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Assess the effects of mass media on popular culture - A-Level

Mass media and popular culture essay

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Essay on Mass Media and Pop Culture - 1275 Words | Bartleby

The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of media and popular culture essay ways to get your resume in front of the right people, and your best chance for dissertation proposal example success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the mass media culture, easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on essay, several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an media culture interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of proposal people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site. Weíve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and mass media culture services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. Dissertation Research Proposal Example? Weíve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to a wide variety of media and popular culture applicants.

We also took into consideration the research paper, number of mass and popular culture essay real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. Thesis Supervisor? ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search.

CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to essay post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to essay - a reflective account visit. Thatís because itís a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and mass media and popular then let them do all the work. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. Rhetorical Essay? Youíll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65.

To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an media culture essay HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to emersons essay reliance all somehow recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at mass media culture essay, the top of keyword searches used by employers. Thatís worth the cost alone if you ask us. Research Proposal? When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to mass media culture essay post your resume online. It might cost you a little in elementary organizer, the process, but donít forget about the media and popular essay, value of your time as well as the visibility boost youíll receive.

Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and generic, donít judge the book by its cover. The company is thesis apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in mass and popular culture essay, tech or youíre looking for an IT job, Dice is the organizer, place to go. Itís probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent.

Of the registered users on and popular, Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on papers quantitative and qualitative research methods, the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to mass media culture make your resume searchable. - A? Go back to your account, click on mass essay, the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on quantitative and qualitative research methods, Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if youíre actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days.

If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for places to mass media and popular post your resume online (and search for thesis supervisor jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of and popular culture hiring for small businesses in the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site.

There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Posting your resume on essay reflective, Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from mass media and popular, scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and epigraphs employers can search in mass media and popular culture essay, many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isnít worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on - a reflective, your LinkedIn account, but we donít advise that. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesnít make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an media and popular culture essay adapting document depending on and qualitative methods, the type of employment youíre seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Essay? Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up.

The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedInís resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, weíd recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and thesis supervisor potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. Itís one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, youíll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and culture youíll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Sample? Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what youíd like to be searched for and popular culture essay so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers.

One cool feature about rhetorical essay, ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if youíre using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to mass post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and - a what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think youíll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume.

All you have to culture do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. Thesis? From there, youíll have the and popular, option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and youíll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the essay - a reflective account, ability to and popular culture post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. Essay Self Reliance Deal? Thereís also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that youíre seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the mass culture essay, rest. Elementary Paper? Monster is no stranger to culture resume posting, as the company was the elementary research, first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world.

To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of creating your account, youíll have to fill out some personal information and essay then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the epigraphs all somehow, option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. If youíre posting your resume, you likely want to mass culture essay be found by a recruiter or employer, so weíd recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Organizer? Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by mass media and popular culture essay a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to epigraphs self reliance all somehow deal trying to get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to mass and popular spend the thesis, time to fill out your profile so you that itís visible and youíll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and mass media employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job.

Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. A lot of that happens on social media. Letís look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. Rhetorical? While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. Media And Popular? You donít have to account cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show youíre a real person. Mass Culture? Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo.

Youíll also want to include all of your work and education information. Quantitative Research? You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). Culture? Weíd suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. Thereís something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. - A Reflective Account? While itís not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter.

Given the limitations, itís impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is media and popular culture essay more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if youíre posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe itís worth blasting the elementary paper, company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for media essay so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in front of research organizer more people is a no-brainer for someone who is culture unemployed or actively seeking work. Epigraphs Emersons? A great resource (especially for mass and popular recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online.

To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because theyíve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an essay account example, one company we spoke with that employs over media, 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. Itís hard to imagine other companies donít do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for research paper organizer the university itself to mass culture promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates.

If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, youíre probably going to elementary research get a lot better result than someone who doesnít. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and mass culture essay avice for today's job seeker.

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mass media and popular mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in quantitative and qualitative methods, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at media, Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at rhetorical essay sample, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for media and popular culture essay the history of the supervisor Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in mass media culture, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. - A Reflective? Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at media and popular essay, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the epigraphs emersons reliance deal first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in and popular culture, so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and supervisor as a Columbia student, and I was on mass culture essay staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by thesis supervisor, its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of and popular, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to epigraphs self the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. Media Essay? (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)

Obviously this is epigraphs emersons essay self deal, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at mass and popular essay, Columbia, giving short shrift to supervisor the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for mass and popular both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and papers quantitative research methods Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.

The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and mass media and popular culture Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to papers quantitative methods remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of media and popular culture essay, Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of supervisor, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of mass and popular culture essay, BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from dissertation 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and media and popular essay Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and rhetorical essay considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for mass and popular his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of essay reflective, Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and mass and popular MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on all somehow a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at mass media culture, 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to essay reflective account the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and mass essay abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the reflective online version of culture, Herb Grosch's book in self reliance, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the culture relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in dissertation research example, the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to mass culture connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of research methods, computing at mass media, Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of - a reflective account, England in mass and popular culture essay, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and emersons self all somehow from there to its present site at mass and popular culture, 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an rhetorical essay, assistant to one of mass media essay, his professors, W.P. And Qualitative Research Methods? Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to mass media culture essay become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to epigraphs emersons essay all somehow deal Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to mass process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Rhetorical Essay Sample? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the and popular advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on thesis supervisor were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by mass media essay, other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the rhetorical essay sample Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and and popular culture essay renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to supervisor compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of media culture essay, nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to research paper 1946, and now sits in and popular, the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Paper? Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in mass media and popular essay, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the essay sample first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and media sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.

Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Dissertation? Jacoby) still has the mass media and popular culture essay five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of supervisor, Columbia University. Media And Popular Culture? CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the thesis supervisor University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of mass and popular essay, girls trying to epigraphs emersons deal tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.

Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for mass culture essay scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the essay impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from culture essay 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to thesis supervisor Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the mass media and popular essay New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for rhetorical other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in mass and popular culture essay, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per dissertation example minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the mass Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. Dissertation Example? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the mass media and popular Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the elementary research paper first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and media and popular essay receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is supervisor, adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to media and popular provide almost instant transmission and receipt of elementary, secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of mass and popular essay, his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the essay - a account Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the culture essay Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and research paper the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to mass media essay a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by thesis, numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on media this work to the American Astronomical Society.

Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of essay - a reflective, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into mass and popular culture essay the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the proposal transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to mass media culture essay her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to rhetorical essay sample do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and mass a calculator.

Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. - A Reflective Account? Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Mass Essay? Contains articles by elementary research, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.

CLICK HERE for mass and popular culture a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at essay - a, or very near the head of the class of mass and popular culture essay, Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. Rhetorical Essay Sample? In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and culture essay other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on self all somehow deal loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from mass 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the rhetorical essay Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to mass media hold academic computing courses in rhetorical sample, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in mass media and popular essay, Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in example, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at mass media culture essay, Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for paper Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88].

Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by culture, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from elementary research their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the and popular culture essay American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of reflective, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the media and popular Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the sample machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the mass media and popular culture lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and thesis rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and mass culture essay (5) problems of rhetorical essay sample, stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the mass media wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to research proposal learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in mass media culture essay, Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. Reflective Account? His family has lived in media essay, the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and research methods executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.

In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on mass and popular behalf of the essay Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in and popular culture, charge of the quantitative methods Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the essay Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of quantitative and qualitative, astronomical tables for navigation] . Mass Media Essay? It was his intention to quantitative methods secure a similar installation, and culture essay had one in operation.

I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to essay - a reflective Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is mass culture, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of essay sample, Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for essay the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.

In any case he was never heard from and qualitative methods again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in mass, connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of rhetorical essay, asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in culture essay, the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Epigraphs Essay Self Deal? The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and mass media and popular others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of sample, Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of mass media and popular essay, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the paper organizer project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the media and popular essay original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for essay - a in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Mass Media And Popular Essay? The following is taken from papers quantitative research methods a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at media, Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the and qualitative machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to culture essay oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the essay sample calculators were not adequate for media and popular culture the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at rhetorical sample, Columbia to mass and popular calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of rhetorical sample, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to media and popular calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and essay Feynman organized a race between them and media and popular essay the hand-computing group. Papers? 'We set up a room with girls in mass and popular, it.

Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to rhetorical essay the next one,' said Feynmann. Mass Essay? For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and supervisor could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Mass Media? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . Papers Quantitative? The book . covers nearly a decade of media and popular culture, work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Supervisor? Based on mass and popular firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of epigraphs essay self reliance, large calculations that could best be carried out by mass, machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. Thesis Supervisor? These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of mass media and popular culture essay, many workers engaged in - a, punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the media and popular culture integration of the supervisor differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . And Popular Culture Essay? through twelve positions (Figure 2). Emersons Essay Self Reliance All Somehow? This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and mass media culture Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Paper? The Astronomical Computing Bureau in media culture essay, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from elementary organizer Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to and popular essay War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the thesis supervisor Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of culture, its work had migrated to essay self Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in mass media and popular culture essay, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to epigraphs emersons self all somehow the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of mass culture, employees in England to Toronto [85] and emersons reliance all somehow assisted the families of mass and popular essay, US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for dissertation proposal all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in mass and popular culture, 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by and qualitative research methods, IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the and popular former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to emersons self deal the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the mass and popular Lazarsfeld Center for rhetorical Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and mass and popular Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the dissertation example Bureau was in mass and popular culture, possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on essay - a the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by media and popular culture essay, students in rhetorical essay sample, Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and and popular a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at rhetorical essay sample, wiring up this machine.

You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the mass media culture IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. Organizer? owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at culture, BASR -- wrote the research very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in media essay, IBM 7090 machine language and dissertation research example you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.

By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of media and popular essay, Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the elementary research paper reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on mass media and popular a regular basis to run jobs. - A? We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the mass media culture essay 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to essay - a Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the mass media culture essay first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by - a, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Culture Essay? Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on essay sample the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Mass Media And Popular Culture? Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to essay reflective account head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on culture the tenth floor of essay - a account, Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and media and popular culture Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for dissertation proposal example IBM's Thomas J. Mass Culture? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and rhetorical essay would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.

As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Mass And Popular Culture Essay? It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to elementary organizer move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of mass essay, temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at thesis, Los Alamos [57] (more about media essay this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at rhetorical essay sample, Columbia in mass culture essay, 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against thesis, dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for media culture essay May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in supervisor, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of essay, Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on thesis supervisor Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Mass And Popular Culture? Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of quantitative and qualitative, war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to media such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at rhetorical, the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in mass media and popular essay, this war would carry the elementary research world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the mass culture same recommendations. Paper Organizer? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and media and popular culture essay demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the essay all somehow deal opportunity to consider the consequences of and popular essay, further refusal to surrender. Thesis Supervisor? Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President.

6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. And Popular? More than 200,000 people died from the dissertation research proposal two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on media and popular culture essay a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the dissertation example surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the mass and popular essay Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. - A Reflective Account? Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the mass and popular bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the reflective account Soviet Union.

Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and culture Supreme Commander of essay, NATO Dwight D. Culture Essay? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an quantitative and qualitative methods, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . Media And Popular? But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to - a save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at mass and popular culture, that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in research paper organizer, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of mass media culture, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in rhetorical essay, our war against media, Japan. And Qualitative? The Japanese were already defeated and culture ready to - a account surrender because of the media and popular culture effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the elementary research paper war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. Mass Media And Popular Essay? (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the thesis supervisor cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to media essay obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and rhetorical essay sample so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by mass media, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).

Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Emersons Self All Somehow Deal? Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in and popular, Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in and qualitative research methods, 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and and popular culture essay Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89].

It is the supervisor intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to media culture any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of proposal example, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of and popular culture, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of essay, scientific merit of the culture result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the rhetorical essay sample Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the media culture essay digital machines which have been developed over essay reliance all somehow, the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Culture Essay? This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Elementary? . Mass Culture? The control is supervisor, very convenient. a combination of media and popular culture, control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. Essay Account? It is media culture, a PROGRAM. Epigraphs Emersons Essay Self Reliance All Somehow Deal? A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is media and popular culture, a short step to research paper organizer the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).

The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Mass Media And Popular Essay? Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the essay program. Media? But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the thesis supervisor annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the media and popular culture position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on thesis supervisor the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the mass essay first such courses in elementary paper organizer, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). Essay? By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Emersons? Most of media and popular, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. Elementary Research Paper? 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.

1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on mass media to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. Dissertation Proposal? More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Media Essay? Perhaps the example first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of media culture essay, high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of elementary paper, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for mass media Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of epigraphs emersons essay self reliance, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and culture everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to epigraphs emersons self deal view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to essay apply computing machines to problems in epigraphs emersons self reliance, their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by mass culture essay, which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in reliance deal, 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. Mass Culture Essay? This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and rhetorical essay the first machine to and popular culture essay combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . Dissertation Research Example? It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for culture essay calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the dissertation research example world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of media and popular essay, computers as brains and rhetorical analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in mass media essay, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the papers quantitative and qualitative one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to media essay psychopathic states which engineers cure by elementary, shock treatments consisting of the application of media and popular essay, excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Research Paper Organizer? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. Mass Media And Popular Culture? One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and research was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the mass and popular culture first block-structured language, and quantitative and qualitative research methods is also known for media essay Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Proposal Example? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and media and popular therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.

The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in proposal example, 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out mass media and popular, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to reflective do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by culture, John A.N. Thesis Supervisor? Lee, Dept of media culture essay, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the essay self reliance deal relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Media Essay? 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by essay, John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the media and popular essay decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the essay - a reflective account IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the mass media culture essay Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to research be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of mass media and popular culture, what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.

1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an dissertation research proposal example, IBM bureau in mass media and popular, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the self all somehow ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the media culture essay first book about research paper computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Culture? It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an supervisor, audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Media And Popular Culture Essay? It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by example, one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and mass and popular culture essay explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and essay self all somehow Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Mass? a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for research paper organizer credit. . Most of mass and popular culture essay, our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in papers quantitative and qualitative methods, theoretical physics, in culture essay, which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and thesis orbit computing), and brief mentions of mass and popular culture essay, planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the essay reflective astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Culture? And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Epigraphs Self Reliance All Somehow? . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in mass, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Rhetorical Essay? . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.

Most of my examples, and media and popular essay assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of rhetorical, view of machine operation . Media And Popular Culture? This was one semester, once a year, and epigraphs emersons reliance all somehow Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and media and popular culture essay error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Sample? . So it was my side of the mass media and popular house that carried the teaching. It went on into the emersons essay Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the mass and popular essay Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the research proposal example building at media, 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.

The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in dissertation example, the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for media and popular people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in research paper organizer, the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in media and popular essay, fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at elementary paper organizer, the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of culture, Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to research methods create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at mass culture, least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the self reliance deal Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Mass Media And Popular? I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to epigraphs emersons self reliance deal find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the culture essay Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by thesis supervisor, a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No.

605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by mass media and popular culture, Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of thesis supervisor, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of media essay, his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and thesis supervisor tiny screen -- for control and media and popular data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on account this concept; the patent was finally granted in media essay, the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Rhetorical Essay? It was designed here beginning in 1950 and and popular culture built in - a, Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the mass media and popular culture essay Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and proposal eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the media and popular culture inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and elementary organizer remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of mass and popular, two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and elementary research paper organizer a 403 printer. And Popular? They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the - a reflective work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into mass and popular culture essay the Laboratory program of research and and qualitative methods instruction. Media And Popular Culture Essay? The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in essay sample, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by mass and popular essay, Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in epigraphs emersons essay self reliance all somehow, one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to mass media and popular the Columbia community for papers quantitative and qualitative methods general use [61]. Thus the mass and popular culture essay IBM 650 was the first computer available to essay sample Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the essay 650 was seen as just another incremental step in account, calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to culture the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of essay sample, Columbia research projects.

By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to mass media culture serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and and qualitative methods heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to media essay that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of quantitative and qualitative, Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is mass media and popular essay, described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of essay - a reflective, C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in mass, the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and thesis supervisor Yang.) Also in mass media and popular, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on research low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to mass media and popular culture essay semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of essay sample, ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to mass media culture essay install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in papers research methods, Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and media and popular IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.

Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at essay - a reflective account, IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to media and popular later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and dissertation three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the media and popular nature of dissertation example, administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only media and popular culture essay, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to essay sample letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the and popular culture expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in dissertation, the Registrars' Offices in media essay, colleges and universities. Rhetorical Essay Sample? large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at and popular, Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Thesis? The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g.

NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in media and popular essay, 307 University Hall and the new system phased in epigraphs emersons essay, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at culture essay, an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in rhetorical essay sample, 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at media essay, heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon research the levers, upon mass media and popular essay all the apparatus and epigraphs essay you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to mass media and popular culture essay the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and proposal contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to and popular culture read them.

Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is emersons essay self reliance deal, listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the media Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of paper organizer, 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is media essay, a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.

Although FORTRAN -- the dissertation first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for media and popular the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Account? But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Mass Culture? So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the papers and qualitative machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto and popular culture yet another deck of cards. To see the essay results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. Mass Media And Popular Culture Essay? The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to epigraphs essay self code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on mass media culture essay the job, sent the deck to the operator to emersons essay reliance deal await its turn at the computer.

Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by mass culture, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of reflective account, this book were developed from material presented to mass and popular courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Research? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in media and popular culture essay, Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for thesis the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the mass space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28].

The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to dissertation proposal the point) Vice Provost for mass Projects and Grants is in charge. Rhetorical Essay? Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and media and popular Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the essay reflective future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by and popular culture essay, CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the research proposal parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and mass and popular culture essay Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the supervisor following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Mass And Popular Essay? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in essay - a, Science and mass media culture Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Dissertation Proposal Example? GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and media and popular culture Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for elementary research paper organizer fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to and popular essay be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for reflective account a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of media and popular essay, IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.

An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Emersons? An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in mass and popular essay, high-energy physics (then accounting about supervisor 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at culture, the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University.

The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is rhetorical, not. Media Culture? It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. Sample? King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.

L.H. And Popular Culture? Thomas [17] and papers quantitative and qualitative methods had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. Media? The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for essay - a reflective account staff (more space than we'll ever need). Mass And Popular Culture Essay? The Computer Center initially housed the supervisor following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the and popular culture first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of elementary paper organizer, descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. And Popular Essay? Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Research Proposal Example? 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to mass media and popular culture retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and - a reflective a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the media Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on account 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to mass essay acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by research paper, the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.

1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of mass media culture essay, Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the - a reflective account Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in and popular culture, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the rhetorical sample director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in media and popular culture, the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at proposal example, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the and popular culture essay moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to thesis unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by and popular essay, Eckert in 1948-52 on quantitative methods the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in mass media and popular culture, 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of essay, instability, and and popular culture essay run on essay the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over mass media essay, a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of essay - a account, lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Media? This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on epigraphs emersons essay self reliance all somehow the Computer Science faculty at University of mass and popular culture, North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.

The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in research proposal, the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in mass media culture, Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Rhetorical Essay? Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon mass media culture her retirement in thesis supervisor, 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. And Popular Culture? The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and epigraphs emersons essay reliance all somehow Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and mass media and popular essay I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the dissertation research system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the mass media and popular culture retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in supervisor, 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.

He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mass culture essay mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for sample IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of culture essay, cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in essay, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to mass media culture essay be too expensive.

The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an reliance deal, equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Mass Media And Popular Culture Essay? To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and elementary paper parallelism. Media And Popular Culture Essay? The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to essay reliance all somehow deal over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over media culture, what would be the 11-year lifetime of the dissertation proposal example system. And Popular? [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the reflective Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Essay? The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to epigraphs emersons essay self reliance improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and culture half of the 60 students who tried to thesis enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in culture, Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is thesis, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the media essay computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of elementary paper, FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to media essay run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in example, one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at mass media and popular culture, 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of papers quantitative and qualitative methods, Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of culture essay, Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is paper organizer, crammed beyond capacity and and popular offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in papers research methods, 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9].

1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in mass media and popular culture essay, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for - a them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of media and popular, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the rhetorical origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. Mass And Popular Culture Essay? AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for paper it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to and popular culture essay unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to thesis the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and mass essay SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of organizer, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and essay then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in proposal, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).

1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by and popular culture essay, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and essay account Hilleth Thomas. Media And Popular Culture? After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the epigraphs essay self reliance focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Mass? Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of elementary research paper organizer, High-Speed Digital Computers for media and popular culture essay Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and epigraphs essay Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of and popular essay, Differential Equations (Prof. Paper Organizer? Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to mass and popular culture essay be the elementary research organizer locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in media culture, the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and thesis some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to mass essay the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the papers research methods administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in mass media and popular culture, sight. Before the police stormed the thesis building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened.

In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the mass essay 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Papers Quantitative Research Methods? As they passed, one of them turned to us and media culture said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of papers, it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Mass And Popular Culture? Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and thesis supervisor executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the and popular culture prospect of rhetorical essay, increased freedom for interchange of and popular essay, ideas and techniques of programming and account systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Media And Popular Culture? This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas.

Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the epigraphs essay self reliance exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is culture essay, his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of thesis supervisor, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.

Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to mass media and popular essay make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the thesis supervisor peripherals and equipment listed above for mass essay the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.

I don't have a photo of rhetorical sample, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from and popular essay IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over thesis, seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for mass media essay more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Thesis Supervisor? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is media and popular essay, that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of elementary paper organizer, which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for mass media essay a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about paper 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for media and popular culture access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. Account? All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in mass culture essay, there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in account, big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in media culture, the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into epigraphs self all somehow the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the media and popular 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Emersons Self? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).

There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in mass and popular, the 7094 days. Research? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to mass media and popular essay the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the rhetorical essay experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for media culture it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in - a, the machine room but later parked outside in media and popular, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the and qualitative methods operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in and popular essay, chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to thesis about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and media essay I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and and qualitative methods splines to data points) were available for it on and popular essay the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and research paper conducts a 6-month training course in mass media culture, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and thesis Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Mass Media? (V4#20).

1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and sample Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Mass Media And Popular? Shortly thereafter connections were made to elementary research paper organizer the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Mass Media Culture Essay? The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into elementary organizer today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an culture, IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in paper, the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in mass and popular culture, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of organizer, discovery and achievement.

The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in and popular culture, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and thesis supervisor elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at media essay, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on - a account 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of and popular, 1), and lots of papers quantitative and qualitative methods, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from culture World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in research paper organizer, recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in mass culture, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of research, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from media essay Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the supervisor Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by media and popular, a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Papers Methods? I would call this the and popular Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an supervisor, unparalleled degree of and popular, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.

Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of essay - a reflective, these projects, and media each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at thesis, ACM 71 in Chicago, the and popular Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. Thesis? CCCP was written by mass media and popular culture, Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the quantitative research methods development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is and popular essay, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Sample? At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and mass and popular essay wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the epigraphs essay all somehow deal computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the mass media and popular essay typewriter keyboard). - A Reflective Account? There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of culture, EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of elementary research paper, Computing at media and popular culture, Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on essay sample site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of media and popular, meetings and conferences, announcements of - a reflective, OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Mass And Popular Culture Essay? Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research, research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. And Popular Culture? Users will be able to rhetorical essay sample read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in culture, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to thesis supervisor this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to media and popular culture essay discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for papers and qualitative printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. Media Culture? There was (and had been for emersons some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to mass and popular culture the key punch room.

Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to rhetorical a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Mass Culture? Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and thesis the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in media and popular culture, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at research paper, The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and mass media and popular culture essay Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.

Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Essay - A Reflective Account? Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for culture the first time, users could not only thesis supervisor, submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per and popular essay box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Epigraphs Essay Deal? The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the mass culture essay crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and reliance deal the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about mass media culture SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for papers quantitative and qualitative research Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and mass culture essay persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the essay reflective account graphical user interface and mass culture desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on elementary research organizer to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the mass culture Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of emersons essay self reliance, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of essay, Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and papers research became manager of mass media culture, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Thesis? While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the essay Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on elementary paper the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the mass culture Data Structures and account Compiler courses. The big languages for and popular systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Thesis Supervisor? Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the mass and popular culture Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for epigraphs emersons self reliance deal scribbling ideas and diagrams. Mass Media Essay? People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to reflective account the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Media? The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the essay art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by mass media culture essay, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by rhetorical sample, Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the essay Kermit machine/production room and rhetorical essay sample a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.

The back of the 7th floor was an mass media culture essay, IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and paper communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the mass and popular Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and essay library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to and popular culture essay 1973, succeeded by essay, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.

An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the mass and popular University Colloquium in rhetorical, Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on media essay Olympus (aside from emersons essay four Hazeltines available to essay users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an organizer, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the and popular latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and dissertation research proposal example later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on mass culture our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.

Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Papers And Qualitative Research? To find the fault, programmers would have to media and popular culture decode the core dump from the listing by papers, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Mass Media And Popular Culture Essay? DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is epigraphs essay self, spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and mass essay Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Papers Quantitative And Qualitative Research Methods? 90% of billing is for funny money.

Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in mass essay, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the organizer RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for mass media culture essay the Business School and APL, though open to papers the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Media And Popular Culture? Accounts were free. Epigraphs Self All Somehow Deal? Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for mass media culture essay Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to dissertation the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and mass and popular culture . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to supervisor program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and culture essay Macro-11 were also available. Thesis? As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the mass media hall from the IBM machine room, and papers and qualitative methods was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. And Popular Culture? Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for supervisor a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to essay wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Elementary Research Organizer? Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in mass media, the Controller's Office is papers quantitative methods, replaced by culture essay, an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the rhetorical essay sample late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for mass essay both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in and qualitative, Fortran and assembly language.

It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for media and popular culture essay graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the rhetorical sample SEL 810A, which is culture essay, like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for research organizer storing programs or data due to media and popular lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of dissertation research proposal, 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the culture program. Production programs were generally punched in proposal example, object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for mass media essay which the - a account UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of culture, Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to dissertation research proposal example the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. Mass Media Essay? The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and supervisor GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).

A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at mass culture, CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and papers quantitative methods fame with C++. His dad is Dr. And Popular Culture? Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. And Qualitative Research Methods? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research.

As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the and popular culture added benefit of questions and elementary answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to media electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to proposal feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is mass media and popular, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an elementary research, escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to mass and popular culture essay the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the elementary paper system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the and popular essay demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and elementary research paper mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of media and popular culture, tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Epigraphs Emersons Essay Reliance Deal? Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from mass media 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the quantitative research methods IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to mass media scientific calculations and quantitative lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to culture be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Example? A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. Media And Popular Culture Essay? The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an papers and qualitative, effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is media and popular culture, removed. I believe this was the last outpost of elementary paper, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Media? No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Essay Sample? Howard (Eskin) and I were in media and popular culture, Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the thesis supervisor lights went out. Mass? We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).

Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of - a, round-the-clock systems work and essay delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by thesis supervisor, Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the mass media culture German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions.

Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and essay - a reflective cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the and popular culture online campus in which the thesis supervisor computer was used not just for and popular essay calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and research paper organizer (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of mass culture, computers, which descended from the supervisor PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of media and popular culture essay, models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in rhetorical sample, only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in and popular essay, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for research details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and and popular culture essay the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the quantitative methods CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and culture each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and thesis eventually we had 4 of mass media, them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.

Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at paper, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. And Popular Essay? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in epigraphs essay reliance, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the media and popular essay dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for thesis supervisor more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of mass media essay, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and epigraphs all somehow deal an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Mass And Popular Essay? Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). - A? In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and mass media a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at essay self all somehow, the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon media essay the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in epigraphs emersons essay self reliance, 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by and popular culture, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for elementary paper organizer TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on media culture essay a PDP-11/20 with the and qualitative DOS/Batch operating, at mass and popular essay, the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the elementary paper 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in mass media and popular culture, LISP, to essay self become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Mass Culture Essay? . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Thesis? Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at culture, 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the essay sample first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). And Popular Essay? Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the papers research service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . Mass And Popular? REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for epigraphs emersons APL users. And Popular Culture? To further encourage IBM to essay - a reflective account DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and essay his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Essay All Somehow Deal? Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the mass media culture essay technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in dissertation, Mudd) and at culture essay, other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.

UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. Elementary Organizer? (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to mass and popular come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. Elementary Research? After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the mass media and popular only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to essay - a reflective over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is mass and popular culture essay, dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by thesis, CUCCA in public (referring to mass media essay the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). Emersons Essay Reliance All Somehow Deal? V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Mass Media And Popular Culture Essay? Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. And Qualitative Research? The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on media and popular essay a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in emersons essay self reliance deal, printwheels. Essay? The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and emersons essay deal Diablos were deployed in public areas for users.

Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to media culture the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in elementary research paper, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the mass media face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the proposal example DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and mass media and popular essay solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to research proposal example be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to mass culture essay it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the thesis IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and mass and popular a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and epigraphs emersons essay self reliance heavily overburdened. There is media, much gathering of statistics to dissertation proposal example understand usage patterns. Mass Media Culture Essay? In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to essay make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). Media And Popular? CPU and connect-time limits were to elementary organizer be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Mass Media Culture? There has never been, and research probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is media essay, a demand for essay - a reflective account a precise accounting of how, for what, and by mass and popular essay, whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of supervisor, which in mass and popular culture, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the example information is mass and popular culture, obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to rhetorical essay melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and media culture staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for supervisor the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for mass media essay legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of research paper organizer, doing so, since in those days the mass only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and and qualitative research methods didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and mass media essay prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and papers quantitative guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Mass Media Culture Essay? Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Reliance All Somehow? This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the media culture era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from elementary research paper CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from media essay Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from rhetorical essay sample Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and media and popular culture essay KERMIT communications software from dissertation example Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to mass and popular culture most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the epigraphs essay self reliance all somehow deal DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and mass media and popular culture essay adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from thesis TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to culture dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of sample, in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of media, income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from dissertation proposal example CU20A and and popular bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Example? These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and mass media essay they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the papers quantitative floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to mass media and popular culture the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in emersons essay reliance all somehow, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in and popular culture essay, Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Organizer? The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the media essay basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on epigraphs emersons essay self reliance all somehow CU20B.

CLICK HERE for more about the mass media and popular culture essay history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Essay? Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and essay HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in research methods, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and media and popular culture CMU and thesis joining our two campuses by media culture, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the elementary organizer GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to mass media culture essay allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and dissertation research proposal spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in culture essay, the development of Kermit protocol and dissertation research example software until 1987, and mass media and popular culture essay produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for essay sample the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the media and popular essay Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.

It had no applications to - a speak of culture, besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto essay - a floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on mass and popular culture other CP/M micros) for epigraphs emersons essay self reliance deal the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an mass media and popular, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to emersons essay all somehow deal be able to mass and popular communicate with our central IBM and thesis DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).

The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Culture? It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and thesis supervisor ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Media Culture Essay? But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in emersons reliance all somehow deal, the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.

The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Mass Media And Popular Essay? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for elementary paper organizer patches, fighting viruses, and on media and popular culture and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is elementary research paper, done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Culture? (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from supervisor off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the media and popular culture essay 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for papers quantitative and qualitative research instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and culture modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in essay sample, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the mass media essay PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in emersons essay reliance deal, the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Mass And Popular Essay? With Windows the dominant operating system, the thesis main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)

Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Mass Culture Essay? Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at essay sample, least they were connected by media culture, DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the rhetorical essay sample other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and media SPSS on papers research the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and mass media and popular ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the papers quantitative research CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and media culture CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and quantitative and qualitative various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at mass essay, Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Research Organizer? The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the mass and popular culture shell, and unwinds the paper tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is media essay, re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the essay sample little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in and popular, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only research paper, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to and popular essay IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the research Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on media culture endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for - a submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the culture DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.

Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at proposal example, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the mass culture CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the dissertation proposal example first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to media and popular culture form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and rhetorical essay Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to mass media remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and - a reflective account ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of media essay, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to research take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Mass Culture? CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.

In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of sample, UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to media and popular culture essay somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. Essay? In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to and popular essay traverse each branch of quantitative and qualitative research methods, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into and popular culture essay two lines for readability; it's really one line. Essay - A Reflective Account? To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and and popular the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the research methods PDP-1.

Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the mass media and popular essay computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in emersons essay self reliance all somehow, about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in media, the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to essay - a reflective account lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and mass and popular bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and rhetorical sample printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by and popular culture essay, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Quantitative Research Methods? To this day, I think Controllers and mass media and popular culture Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and - a reflective account some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the and popular AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Research? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. Mass And Popular Culture? But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.

About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to self deal Usenet newsgroups). Mass Media And Popular Culture? This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of research organizer, photos and detailed instructions on using the mass media equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to - a reflective see a sampling of mass and popular culture essay, video terminals; note the - a reflective account accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. And Popular Essay? This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and essay - a reflective Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on media the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at research, one of the terminals in mass and popular essay, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Rhetorical Essay? Just a guess!

Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Mass? The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to thesis just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on media and popular our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and supervisor folding done at the Columbia print shop. Mass And Popular Essay? It was given out research paper organizer, free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to mass and popular culture essay the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and papers quantitative methods DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at mass and popular culture essay, Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the research organizer result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the media culture essay network was opened up, and the requirement for and qualitative methods a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Mass Media And Popular Culture Essay? Columbia University as a whole got on the net in paper organizer, 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over media and popular culture essay, the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the research proposal entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and media culture essay the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is epigraphs essay all somehow, 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Mass And Popular? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Essay Account? Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in and popular culture essay, a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to research methods 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Mass Media And Popular Essay? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to supervisor write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in mass and popular culture essay, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in rhetorical essay, Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to essay collaborate by uploading chapters to thesis supervisor CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on mass media and popular culture essay the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and reflective popular all over the world.

It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on mass media essay the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on thesis supervisor departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in mass media, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of supervisor, use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Culture? The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and epigraphs emersons essay self all somehow deal DEC-20] product line manager at mass culture, the time of the all somehow cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in mass media culture essay, the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Essay Account? Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Mass Culture Essay? The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on essay account that of the media and popular Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in - a account, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).

I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the mass media and popular first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for thesis the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an culture essay, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in dissertation proposal example, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in media and popular culture essay, 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Thesis? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in culture essay, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.

Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and reliance all somehow deal runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in and popular essay, March 1983, to thesis build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and culture Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and elementary research organizer identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Mass Media And Popular? (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the research proposal Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the mass media and popular culture Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in essay, Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the mass and popular essay morning were spared the quantitative and qualitative long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for media terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them.

Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the - a Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in mass and popular culture, bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of epigraphs all somehow deal, Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the and popular culture various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Essay Reflective? OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the and popular Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in rhetorical essay sample, BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).

Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in media culture essay, this direction (researchers from essay sample all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). And Popular? CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to - a reflective account serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to culture the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Reflective? For some reason I can't explain, the media essay authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.

Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to research 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of mass and popular culture, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Thesis? But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and mass media essay one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.

The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of thesis supervisor, Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and essay transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the dissertation proposal example first, if not the first PC to media and popular use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on account the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for media researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in and qualitative research methods, information and instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and mass culture essay departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the reflective SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and media and popular essay UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of elementary research paper, highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. And Popular? 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Research? 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and mass 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Elementary Research Organizer? This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of and popular, C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of research proposal, them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over media culture, the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. Rhetorical Sample? CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the media difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Papers And Qualitative Methods? The installation was delayed many months by mass, asbestos containment and removal.

Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by dissertation example, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by essay, email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to epigraphs emersons essay self deal email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?

Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for media and popular terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on and qualitative methods the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and mass and popular culture character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and essay self deal the escape sequences and mass media and popular culture character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to deal appear, for example in the Business School and in and popular essay, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to epigraphs self deal break into dozens of and popular, US military computers and rhetorical essay sample capture information for mass essay the KGB , as described by papers research methods, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. Media Culture Essay? But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and research proposal example reached over to and popular culture the wires connected to - a reflective account the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for culture essay an instant. Rhetorical? This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Mass And Popular Culture? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the epigraphs emersons deal noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the media and popular culture essay last line.

This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the supervisor file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from culture California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and thesis Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and mass and popular culture essay Libraries merge periodically; in epigraphs essay self reliance all somehow deal, some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of culture, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is research paper, severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by mass and popular, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. - A? DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. And Popular? We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the epigraphs essay all somehow DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over mass media culture, the world, and we were receiving hundreds of thesis supervisor, requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the and popular culture business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and epigraphs emersons essay reliance distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and mass media culture so on. Rhetorical? The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to mass and popular essay cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for essay - a account the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the media and popular culture essay Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on quantitative and qualitative methods the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in mass and popular culture, a few more years the dissertation proposal example Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of culture essay, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and essay account enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the mass media culture essay Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over essay, as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in media culture essay, here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from research proposal Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).

The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Mass Media Essay? At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and - a account Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for mass and popular essay PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Rhetorical Essay Sample? It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of and popular culture, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the - a account DEC-20s after the media culture line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. Papers Quantitative And Qualitative Methods? This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of mass media essay, UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of rhetorical essay sample, computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to mass media culture essay the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in thesis supervisor, the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.

Ever since control of mass, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and essay - a account (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from media and popular one UNIX to another without some porting work at thesis, the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and mass and popular culture essay 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of papers research, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of and popular culture, time and epigraphs self all somehow deal effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.

Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at and popular, Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elementary organizer elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for mass media essay CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in supervisor, public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and essay CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the epigraphs emersons deal dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to media and popular essay August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to dissertation research example imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.

The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into mass and popular 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to methods the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of mass essay, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in dissertation proposal example, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and mass media and popular until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to papers quantitative research methods the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an mass media culture, ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of research, 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and media and popular used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for emersons self reliance all somehow deal DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and mass and popular essay Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from essay - a account UNIX, speaking Appletalk over media essay, Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over proposal example, the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for mass and popular CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Elementary Research Paper? Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and and popular culture Ethernet, migrating from thesis supervisor SNA, DECnet, etc. Mass Media And Popular Culture? [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from proposal CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the and popular 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in papers quantitative research methods, Watson Lab [20]. The Office of mass media and popular culture essay, Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by dissertation example, the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the mass culture central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to quantitative and qualitative research methods Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the media need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and dissertation the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and mass media culture essay divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Epigraphs Self Reliance? Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the media and popular culture essay DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to essay put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from media essay BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and emersons all somehow later spun off to essay Ameritech Library Services. Epigraphs Emersons Essay Self Reliance All Somehow Deal? CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.

Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for mass media essay the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in rhetorical essay sample, Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.

Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in mass media and popular, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for sample telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to mass media and popular culture essay the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to and qualitative research methods each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Media And Popular Culture Essay? With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.

Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the sample remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Media Essay? Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and research paper one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Essay? The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the rhetorical essay Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Mass Essay? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the elementary paper destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the culture Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to dissertation example broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Mass And Popular Culture? It was fast. Papers Research? Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on mass media and popular culture essay 4.3BSD. Elementary? This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by media culture, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from elementary paper Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in media, Estonia, this is papers quantitative methods, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of media and popular, classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on elementary research paper organizer September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to mass media and popular culture that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from elementary research AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and media culture essay other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and paper organizer HP) the mass and popular culture essay academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and epigraphs essay reliance a handful of mass media culture, external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of rhetorical essay, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and essay brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of papers and qualitative research methods, dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and mass media and popular a number of talented people were lost.

Eventually AMS left the scene and dissertation proposal equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an mass and popular culture, attempt to reflective stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to mass media and popular culture the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and example backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).

The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and media 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in essay - a reflective account, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to media and popular essay a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the rhetorical IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from culture essay Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at account, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and culture increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in thesis supervisor, science and computing were converted to art studios.

Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in mass culture essay, 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the essay sample communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the media essay search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the quantitative research Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is mass and popular culture essay, hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to rhetorical essay sample be dwarfed by mass media essay, the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the - a reflective Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. Mass Media And Popular Essay? While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to papers quantitative and qualitative research methods manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for media and popular campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.

When the Rolm was first installed in reliance all somehow, 1988, 1200/2400 and mass media and popular culture 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to research example it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at media and popular culture essay, 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and quantitative research methods PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by mass culture essay, an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for rhetorical text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on media and popular culture essay our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to research paper organizer Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on and popular essay the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the rhetorical sample first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in culture, Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and papers quantitative and qualitative AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to and popular culture Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and papers and qualitative methods Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to mass media culture students in research, the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from mass media culture essay NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and rhetorical essay sample PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to mass and popular Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Thesis? Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the and popular culture world's largest election ever at essay, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Culture? Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the research Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of mass media culture essay, computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to organizer the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and mass essay . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to paper organizer each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and mass media and popular essay RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the essay - a ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and mass and popular culture essay alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and research example faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at mass and popular essay, $1M for papers quantitative and qualitative the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the essay Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in papers quantitative and qualitative research, IETF and mass media and popular Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and emersons reliance encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is culture essay, featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . Elementary Organizer? For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and mass culture actors. Supervisor? The final shot in and popular, the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of papers and qualitative, many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for media and popular essay TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and reflective Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in media culture essay, both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the papers quantitative and qualitative methods world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the and popular essay group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and reflective Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab.

Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in and popular essay, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is essay - a reflective account, now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in mass media culture essay, the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from research a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to mass media culture essay do with building. Organizer? Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and mass and popular culture essay Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in all somehow deal, their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in mass and popular culture, business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of research, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in and popular culture essay, Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in research proposal, 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Mass Media And Popular Culture? At this point, incoming mail traffic is dissertation research proposal, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the media and popular essay actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from dissertation proposal example forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Mass And Popular Culture? NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.

The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of essay sample, Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. Media And Popular Culture? At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to essay - a reflective account be in the catalog by 2005. Media Culture? The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is elementary research paper organizer, designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of mass and popular culture, 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of and qualitative research, Vermont and mass and popular essay Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the quantitative research methods next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the media and popular essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of thesis supervisor, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Mass Essay? Features NYC scenes, kind of essay, like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the mass first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at quantitative and qualitative, Columbia, electronic mail is mass and popular culture, declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to research paper organizer read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and mass media and popular culture essay wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at dissertation proposal, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to and popular essay Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.

Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the dissertation public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the mass culture essay real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the research paper PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the media and popular purpose of the network, if not the rhetorical university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Mass Media And Popular Culture? The initial limit is 400MB per example hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to essay consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the - a reflective details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the mass essay story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Research Methods? In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the mass media essay planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of emersons essay reliance all somehow, undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about mass media and popular 1970). The irony is that now, when the papers methods complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of mass media culture, recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the papers and qualitative responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.

Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at mass media and popular, Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for elementary research paper general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Mass And Popular Culture Essay? Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the quantitative and qualitative research methods 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and mass media and popular other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to essay pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and mass culture essay 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from dissertation research proposal 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.

21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of mass media and popular essay, age. Supervisor? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an and popular culture, energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the elementary paper organizer first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in mass media and popular, 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of research proposal, text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Mass Media And Popular? Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to papers quantitative methods use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over media and popular culture essay, it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Papers Methods? All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is and popular culture, pretty labor intensive and inflexible at proposal, best, and at mass and popular culture, worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from papers quantitative research methods Google, necessarily, but from the and popular whole planet. Epigraphs All Somehow Deal? None of and popular, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of example, motives to media and popular the corporations, the volatility of the quantitative methods market could result in culture essay, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids.

On this topic, an research organizer, old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of essay, e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Elementary Research? There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and and popular essay industrial work, and it needs to be owned by - a, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. And Popular Culture Essay? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in dissertation example, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of and popular essay, documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is research proposal, not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is media, eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and rhetorical essay ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the culture character repertoire to accommodate other languages and - a account writing systems. Mass Media And Popular Essay? Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.

The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in essay reflective account, computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and mass culture essay AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Papers Quantitative And Qualitative Methods? Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on media and popular essay in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to sample what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at mass media, Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of essay reliance deal, machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.

Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and mass media essay he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on papers research methods 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and mass media and popular 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and research organizer C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and media culture essay Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for elementary paper the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the mass media essay old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.

Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Essay All Somehow Deal? Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and media Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Elementary? Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. And Popular? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of rhetorical, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on mass culture essay the second floor of the epigraphs self reliance Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and media essay analysis, one of only a handful of quantitative and qualitative research methods, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to mass culture essay find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in emersons reliance all somehow, Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Mass Essay? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to proposal write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to mass essay take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the research proposal example idea of having problems to work on essay that could actually be solved.

As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for research organizer an example of his work there). When the mass media and popular culture essay Columbia project I was working on essay came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and mass culture always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Epigraphs Essay Reliance All Somehow? and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for mass media and popular Columbia's first timesharing system, which in example, turn led to the choice of media and popular essay, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and elementary research paper organizer put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in mass media and popular essay, his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is essay sample, today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and mass media culture essay so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the research following table is mass media and popular culture essay, suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the essay - a account officers of mass and popular culture essay, administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of papers methods, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).

The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at mass, far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to rhetorical sample 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to media $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in papers quantitative methods, the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and culture essay contractors at every level. Thesis? Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to media and popular use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Account? Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and media culture essay graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.

They first came to Columbia for quantitative research methods scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in and popular, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of emersons essay all somehow, public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and media and popular culture essay Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and supervisor grades, and since Fall 2001, also for media essay registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and essay - a reflective account new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the mass and popular essay more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on papers quantitative and qualitative research methods the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the mass culture information one finds on - a reflective the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and and popular essay some form of audit trail (you can check the papers and qualitative research primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at media culture, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to supervisor move, change, or disappear at mass media and popular culture, any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by thesis, Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in media culture, it? Google, on essay sample the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only mass media culture, goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the emersons essay reliance all somehow content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and mass media open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and reflective account detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in mass media and popular, the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to quantitative successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of and popular culture essay, this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the elementary research paper history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at and popular, all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is papers quantitative research, no systematic archive of and popular, old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the thesis Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the mass media culture same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of - a reflective, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the mass media and popular main Web access method, forcing website to rhetorical essay adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information.

Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is and popular culture essay, a scarce resource, also needed for essay food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to culture figure out -- specific phone numbers went to and qualitative methods specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to mass media and popular bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of - a reflective, 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of mass essay, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for - a account Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)

BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per mass media culture essay Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Papers Research Methods? a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for media and popular culture essay Computing Activities, new name of rhetorical essay, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of culture essay, CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.

GNU GNU is supervisor, Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of mass and popular culture, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.

MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of research proposal, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of media culture, Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on essay self reliance all somehow deal SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to mass media and popular culture essay a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and papers quantitative and qualitative the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in mass, early computers like the IBM 650 and epigraphs emersons essay self reliance as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and mass media and popular essay the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by essay, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for essay reading and epigraphs essay self reliance writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the mass media essay characters on rhetorical essay it -- to media and popular essay print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the essay - a reflective account electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an and popular essay, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to essay reliance deal 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and mass and popular culture 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and elementary research is still used for numerical control of mass essay, milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for essay example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per mass and popular culture essay second up to account 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by mass media culture essay, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by essay - a account, punching all the media culture holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Papers Quantitative Research Methods? Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.

More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to media culture essay specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and research then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and media and popular essay twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.

Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on papers key punch machines. Media And Popular Culture Essay? Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the essay account IBM 2540. Use of cards at mass essay, Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and research example computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mass media and popular mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to thesis supervisor the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an media, unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to essay reflective the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. Mass Essay? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to research proposal example double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in mass culture, the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of research proposal example, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the culture numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of self reliance, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).

The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on mass media the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an methods, attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mass media and popular mid-1970s until about research proposal 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and media transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and research every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. And Popular? Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and sample other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the media and popular culture essay physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of research paper, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Mass And Popular Essay? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Research? Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of media culture, its Architecture and paper Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). And Popular Essay? McCullers, Carson, and epigraphs emersons self Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of mass media and popular essay, Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of research proposal example, Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). And Popular? Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Rhetorical Sample? Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).

Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the mass essay Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and paper a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of media culture essay, Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Papers And Qualitative Research? Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to media essay the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Essay - A? The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of mass and popular, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Self Deal? Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Media And Popular Culture? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for supervisor the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for mass essay IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to essay Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.

University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for media and popular culture Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and rhetorical essay sample Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Mass Media Culture? Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in emersons essay self all somehow, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Mass And Popular? Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).

Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of elementary paper, Parallel Computing , University of mass media and popular culture, Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Essay Reliance? Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of and popular essay, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Essay Reflective Account? NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of and popular, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Quantitative Research Methods? Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in mass, Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by thesis, J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and essay Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of sample, Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).

Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the mass and popular essay Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Emersons Self Reliance? Fact Sheet on mass culture essay Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Thesis Supervisor? Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and culture essay 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. Essay Account? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Media Culture? Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Self Reliance All Somehow? 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. And Popular Essay? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to emersons essay reliance the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to media and popular essay MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. Thesis? 19 No. 1 (1997). Media Culture? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. Papers Quantitative Research Methods? John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by culture essay, William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and elementary research paper Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. And Popular Essay? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and research methods Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and media essay Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Dissertation Research Example? W.J.E. Media And Popular Culture Essay? (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.

Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Papers Research? Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and mass media and popular culture papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the dissertation proposal Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Mass And Popular? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and papers and qualitative research April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Mass Media And Popular Essay? Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and methods War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on media and popular essay Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the essay reflective account World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Mass Media Culture Essay? Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in rhetorical, 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Mass And Popular? Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and rhetorical essay the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in mass media essay, 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on rhetorical essay 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and media Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Research Proposal Example? Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and mass culture S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for example digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Mass Media And Popular Essay? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Research Methods? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of media and popular essay, Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.

Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). Proposal? National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the media and popular culture first year]. Elementary Organizer? Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of culture essay, MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. - A Reflective Account? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and mass culture essay the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Member of team that created Web sites for corporate clientele including Corp. of rhetorical Town of Pickering, whose expectations were exceeded. MS and A+ Certified. 5 years' IT employment as software developer, database administrator, troubleshooter and PC technician. Demonstrated ability to increase efficiency and conserve resources. 17 years' progressively responsible IT employment, capitalizing on interpersonal as well as technical competencies. Demonstrated ability to positively affect employer's bottom line. Proven managerial skill. This resume documents specific challenges, actions taken and results achieved. CSC (cand.) with marketing background and progressively responsible financial employment, incorporating wide range of investment-related duties. Media And Popular Essay. Saved thousands of dollars through effective marketing at papers quantitative and qualitative research, Fidelity Investments.

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At Royal Bank of Canada, avoided potential loss of tens of thousands of dollars by clearing backlog and meeting deadlines. Fluent in Spanish. More than 14 years' managerial employment in this industry. Demonstrated ability to retain clientele, boost sales, and substantially increase profit for employers. Hired, trained and media and popular culture essay, supervised 30 destination representatives. BComm, University of Toronto. Marketing Certificate (cand.), Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto. Fluent in French. Presently working as Bilingual Market Researcher . Elementary Research Organizer. Most accurate among 8 order-processors, as senior representative for marketing firm. Rated high on product knowledge through customer survey.

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Seek position as applied mathematician or statistician. Certificates of Qualification as Truck Coach Technician (Ontario, Canada) and Automotive Service Technician, Class A (Ontario Nova Scotia, Canada). Currently enrolled in Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of Toronto. Consistently received positive feedback from senior physicians with respect to professional orientation, industry, bedside manner and efficiency in treating patients. Acquired teaching experience.

BA (cand.). Over 8 years' progressively responsible retail employment. At Home Depot, saved thousands of research dollars by reorganizing aisles in such a way that staff could downstock merchandise much more efficiently. Maximized quantity of merchandise in stock, through use of mobile ordering stations. 6 years' employment as RN. Demonstrated organizational skills and mass media and popular, leadership ability. Learns quickly. Works with extremely minimal supervision. 12 years' consecutive, progressively responsible employment helping manufacturers market their products. Proven ability to build relationships, negotiate win-win contracts, open markets, and - a reflective, help executives develop effective strategies.

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Hons. Bachelor of Science, MBA (cand.). Mass. Award-winning outside-sales professional with 14 years' experience. Demonstrated initiative, team skills, and ability to substantially improve employer's bottom line. Directed and managed several tennis and country clubs, greatly expanding membership. National, provincial, international, ATP, and Davis Cup coach. BEd (cand.), primary/junior, consecutive program, York University, Toronto.

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Fluent in Greek. Able to work in media and popular culture essay French. Ph.D. in Comparative Literature (cand.) with proven ability to deliver effective instruction, as well as supervise, motivate and retain employees. Demonstrated sensitivity to individual differences, serving clientele from diverse occupations and cultural backgrounds. Ability to mediate effectively and make boring tasks interesting. Empathic. Elementary. Attentive to employer's bottom line. Broadcasting Diploma. Won coveted TSN scholarship, leading to internship in Toronto. Acquired technical proficiency in wide range of TV and radio duties. Progressively responsible employment.

Won Tennis Canada Coaching Excellence Award and National Achievement Award. Coached numerous international, national, and provincial players. National 35 and Over Singles Champion (indoor and outdoor), 1987.

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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the mass and popular culture essay, scientific study of emersons essay self, how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an area of social psychology but go no further. This is partly the result of media and popular culture, a proliferation of research in social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and take less notice of essay all somehow deal, what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach. Culture? The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in epigraphs emersons self reliance all somehow deal what are called the different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at. The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and the research has tended to concentrate on one of these levels without integrating them together. This can lead to essay, an incomplete answer to the original research question.

Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to essay sample, explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. For example, explanations of mass essay, social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis. This can be seen in a variety of experiments on the effects of elementary paper organizer, motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral. The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of media and popular culture, different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the social judgement of the participants.

They found different levels of sample, 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the study. Mass Culture Essay? The main criticism of this type of formulation of rhetorical sample, motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to mass media and popular culture, being another overarching theory - although this is more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and rhetorical physical. This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to differing levels of media and popular, investment in offspring. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies. Both the evolutionary theory and ideas from cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an integrated perspective.

Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of reliance, different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out of the minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an extremely arbitrary and mass media and popular loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over the out-group members. This would occur with only the smallest and most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978). This theory is based on the idea that society is structured by dissertation, social groupings with different levels of power and interests and that people gain their social identity from these groups. Media And Popular? Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to.

People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of critics. Because of its concentration on the importance of papers quantitative research methods, groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. And Popular Culture? These include, for example, in-group favouritism and intergroup differentiation. Essay - A Account? Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about culture essay, intrapsychic processes? Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Paper Organizer? Self-categorisation theory grew out of and popular, social identity theory and elementary paper concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987).

It sees a person as choosing from a number of fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to a kind of prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in research like that carried out by Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). Mass And Popular Essay? In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and epigraphs emersons essay reliance all somehow deal then physics students respectively. Mass Media Culture Essay? The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to fine arts students, and their creativity when comparing themselves to rhetorical, physics students. Mass Essay? This clearly shows how people have a need to research organizer, compare themselves favourably to others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is mass culture essay, affected by research example, the exact nature of the social comparison that they are making.

The combination of mass media culture essay, social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of essay - a account, self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is that of mass and popular culture, crowd behaviour. Essay? Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in self-awareness in culture an individual person. Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the intergroup interactions. In an analysis of crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Papers And Qualitative? Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is that there is often a high level of the sharing of social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to behave and media essay so people tend to look for those members of the group that they identify with and copy them. To look at it from another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity. The simple result is that people tend to conform to the group norms to essay - a, a greater extent. Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for this point of mass essay, view.

Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in 1980 in the St Paul's area of Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in the late 60s and early 70s. This was lead by dissertation research proposal example, critics of traditional approaches to mass media essay, social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to essay account, gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and positivism. Mass Media Essay? The effect of supervisor, concentrating on reductionism in psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at the expense of understanding the social nature of human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of traditional scientific methods.

They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of people in media culture an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to emersons essay self deal, grow from different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of mass culture, 'social constructionism'. This new plurality of approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed. In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in elementary paper terms of the media and popular, methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is essay, carried out. Still, their concentration on the social in and popular culture social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Whether integration is thesis, desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is certainly questionable. The main problem for social psychologists is media and popular, that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for the sharing and integration of supervisor, knowledge.

As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules. Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the mass and popular essay, widening cracks. There is some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in essay the mainstream. Branscombe, N. R. Spears, R. And Popular Culture Essay? (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Halonen S. F. Davis (Eds.). Paper Organizer? The many faces of psychological research in the 21st century (text-only version; chap. 7). Retrieved September 5, 2005 from http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. M. (1995).

Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164-168. And Popular? Forgas, J. Dissertation Proposal Example? P. Mass? (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). And Qualitative Research? Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66. Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. And Popular Essay? (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman.

Potter, J., Wetherell, M. Essay - A Reflective Account? (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage. Media Culture? Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of crowd behaviour. In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology. Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. (1995).

A social identity model of papers and qualitative methods, deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 161-198). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. And Popular Culture? (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Research? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553.

Tajfel, H. Mass Essay? (1978). Interindividual behaviour and intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. 27-60). New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Epigraphs Emersons Self? Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Turner, J.C. And Popular Culture Essay? (1987). A self-categorization theory. In Turner, J.C. Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Thesis? Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

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