what for a research paper, collaborating with teams.

How did Columbia MBA change them? Why do you want to experience a similar transformation? Need help brainstorming? My Columbia MBA links are here ? https://delicious.com/admissions/Columbia. Is there any further information that you wish to provide the on what sociology is Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to provide an explanation of what goes for a research paper, any areas of concern in plate your academic record or your personal history. (500 words or less)

All first-time applications require two recommendations. Reapplicants are required to submit one new recommendation. If you have been working full-time for at least six months, one recommendation should be from your current supervisor. The second recommendation should be from what on notecards research either a former direct supervisor or from another professional associate, senior to you, who can share their insights on essay your candidacy. If you are a college senior or have worked full-time for fewer than six months, at least one, but preferably both, of your recommendations should be from a person who can comment on your managerial abilities. You may ask a summer employer or another person whom you feel can objectively assess your professional promise. The second recommendation may be from a college professor. We ask recommenders to consider the following guidelines when writing their recommendations: How do the candidate's performance, potential, background, or personal qualities compare to on notecards for a paper, those of other well-qualified individuals in similar roles? Please provide specific examples. On What Sociology! Please describe the most important piece of constructive feedback you have given the applicant.

Please detail the circumstances and the applicant's response. Please be aware: The Admissions Committee requires that all application materials be submitted online, including recommendations. Please limit your recommendation to 1,000 words. (found at http://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/programs-admissions/mba/admissions/application-requirements#5; accessed 2014/05) International students who do not have a degree from an institution in which all instruction is what, conducted in English must take either the sociology is TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) or the goes on notecards for a PTE (Pearson Test of plate, English). You may be exempted from the TOEFL or the PTE only if you have earned a degree from an goes on notecards for a paper institution in which English is the language of instruction. We will not accept requests for exceptions to reports, this policy. The TOEFL and PTE scores are valid for two years. Your TOEFL or PTE score must be valid when you submit your application. Be sure to self-report your TOEFL or PTE score when completing your application.

If admitted, you must submit an on notecards for a official score report. For the essay test TOEFL, Columbia’s ETS code is goes paper, 2174, MBA department code 02. For the student PTE select Columbia Business School from the list of schools provided by Pearson. The Admissions Committee will consider only your highest score when reviewing your application. (found at http://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/programs-admissions/mba/admissions/application-requirements#5; accessed 2014/05) Applicants must complete one short answer question and goes on notecards for a, three essays.

Short Answer Question: What is plate, your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (100 characters maximum) Essay 1:Given your individual background, why are you pursuing a Columbia MBA at this time? (Maximum 500 words) Essay 2: Columbia Business School is located in the heart of the world's business capital - Manhattan. On Notecards Paper! How do you anticipate that New York City will impact your experience at plate Columbia? (Maximum 250 words) Essay 3: What will the people in what your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about workshop, you? (Maximum 250 words) Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the what goes research Admissions Committee? Please use this space to provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. Essay For Act! (Maximum 500 words) Reapplication Essay: How have you enhanced your candidacy since your previous application? Please detail your progress since you last applied and reiterate how you plan to achieve your immediate and long term post-MBA professional goals. (Maximum 500 words). (found at https://apply.gsb.columbia.edu/apply; accessed 2013/06)

LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION QUESTIONS. We ask recommenders to consider the following guidelines when writing their recommendations: Your relationship to goes, the applicant. The applicant’s performance. Strengths and essay test, weaknesses of the applicant. Goes For A Research Paper! The applicant’s interpersonal skills. The applicant’s written and spoken communication skills. How does the plate applicant accept constructive criticism or handle conflicts?

How effective are the applicant’s interpersonal skills in for a paper the workplace? The most important thing you would like the Admissions Committee to know. (found at https://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/admissions/applynow/apprequirements#recommendations; accessed 2013/06) Short Answer Question: post-MBA goal in 100 characters. Emphasize clarity and concision. Minimize risk of writing by james, Admissions Committee readers thinking your plans are unrealistic. Essay 1: why MBA, why now, why CBS? Analyze your career progress. Clarify your vision. Emphasize Columbia's intellectual capital. Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking that you are applying too soon or too late, or that you are only interested in Columbia's location, ranking, network or name.

Essay 2: how will NYC impact your CBS experience? Show and prove your fit with Columbia's community. Identify unique NYC resources that leverage the Columbia MBA alumni network. Identify Master Classes and Executives in Residence that best prepare you to what on notecards for a research, achieve your post-MBA goals. Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking you do not understand how Columbia utilizes NYC as a classroom and reports for students, business incubator. Essay 3: surprise your Cluster peers.

QbQ: Do I want you at my party? Good party guests differentiate themselves without alienating others. You are unlikely to surprise Amanda and her team by goes for a research, telling them something they have never heard before. Instead, surprise your readers by papers d. lester, sharing something about what goes on notecards research, you that they would not otherwise guess. Or, simply tell an entertaining story that shows your unique experience. Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking you do not understand Columbia Clusters and community. Optional Essay: explain areas of concern (academic or personal) Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking you lack judgment.

Reapplication Essay: how you have enhanced your candidacy. Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking you lack self awareness and drive. Minimize risk of Admissions Committee readers thinking you lack judgment in human cloning wrong choosing recommenders who cannot answer the questions asked, or, worst of all, that you wrote your own recommendations. Instructions: Please submit two recommendations from individuals who can speak directly about what on notecards for a research, your managerial ability and writing research by james d. lester, professional promise. The Admissions Committee prefers that one recommendation be from on notecards for a paper your direct supervisor. If you are unable to secure a recommendation from your direct supervisor, please submit a statement of explanation in essay for act the Employment section of your application. The other recommendation should be from goes on notecards paper a former supervisor, if possible, or another professional associate who is essay human, senior to on notecards research, you. If you are a college senior or have worked full-time for less than six months, at least one, but preferably both, of your recommendations should be from an individual who can comment on your managerial abilities, such as a summer employer or another individual who you feel can objectively assess your professional promise. The second recommendation may be from a college professor. Please note those who are reapplying to Columbia Business School are required to human, submit one additional recommendation. This recommendation must be from a recommender that you did not use in your previous application.

Applications are not considered complete until all required information is what goes paper, submitted; this includes recommendations. All applications require two recommendations. Writing By James D. Lester! If you have been working full-time for at paper least six months, one recommendation should be from your current supervisor. The second recommendation should be from for students either a former direct supervisor or from another professional associate, senior to you, who can add personal insight into your candidacy. If you are a college senior or have worked full-time for what on notecards for a research paper less than six months, at least one, but preferably both, of your recommendations should be from a person who can comment on for students your managerial abilities. You may ask a summer employer or another person who you feel can objectively assess your professional promise. Goes For A Paper! The second recommendation may be from student a college professor. We ask recommenders to consider the following guidelines when writing their recommendations: Your relationship to what goes on notecards research, the applicant. The applicant’s performance. Strengths and weaknesses of the applicant.

The applicant’s interpersonal skills. Plate! The applicant’s written and spoken communication skills. How does the what on notecards for a research applicant accept constructive criticism or handle conflicts? How effective are the writing applicant’s interpersonal skills in the workplace? The most important thing you would like the Admissions Committee to know. Please be aware, the Admissions Committee does require all application materials be submitted online, including recommendations. (found at https://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/admissions/applynow/apprequirements#recommendations; accessed 2013/06) Applicants must complete one short answer question and three essays. Essay 2: how NYC will impact your CBS experience?

Columbia Business School is goes on notecards, located in the heart of the world's business capital - Manhattan. For Students! How do you anticipate that New York City will impact your experience at Columbia? (Maximum 250 words) Please view the videos below: Video 1 of 2: New York City - limitless possibilities. Columbia Business School isn’t just located in New York — it’s enmeshed in it. From practitioners who double as professors to events with industry-leading CEOs and goes on notecards research, field trips to cloning wrong, blue-chip companies and start-ups alike, Columbia leverages its relationship with the city to give students unparalleled access to what for a, one of the world’s business capitals. Video 2 of 2: Campus and New York City - fast paced and adaptable.

Columbia Business School isn’t just located in writing d. lester New York — it’s enmeshed in it. From practitioners who double as professors to events with industry-leading CEOs and field trips to blue-chip companies and start-ups alike, Columbia leverages its relationship with the city to give students unparalleled access to one of the hubs for global business. An Oasis in the City. Nestled between Riverside and Morningside Parks, and a short walk from what goes for a paper Central Park, Columbia’s campus in Morningside Heights is a sanctuary within the hustle and plate watermelon, bustle of Manhattan. Featuring Italian Renaissance–style architecture alongside cutting-edge modern buildings, sprawling plazas, lush lawns, and notable public art, the campus evokes a palpable sense of community. The neighborhood has the ambience of a college town but the convenience of a major city, with shops, restaurants, a farmer’s market, and — most importantly — a subway station that can transport you to the cultural and goes for a, economic capital of the world.

THE QUESTION BEHIND THE QUESTION. Bottom line: Will you attend CBS if we admit you? What business opportunities have you identified that you can best capture by studying at student workshop Columbia Business School? What community and social opportunities have you identified that you can best capture by what research paper, studying at for act test Columbia Business School? Do you understand the goes on notecards for a research Columbia Business School community? Please start by learning as much as you can about life at Columbia: There are more than 100 active student organizations at Columbia Business School, ranging from essay cloning cultural to goes research paper, professional to human, athletic tocommunity service–oriented. Together, they host more than 100 events every week, with many held during the School’s dedicated “Club Time” from what on notecards research 12:30 to 2 p.m. every Tuesday and Thursday.

These organizations provide a valuable and stimulating complement to the academic curriculum and human wrong, social environment. Leadership positions within the goes on notecards for a paper clubs also offer hands-on management and networking opportunities for students, and faculty members and alumni frequently get involved as advisers, event moderators, or panelists, while corporations often generously sponsor events. See the list below for a sampling of some of the more popular student organizations at Columbia Business School. Affinity | Community Service | Career and Professional. Social and Athletic | Student Government and for act test, Leadership. Asian Business Association Black Business Students Association Cluster Q Columbia Women in Business Greater China Society Latin American Business Association South Asian Business Association. Community Service Organizations. Community Action Rewards Everyone Financial Education Society Harlem Tutorial Program I-Prep. Career and Professional Clubs. Columbia Investment Management Association Green Business Club Healthcare Industry Association Investment Banking Club Management Consulting Association Marketing Association of Columbia Private Equity and Venture Capital Club Real Estate Association Retail and Luxury Goods Club Social Enterprise Club.

Social and what goes for a research paper, Athletic Groups. Gourmet Club Military in paper plate watermelon Business Association Outdoor Adventure Club Rugby Football Club Wine Society Women’s Touch Rugby World Tour Club. Student Government and Leadership. Bernstein Leadership and Ethics Board Graduate Business Association Honor Board International Student Advisory Board. (found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/organizations; accessed 2013/06) Speakers and Conferences.

The convenience of Columbia Business School’s New York location and what goes on notecards for a, its close ties to the business, nonprofit, and government communities means that students are constantly afforded the opportunity to hear from the very leaders who are actively shaping the business landscape. Many professors invite practitioners to guest-teach a class session, while other leaders address larger groups of students at on-campus events organized by student clubs, research centers, and regular speaker series such as the Silfen Leadership Series, the Nand and test, Jeet Khemka Distinguished Speaker Forum, the Sir Gordon Wu Distinguished Speaker Forum, the for a paper Montrone Seminar Series on test Ethics, and more. Conferences led by student clubs also attract well-known guest speakers, participants, and goes research paper, alumni from across industries and around the essay human cloning world, providing students with greater insights into the current business environment. These conferences are entirely student run and give club members the opportunity to what goes on notecards research, build industry connections while applying the essay for act management skills they learn in goes on notecards for a research paper the classroom. Some of the larger student conferences include: Black Business Student Association Conference Columbia Investment Management Association Conference Columbia Women in Business Conference Healthcare Conference India Business Conference Marketing Association of Columbia Conference Media Management Association Conference Private Equity and Venture Capital Conference Retail and Luxury Goods Conference Social Enterprise Conference. (found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/speakers; accessed 2013/06) Diversity at test Columbia. Student collaboration that brings together a variety of perspectives and experiences leads to what on notecards research, truly effective learning and leadership development. With this in essay test mind, Columbia Business School is committed to promoting diversity in goes for a research all its forms by for act test, recruiting students from an for a research paper array of writing research by james d. lester, professional backgrounds, socioeconomic upbringings, racial and ethnic identities, and geographic locations. What On Notecards For A Research! Nowhere is this commitment more apparent than in MBA clusters and learning teams, which are designed to bring together students from essay on what a range of backgrounds to help them learn together, both about the what on notecards for a paper material and one another.

The School is constantly finding ways to further promote diversity, particularly through its more than 100 student organizations. These student-led groups provide opportunities throughout the semester for all students to celebrate the many different cultures present at essay human Columbia Business School, and many are also involved in the career recruiting process and student-run conferences. Goes Research Paper! The goal behind clubs affiliated with particular affinity groups is essay on what, not only to provide a network of support for goes for a research paper those students, but also to promote collaboration among clubs across the School. In addition to the fellowships and scholarships designed to paper, foster diversity in the full-time MBA program, the School is also closely affiliated with several national organizations that work to improve the diversity of leaders in the business world. Management Leadership for Tomorrow National Black MBA Association National Society for Hispanic MBAs Riordan Fellows Program Sponsors for Educational Opportunity Ten School Diversity Alliance.

On-Campus Diversity Events. Throughout the year, the Admissions Office hosts recruiting events for what goes on notecards for a research paper underrepresented minorities. Essay For Act! These events, which include Spotlight On: Diversity and on notecards paper, Diversity Connect at Columbia, immerse prospective students in the Columbia Business School community, imparting a holistic understanding of the dynamic academic and paper plate, social environments that exist on campus. (found at what on notecards http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/diversity; accessed 2013/06) Women at Columbia. Columbia Business School strives to lead top MBA programs in reflecting a more equitable gender balance among its population by actively recruiting talented and reports, accomplished female students and faculty members, sponsoring events that address issues relevant to goes on notecards, women in business, and providing on-campus support for recent mothers.

Columbia Women in Business (CWIB) is student dissertation, one of the research most popular and plate, successful student organizations on campus. CWIB hosts a series of events each semester specifically geared toward further strengthening the role of women in the business world, building connections with female alumni, and facilitating career recruiting in a range of what goes, industries. The annual Columbia Women in Business Conference, run entirely by students, attracts high-profile women speakers and essay on what, industry insiders to what goes on notecards for a research, discuss the various paths to dissertation, success taken by women business leaders. Columbia Business School is proud to on notecards paper, partner with organizations both on and off campus that are devoted to supporting women in business. Forte Foundation 85 Broads 10,000 Women Initiative Office of Work/Life. The Admissions Office hosts two annual recruiting events designed for paper plate watermelon female applicants, Spotlight On: Women and goes, Women Connect at Columbia, where prospective students have the chance to essay, visit campus to meet current women students, alumni, and faculty members, discuss issues unique to women in business, and learn more about the experience for women at Columbia Business School. (found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/women; accessed 2013/06) LGBT at Columbia. Located in the heart of New York City, Columbia Business School prides itself on being an what for a research paper open and papers, welcoming community for on notecards for a paper many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and watermelon, transgender (LGBT) students, faculty members, and what goes on notecards, administrators.

The School’s population of LGBT students cuts across geography, experience, ethnicity, and essay human wrong, gender to create one of the largest and most diverse LGBT groups among the world’s top business schools. In addition, Columbia Business School has the largest representation of straight allies among all business schools, and the School’s relationship with New York City affords LGBT students powerful networking opportunities and an extensive LGBT community. Cluster Q, Columbia Business School’s LGBT student organization, has grown in goes on notecards for a paper membership for four consecutive years. The club provides a strong network for LGBT students within the School, as well as with alumni, recruiters, and students from across Columbia University. Cluster Q organizes a variety of social and career-oriented events throughout the paper watermelon year, helping to foster the LGBT community on campus and develop relationships with recruiters. Cluster Q maintains relationships with many top firms – from finance to consulting to brand management – who actively recruit members of the Columbia Business School LGBT community . Columbia Business School encourages students to network with their peers from goes on notecards for a research other business schools. Each year, Cluster Q sends a large cohort of students to Reaching Out MBA, an LGBT-specific MBA career and human cloning, networking conference. The Admissions Office also actively participates in CHecK uS Out, a multi-school admissions event for what goes on notecards paper LGBT prospective students organized by Columbia, Harvard, Kellogg, and Stanford that takes place in New York City and San Francisco each fall. Each year the Admissions Office hosts LGBT Connect, an on-campus admissions event geared towards prospective LGBT students. This event gives prospective students the opportunity to visit campus and meet admissions officers, current LGBT students, and LGBT alumni.

(found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/lgbt; accessed 2013/06) Veterans at Columbia. The Military in Business Association (MIBA), Columbia Business School’s veteran student organization, has continually grown in membership as the veteran presence within the School community has increased. MIBA provides an incredibly strong network for veteran students within Columbia Business School, as well as with alumni, recruiters, and students from across the University. Members come from all branches of the reports armed forces within the United States and internationally. What Goes On Notecards For A Paper! By leveraging the experiences of current and human wrong, former members, MIBA seeks — through camaraderie, support, and networking — to enhance the career success of all those with a connection to the Columbia Business School military community. MIBA organizes a variety of social and goes research, career-oriented events throughout the year, strengthening the veteran community on plate watermelon campus and cultivating relationships with recruiters.

MIBA also organizes events with current and former high-ranking military leaders such as former US Army Chief of Staff General George Casey and former Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman Jr. In addition, MIBA has also sponsored student-wide happy hours, raised over $6,500 for what goes on notecards for a paper Survivor Joe (an organization that supports currently deployed service members), and co-sponsored a successful social event with Cluster Q (Columbia Business School’s LGBT student organization) that raised over $3,000 in donations for The Trevor Project and Team RWB. MIBA also maintains close relationships with many recruiters from top firms — from finance to consulting to student, brand management — who actively recruit MIBA members of the Columbia Business School veteran community. The Admissions Office actively participates in several organizations related to what goes, veteran recruitment, including the Yellow Ribbon Program. In addition, a MIBA member attends the essay for act annual Service Academy Career Conference in Washington DC in what for a research paper order to speak with prospective students about Columbia Business School. MIBA and the Admissions Office host an annual Fleet Week event for prospective students who have served in the armed forces. This event is held during Fleet Week and is open to Fleet Week participants as well as other active or former member of the military. (found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/veterans; accessed 2013/06)

Spouses, Partners, and Families. Starting graduate school can be a big adjustment for paper watermelon anyone, and that includes a student’s spouse, partner, or children — particularly when moving to a new city. While the transition can seem daunting, the Office of Student Affairs is committed to goes for a, helping students and their families alike become part of the Columbia Business School community. In addition to online resources for you and your family, a student-led interest group, Columbia Better Halves, creates venues for essay significant others and families of students to goes for a research paper, meet. Activities include family-friendly events such as Halloween Family Day, playground activities, dinners, cultural excursions, and an important initiative during orientation to paper plate watermelon, better prepare partners for the demands of an MBA education. New York is an exciting place, and it offers plenty to do.

Visit the University’s Exploring New York City for a resource listing to give you a head start on some aspects of life in what goes for a research New York, including museums, neighborhoods, transportation, and more. (found at http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/mba/life/families; accessed 2013/06) Those who prioritize studying in paper watermelon an urban location will prioritize CBS. STORY PATTERN ONE. NYC as business incubator. STORY PATTERN TWO.

NYC as academic and cultural community. fast paced and what research paper, adaptable. Essay 3: surprise your Cluster peers. What will the people in your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (Maximum 250 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. What do you want your future classmates to essay, know about what goes on notecards for a research, you?

What do Columbia MBA students have? What do Columbia MBA students want? Why are you uniquely qualified to research papers by james, add value? Do you understand how CBS Clusters operate? Do I want you at goes on notecards research my party? Do you know our student culture? Why do you best fit Columbia's culture?

Good party guests differentiate themselves without alienating others. You are unlikely to paper watermelon, surprise Amanda and paper, her team by telling them something they have never heard before. Instead, surprise your readers by sharing something about you that they would not otherwise guess. Or, simply tell an entertaining story that shows your unique experiences. STORY PATTERN ONE. Surprise: a hobby or personal interest that Rod and his team would not expect. Someone perceived to written reports, have hard skills shows their soft side (or vice versa)

Steve Jobs calligraphy. IT guy builds banking systems by day, sings in a punk band by night. STORY PATTERN TWO. Travels along the research paper Silk Road. One minute video with original music and photos; bands I joined or co-founed in each place I lived (and what each musical style shows about personality) California hardcore funk. New Orleans jam band block parties at Jazz Fest. New York punk folk duo with spicy tuba. Tokyo virtual 'Second Life' blues band.

Use this story to demonstrate innovation and cloning wrong, creativity. Reapplications to Columbia Business School. Those reapplying more than one year after their previous application should adhere to all the requirements of new applicants. Those reapplying one year or less from the date of their previous application need only on notecards research paper, do the following: Submit a new application fee (US$250). For Act Test! Update the “Personal,” “Family,” “Employment,” “Education,” and goes on notecards for a research paper, “Extracurricular Activities” sections of the online application.

Update the “How Will You Finance Your MBA?” section of the essay for act test online application. Submit transcripts of any additional courses taken since your previous application. Submit one new, two-part essay: A. What! How have you enhanced your candidacy since your previous application? Please detail your progress since you last applied, and address how you plan to achieve your post-MBA and long-term professional goals. Reports For Students! (Maximum of goes research paper, 500 words) B. Please view this video, entitled Community at Columbia. Diverse, tight-knit clusters and carefully selected learning teams are defining features of the first year at Columbia Business School. Along with more than 100 student organizations and countless events each semester, the cluster system helps to create a supportive and devoted lifelong community. Essay Human Wrong! Describe why you are interested in becoming a part of the what goes on notecards for a research paper Columbia community. (Maximum 250 words) Submit one new recommendation letter, preferably from your current employer, but if not, another colleague in a supervisory role or a client will suffice.

Reapplicants with questions should contact the Admissions Office at apply@gsb.columbia.edu or 212-854-1961. Please note that candidates may only writing research, apply once to what for a, a given term of entry.

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Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Time Value of Money. Definitions, Meaning Explained, Usage, Calculated Examples. Updated 2017-10-03 © 2017 Solution Matrix Ltd. Discounted Cash Flow DCF is a cash flow summary adjusted to reflect the time value of money. What Goes For A. With DCF, funds that will flow in or flow out at some time in for students the future are viewed as having less value, today, than an equal amount that flows today. Time value of money concepts are the cornerstone of modern finance. What are Discounted Cash Flow and the Time Value of Money? Discounted cash flow DCF is an application of the time value of for a money conceptthe idea that money to research papers by james be received or paid at what goes on notecards research some time in the future has less value , today, than an equal amount actually received or paid today. The DCF calculation finds the value appropriate todaythe present value for the future cash flow. The term discounting applies because the DCF present value is always lower than the cash flow future value.

In modern finance, time value of money concepts play a central role in decision support and watermelon planning. When investment projections or business case results extend more than a year into the future, professionals trained in finance usually want to see cash flows presented in two forms, with discounting and without discounting. Financial specialists, that is, want to goes on notecards for a research paper see the time value of paper money impact on long-term projections. Two Central Terms: Present Value and Future Value. In discounted cash flow analysis DCF, two time value of money terms are central: Present value ( PV) is what the future cash flow is worth today. On Notecards For A. Future value ( FV ) is the cloning wrong, value that actually flows in or out at the future time.

A $100 cash inflow that will arrive two years from now could, for example, have a present value today of about $95, while its future value is by definition $100. For each cash flow event, the present value is discounted below the what goes research paper, future value, except for cash flow events occurring today, in which case PV = FV ). The longer the time period before an actual cash flow event occurs, the writing d. lester, greater the present value of future money is what goes on notecards for a research paper discounted below its future value. The total discounted value (present value) for test a series of cash flow events across a time period extending into the future is the net present value ( NPV ) of a cash flow stream . DCF can be an important factor when evaluating or comparing investments, action proposals, or purchases. Looking forward in time, the analyst projects cash inflows and outflows (cash flow stream) expected to follow from each of goes for a these. Other things being equal, the action or investment with the larger cash flow NPV is recommended as the plate, better decision. Explaining Time Value of on notecards research Money in Context. Time value of money concepts are easier to understand when explained together. Sections below therefore explain and illustrate discounted cash flow and other time value of money terms in context with related terms from the fields of test business analysis, banking, and finance. Defining, explaining, and measuring cash flow: See the article Cash Flow.

Financial metrics for cash flow analysis: See the article Financial Metrics. Is Time Value of Money Real Value? Why is Time Value Important in what goes paper Finance? When first hearing the written reports, definition of on notecards research paper discounted cash flow, many people understandably react with comments like these: It sounds like fiction or The time value of money cannot refer to real value because DCF does not measure real cash flow or It's an watermelon interesting calculation, but there's no tangible value involved. However, business professionals recognize that the results of discounting calculations do represent real tangible value, readily seen if the time value of goes for a research money concept is stated like this: Having the use of money for a specific period of time has value that is tangible, measurable, and real. Discounted cash flow (DCF) is one application of this concept, while interest paid for a loan is another. With DCF, the discounting lowers the present value PV of future funds below the future value FV of the human, funds for at goes for a paper least three reasons: Opportunity . Sociology. Money you have now could (in principle) be invested now, and gain return or interest between now and the future time. Money you will not have until a future time cannot be used now.

Risk . Money you have now is not at risk. Money expected in the future is less certain. A well known proverb states this principle more colorfully: A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Inflation : A sum you have today will very likely buy more than an equal sum you will not have until years in research paper future. Inflation over time reduces the buying power of money. Value, and Net Present Value. What future money is paper watermelon worth today is called its present value (PV) and what for a research paper what it will be worth in the future when it finally arrives is for students called not surprisingly its future value (FV).

The right to receive a $100 payment one year from now (the future value) might be worth to what goes for a research paper us today $95 (its present value). Present value in on what other words, is discounted below future value. Present Values for what goes research a Cash Flow Stream. When the analysis concerns a series of cash inflows or outflows coming at different future times, the series is workshop called a cash flow stream . Each future cash flow has its own value today (its own present value). The sum of what on notecards research paper these present values is the net present value for the cash flow stream. Consider an investment today of $100, that brings net gains of $100 each year for 6 years.

The future values and present values of these cash flow events might look like this: One 6-Year cash flow stream, as Future Values (FV), and Present Values (PV) at written reports two different discount rates. All three sets of bars represent the same investment cash flow stream. Black bars stand for cash flow figures in on notecards research the currency units when they actually appear in the future (future values). Green and Blue bars are values of the same cash flows now , in present value terms. The net values in the legend show that after five years, the net cash flow expected is $500, but the Net present value ( NPV) today is discounted to something less.

The next section explains the role of discount rate (a percentage) and time periods in determining NPV. Interest Rates and Time Periods in Discounting. The size of the discounting effect depends on two things: the amount of time between now and research papers each future payment (the number of discounting periods) and an interest rate called the discount rate. What Goes Paper. The example shows that: As the student workshop, number of discounting periods between now and the cash arrival increases, the for a research, present value decreases. As the discount rate (interest rate) in the present value calculations increases, the present value decreases. Whether you will or will not calculate present values yourself, your ability to use and written interpret NPV / DCF figures will benefit from a simple understanding of the what on notecards for a research, way that interest rates and discounting periods work together in discounting. If you wish to paper plate skip the next section on periods work mathematics, however, click here to go directly to Choosing a Discount Rate.

Calculations for for a FV, PV, and NPV. Many if not most business people outside of dissertation workshop finance, are unfamiliar with time value of money terms and calculations. What Research. The subject becomes approachable, however, if the explanation begins by writing papers by james d. lester noting that DCF mathematics are very closely related to a subject that is familiar to most people: calculations for interest growth and goes on notecards for a paper compounding. Remember briefly how interest calculations work. The FV formula looks into the future and might ask, for writing papers instance: What is the future value (FV) in one year, of $100 invested today (the PV), at an annual interest rate of 5%? When the FV is more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on what, itself, in essay cloning addition to interest on the original PV.

Compound interest growth is goes research delivered by the exponent in the FV formula, showing the number of periods. Is. What is the future value in five years of $100 invested today at an annual interest rate of 5%?. The same formula can be rearranged to deliver a present value given at the future value and interest rate for what input, as shown at left. Now, the formula starts in the future and looks backwards in time, to today. The formula now asks: What is the value today of human a $100 payment arriving in research one year, using a discount rate of 5%? You should be able to see why PV will decrease if we either (a) increase the interest rate, or (b) increase the human wrong, number of periods before the FV arrives. What is the what for a research, present value of $100 we will receive in 5 years, using a 5% discount rate? When the FV is more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on itself, in addition to interest on the original PV. Compound interest growth is human cloning wrong delivered by the exponent in the FV formula, showing the goes on notecards paper, number of periods.

What is the future value in five years of $100 invested today at an annual interest rate of 5%?. When discounting is paper watermelon applied to a series of cash flow events, a cash flow stream, as illustrated in the graph example above, net present value for the stream is the sum of goes PVs for each FV: Year-end discounting for a stream of n future cash flow events (FVs). Should You Use Mid-Period (or Mid-Year) Discounting? What Difference Does it Make? Finally, note two commonly used variations on the examples shown thus far. The examples above and most textbooks present first the Period-end (or Year-end) discounting. Sociology. Period-end discounting is the more frequently used DCF approach. The approach, moreover, usually turns up as the default approach for goes research spreadsheet and paper watermelon calculator DCF functions.

With the period-end approach, all discounting for a period is applied as though all cash flow occurs on goes for a paper, the last day of the period. When periods are one year in length, of course, the period-end approach is also known as the year-end approach. With year-end discounting, all of the dissertation workshop, period's cash flow is assumed to occur on day 365 of the year. Some financial analysts, however, prefer to what goes on notecards for a research paper assume that cash flows are distributed more or less evenly throughout the reports for students, period. For them, discounting should therefore be applied when the cash actually flows during the period. Calculating present values this way is mathematically equivalent to saying that all cash flow occurs at mid-period. What Goes On Notecards For A Paper. For this reason, this approach is called mid-period discounting. And, of course, the name mid-year discounting applies when periods are one year in length.

What Are the Differences Between the Two Approaches? Period-end discounting is more severe (has a greater discount effect) than mid-period. This is because discounts all of the period's cash flow for paper the full period. You can see how this works mathematically from the formulas in the next section. Under period-end discounting, each FV value in the cash flow stream is what goes for a research paper divided by a larger discount factor. Formulas for Mid-Period Discounting. The formulas below show NPV calculations for mid-year discounting (upper formula) and for workshop discounting with periods other than one year (lower formula).

The upper NPV formula shows how the what for a paper, present value formula applies for mid-year discounting. And, the lower NPV formula shows the calculation for periods other than one-year. In any case, the business analyst will want to for act find out which of the above discount methods is preferred by what goes on notecards research paper the organization's financial specialists, and why, and follow their practice (unless there is justification for doing otherwise). Working examples of these formulas, along with guidance for spreadsheet implementation and good-practice usage are available in the spreadsheet-based tool Financial Metrics Pro. Choosing the Discount (Interest) Rate. For Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. The analyst will also want to find out from the organization's financial specialists which discount rate the organization uses for discounted cash flow analysis.

Financial officers who have been with an organization for some time, usually develop good reasons for choosing one rate or another as the most appropriate rate for the organization. In private industry, many companies use their own cost of capital (or weighted average cost of writing research capital) as the preferred discount rate. Government organizations typically prescribe a discount rate for use in the organization's planning and decision support calculations. On Notecards For A Paper. In the United States, for instance, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) publishes a quarterly circular with prescribed discount rates for Federal Government use. Financial officers may use a higher discount rate for investments or decisions viewed as risky, and research papers by james d. lester a lower discount rate when expected returns from a proposed action are seen as less risky. The higher rate is viewed as a hedge against risk, because it puts relatively more emphasis (weight) on near-term returns compared to what goes distant future returns. Competing Investment Proposals.

Consider two competing investments in computer equipment. Each calls for an initial cash outlay of $100, and dissertation workshop each returns a total a $200 over the next 5 years making net gain of $100. But the timing of the returns is different, as shown in the table below (Case Alpha and Case Beta), and therefore the present value of each year’s return is different. The sum of what goes on notecards each investment’s present values is called the discounted cash flow(DCF) or net present value (NPV). Using a 10% discount rate again, we find: Comparing the two investments, the writing research papers, larger early returns in Case Alpha lead to goes on notecards paper a better net present value (NPV) than the later large return in Case Beta.

Note especially the Total line for each present value column in the table. This total is the net present value (NPV) of each cash flow stream. When choosing alternative investments or actions, other things being equal, the one with the higher NPV is the better investment. Used in Business Case Analysis? In brief, an NPV / DCF view of the cash flow stream should probably appear with a business case summary when: The business case deals with an research papers investment scenario of any kind, in which different uses for money are being compared. The business case covers long periods of time (two or more years). Inflows and outflows change differently over on notecards for a, time (e.g., the largest inflows come at paper a different time from the largest outflows). Two or more alternative cases are being compared and they differ with respect to cash flow timing within the analysis period. For a working spreadsheet example of goes on notecards research paper discounted cash flow calculations more in-depth coverage of discounted cash flow usage, please see Financial Metrics Pro.

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